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研究生:劉彥廷
研究生(外文):Liu, Ten-Ting
論文名稱:要為成功找方法?求職方法對職業聲望的影響
論文名稱(外文):The Ways to Success? Job Search Methods and Occupational Prestige
指導教授:葉秀珍葉秀珍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yeh, Hsiu-Jen Jennifer
口試委員:謝雨生蔡瑞明
口試日期:2011/06/20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:社會福利學系暨研究所
學門:社會服務學門
學類:社會工作學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:65
中文關鍵詞:求職方法職業聲望弱連帶假說社會流動
外文關鍵詞:Job search methodsOccupational PrestigeWeak Tie HypothesisSocial Mobility
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過去多數文獻討論非正式求職方法(informal job search methods)對於薪資與社經地位的影響,僅少部份研究對於求職方法進行全面性的討論,再者,針對求職方法進行全面討論的研究,對於求職方法的分類並不完整,部分研究僅粗分為非正式求職方法與正式求職方法,抑或是未能進行詳盡類別的討論。除此之外,求職方法的相關文獻甚少觀察在社會流動的過程中求職方法對於初職職業聲望與現職職業聲望帶來的效果有何差異。本文作者將求職方法分為「強連帶網絡介紹」、「弱連帶網絡介紹」、「就業機構介紹」、「自行應徵與公司招募」、「自雇合夥」以及「繼承家業」此六類求職方法,並檢視以下三個研究問題:(一)比較勞動者的初職與現職求職方法對於職業聲望效果的差異。(二)分析求職方法對於勞動者職業流動是否產生影響。(三)探討不同就業世代的勞動者,在求職方法對職業聲望的影響效果有何不同。我們分析台灣社會變遷基本調查三期二次的資料,對於勞動者的初職與現職職業聲望進行迴歸分析,並且在現職與初職的分析中另外將勞動者區分不同就業世代分別進行迴歸分析比較;此外,本文作者在現職職業聲望的分析,以Heckman兩階段估計法對於估計過程,因排除持續留在初職的勞動樣本,可能產生選擇性偏誤的質疑進行控制與處理。
研究結果顯示初職與現職以及不同就業世代的勞動者,求職方法對於職業聲望的影響效果存在明顯差異,透過中介者獲得工作的求職方法對於職業聲望的效果並不穩定,此結果與過去僅針對非正式求職方法進行分析的研究結果有所差異,「弱連帶假說」認為弱連帶求職方法將較強連帶求職方法更能為勞動者帶來較好的職業聲望,在本研究的分析中僅「民國61年至70年」此就業世代勞動者的初職求職方法能夠支持弱連帶假說,現職求職方法對現職職業聲望無顯著影響效果;我們認為這樣的研究結果說明在討論求職方法的效果應考慮勞動者就業歷程與時空背景的差異,不同就業歷程與時空背景,不同求職方法給予求職資訊效果的重要性不同,過去「弱連帶假說」強調求職資訊的重要性,我們認為不同求職方法的確提供不同的求職資訊,而此求職資訊僅於勞動者初職具影響性,且不同就業世代,不同的求職方法所提供求職資訊的效果是有所差異的;換言之,求職資訊僅對於勞動者取得初職職業聲望有所助益,但勞動者初職求職過程中仍需考慮不同就業世代下求職資訊的差別效果。

Most job search researchers have discussed the influences of wage and occupational prestige on informal job searches, with very few performing comprehensive analyses of actual job search methods. In addition, studies of job search methods rarely, if ever, present complete classifications; some researchers only categorize formal and informal job search methods, while others neglect to give even the briefest discussions of those categories.
We have divided job search methods into six categories: introductions through strong ties, introductions through weak ties, introductions through employment agencies, job applications, self-employment, and family business. We use these categories to address three questions: (1) Does job search method affect occupational prestige? (2) Are there different effects between first job search methods and current job search methods on occupational prestige? (3) Do different job search methods produce different effects in terms of employment cohorts? We analyzed data from the Second Survey of the Third Cycle of the Taiwan Social Change Survey, separating employment cohorts according to when respondents got their first jobs and current jobs, representing different periods in Taiwan’s economic development. We used a regression analysis to determine relationships. For current job occupational prestige we used a Heckman probit model to control for bias from workers who never left their first jobs. Our results indicate differences in career reputation across employee cohorts, with the main finding being that informal job search methods do not have sustained or remarkable effects. According to the weak tie hypothesis, weak-tie search methods generate more professional prestige than strong-tie search methods. We only found a strong effect for the 1962-1971 first job employment cohort. Our data indicate that formal job search methods only had a strong effect on first jobs, with no ongoing or remarkable effect on current jobs.
We believe these results support the importance of job search information. The weak tie hypothesis already underscores that importance, but we found that when informal and formal job search methods are used, the increase in information can result in more prestigious jobs.

目錄
中文摘要 Ⅰ
英文摘要 Ⅲ
目錄 Ⅴ
圖目錄 Ⅶ
表目錄 Ⅶ
第一章 背景脈絡與問題意識
第一節 研究緣起 1
第二節 問題意識 2
第二章 職業流動過程中求職方法對職業聲望的影響機制
第一節 求職方法 6
第二節 求職方法的相關實證研究 10
第三節 求職方法與職業流動 13
第四節 台灣的就業世代差異 17
第三章 研究設計與分析架構
第一節 資料來源 20
第二節 變項測量 21
第三節 研究設計與研究方法 25
第四章 分析結果
第一節 求職方法的趨勢 28
第二節 求職者樣本的圖像 31
第三節 勞動者初職求職方法選擇對職業聲望的影響 35
第四節 勞動者現職求職方法選擇對現職職業聲望與職業流動的影響 40
第五節 樣本選擇性偏誤檢定分析 49
第五章 結論
第一節 結論 54
第二節 政策建議 58
第三節 研究限制與未來發展 59
參考文獻 61

圖目錄
圖2-1 網絡的連帶關係與橋樑關係 7
圖2-2 求職方法分類圖解 9
圖2-3地位取得模型 13
圖2-4社會資本地位取得模型 14
圖2-5 人力與社會資本的累積率 15
圖2-6 台灣失業率與勞參率趨勢圖 18
圖 3-1 研究架構圖 25
圖4-1 1991年至2008年求職方法的長期趨勢 29
表目錄
表 4-1社會變遷調查分析變項的基本統計分析──依變項與解釋變項 33
表 4-1社會變遷調查分析變項的基本統計分析(續)──控制變項 34
表4-2 初職求職方法之迴歸分析 40
表4-3 初職求職方法的就業世代分群之迴歸分析 41
表4-4 現職求職方法之迴歸分析 45
表4-5 現職求職方法的就業世代分群之迴歸分析 46
表4-6 現職求職方法與職業流動之迴歸分析 47
表4-7 現職求職方法的就業世代分群與職業流動之迴歸分析 48
表4-8 樣本選擇性偏誤檢定模型分析 53

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