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研究生:陳廷昇
研究生(外文):Chen, Ting-Sheng
論文名稱:利用肌肉骨骼系統動作模擬設計適合高齡者的車輛駕駛座進入空間
論文名稱(外文):Design an Elder-Friendly Vehicle Ingress Space Using Musculoskeletal Simulation
指導教授:楊秉祥楊秉祥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yang, Bing-Shiang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:肌肉骨骼模擬進入車輛動作車輛設計
外文關鍵詞:Musculoskeletal SimulationIngressVehicle Design
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世界各國普遍都會面臨到高齡化社會的問題,高齡者需藉著擁有足夠的行動能力 (mobility) 來提高晚年生活的品質,而高齡者常會因為生理機能的退化,使得肢體的移動能力降低,影響到自主行動到任何地點的能力,然而,因此駕駛是個方便的選擇。然而,一般轎車駕駛座空間限制多,執行進入車輛 (ingress) 時是具挑戰性的,特別是高齡者常因老化使得關節角度動作範圍降低,因此高齡者被迫降低行動能力的需求。
本研究旨在確立一種新式車體設計建議的流程,遵循本設計流程可提出對特定高齡者友善的特定車輛駕駛座空間設計建議,可針對不同個體來進行客製化車輛駕駛座設計,使得高齡者在進入車輛動作上能夠更輕鬆且不易受到傷害,來符合高齡者在行動能力上的需求。
由一名年輕受測者執行特定進入車輛動作 (lateral sliding strategy) ,同時擷取人體肢段運動學資訊以及兩側下肢各四條肌肉 (股直肌、股外側肌、脛前肌與外側腓腸肌) 的表面肌電訊號來建立並驗證一基準模型,並加上關節角度限制條件,來預測高齡者可能的進入車輛動作,而此動作可能會原有車體空間配置產生人車干涉現象,藉由觀察人車干涉現象並提出改良車體設計建議來解決干涉問題。並擷取了四名年輕男性受測者的下肢肌電訊號來了解這些改良車體設計與動作建議之泛用性。
經由一個案建立之動作模擬顯示,以現有常見之2000cc房車為例,要使特定高齡者易於進入駕駛座,方向盤需與座椅前緣具有至少38%腿長的空間,且降低原有車內底盤約70mm,以及右腳跟在車內踩踏位置需與座椅距離約200-300mm。

Many countries already confront the issue of aging society. The elderly needs enough mobility to raise the quality of their life. Because of age-related physiological declines, the mobility of segments is decreasing and it affects mobility about that the elderly can go everywhere by herself/himself. Therefore, driving would be one convenient option. However, with spatial constraints of the driver’s space of sedans, the ingress motion at the driver’s door is challenging, especially for the elderly who usually has limited range of motion.
The objective of this study is to establish a new vehicle design procedure taking into account the performance of the human musculoskeletal system. Following the design procedure can bring forward some suggestion of elder-friendly ingress space design.
In the demo case study, one healthy young male subject performed ingress motions with the lateral sliding strategy. Whole-body kinematics and surface electromyography (EMG) of bilateral four leg muscles (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius lateralis) were recorded simultaneously during the ingress motions, and the used to established musculoskeletal model in Anybody Modeling System. By adding joint angle constraints (feasible range of motion) of the elderly, the model was then employed to simulate feasible movements for the elderly during ingress. Since during the simulated ingress motion, the elderly body (model) interfered with the driver’s space, new special design and ingress motion suggestions were provided: about 38%-leg length distance is needed between the steering wheel and the driver’s seat; a 70-mm lower chassis would be better (than a current 2000cc sedan) for the elderly, in terms of efforts in lower extremity muscles during ingress; a good lead-foot placement position is with 200-300mm distance between right heel and the driver’s seat.

中文摘要 ii
英文摘要 iii
誌 謝 iv
目 錄 v
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 ix
一、緒論 1
1.1研究背景 1
1.2文獻回顧 3
1.2.1高齡者的肌肉性能與下肢髖、膝關節角度動作範圍 5
1.2.2高齡者常用的進出車輛策略 8
1.2.3利用生物力學實驗或動作模擬進行設計方法 12
1.2.4進出車輛動作模擬 15
1.3研究目的 18
二、研究原理:肌肉骨骼模擬 25
2.1逆動力學 25
2.2肌肉模型 (muscle model) 25
2.3肌肉骨骼模擬的概念 26
三、研究方法 28
3.1受測者 28
3.2建置實驗平台 30
3.3實驗設計、步驟與建置肌肉骨骼系統模型 35
3.3.1進出車輛動作的人體肢段運動學資料擷取 37
3.3.2下肢拮抗肌群的肌電訊號擷取 41
3.3.3肌肉骨骼模擬系統 43
3.3.4車內右腳不同踩踏點的肢段運動學資料擷取與動作關節角度 44
3.3.5新舊車體下的進入車輛動作的下肢肌電訊號擷取 46
3.4資料分析 47
3.4.1肌電訊號分析 47
3.4.2人體肢段運動學資料分析 50
3.5驗證肌肉骨骼系統模型 51
3.6高齡者受限制關節角度下的進入車輛動作模擬 53
四、結果與討論 55
4.1比較ingress / egress的難易度 55
4.2進入車輛的基準動作運動學資料分析與動作階段 60
4.3實驗與模擬的肌電訊號趨勢驗證 62
4.4一位年輕受測者的ingress的關節角度 64
4.4.1基準模型動作的關節角度變化 64
4.4.2車內右腳不同踩踏點與關節角度變化之關係 66
4.5高齡者受限制關節角度下的動作模擬與新式車體設計建議 69
4.6新舊設計下的ingress動作之下肢肌肉使用程度分析 77
4.7討論 81
五、結論 88
六、未來研究方向 90
七、參考文獻 91
附錄一 97
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