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研究生:梁博凱
論文名稱:玉山杜鵑複合群物種於更新世冰期過後之族群退縮與物種分歧
論文名稱(外文):Postglacial population bottleneck and species divergence in Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum species complex
指導教授:黃士穎
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:生命科學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:杜鵑
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玉山杜鵑複合群的成員包括紅星、南湖、玉山、森氏杜鵑,均為台灣特有種,形態相似並且分佈的海拔也相當接近。過去的研究發現玉山杜鵑複合群為單一起源,也發現族群過去有擴張的歷史。本研究目的是以遺傳學的方法研究玉山杜鵑複合群在氣候變遷之後族群破碎化的情形下受到族群縮小的影響。本研究使用微衛星DNA片段做多型性的分子標記,收集族群中的遺傳變異。藉由這些遺傳多型性的資料估計各種族群遺傳參數與檢測族群結構。本研究發現紅星杜鵑相對於玉山杜鵑複合群其他物種,其遺傳歧異度明顯低於台灣杜鵑。另外,依據長期基因交流量與MSVAR的檢測發現玉山杜鵑複合群早期的有效族群數量大,M-ratio分析檢測到玉山杜鵑複合群經歷族群縮小的歷史,以上證據顯示玉山杜鵑複合群經歷族群縮小,由以紅星杜鵑比其他物種更嚴重。玉山杜鵑複合群族群隨距離而升高分化的程度,顯示族群因為縮小事件而降低基因交流的量導致分化,遺傳結構的分析顯示距離相近的族群其遺傳結構相似,以上兩點顯示玉山杜鵑複合群盤據於各山上的族群正在分歧。不同方法檢測到玉山杜鵑複合群天偏離中性演化的基因座,顯示玉山杜鵑複合群族群破碎化之後進行在地適應演化。
Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum species complex constitutes of R. pseudochrysanthum, R. morii, R. rubropunctatum and R. hyperythrum. Species in the R. pseudochrysanthum complex are all endemics to Taiwan and they are morphologically similar. Previous studies revealed that R. rubropunctatum was the origin of this species complex in which Pleistocene range expansion was found and population fragmentation occurred since the last glacial maximum. Aims of this study were to gather information to trace the effect of bottleneck that resulted in reduction of effective population size and genetic structure.
Based on expressed sequenced tag (EST)-derived simple sequence repeats (SSRs) marker system, genotyping data of 27 EST-SSRs were analyzed and population genetic parameters were estimated. Severe bottleneck was found in the R. rubropunctatum populations and high level of genetic divergence in comparison with populations of other species in the R. pseudochrysanthum complex. In addition, high level of genetic divergence is associated with local climatic factors and resulted in local adaptation.

摘要 1
壹、研究背景與動機 3
貳、前人研究成果 5
一、氣候變遷影響植物族群變動與演化 5
二、冰河期與間冰期交替影響植物的遷移 5
三、族群破碎化使族群縮小並促進分化 9
四、玉山杜鵑複合群的文獻探討 11
五、族群遺傳研究工具EST-SSR 14
參、材料與方法 16
一、研究材料 16
二、實驗方法 16
(一) Genomic DNA萃取 16
(二) EST-SSR Genotyping 17
三、族群變動與族群結構的分析方法 19
(一) 族群遺傳參數與遺傳歧異度 19
(二) 族群結構 20
(三) 族群縮小(bottleneck) 22
(四) 早期族群變動與當代有效個體數量 24
(五) 族群之間的遷移率 26
(六) 分析在天擇之下受到受到選汰的基因座 28
(七) 檢測氣候因素與EST-SSR對偶基因的相關 31
肆、結果 32
一、遺傳歧異度 32
二、族群結構 34
(一) 族群分化 34
(二) 族群結構的分群 35
三、族群縮小(BOTTLENECK)歷史 37
四、族群變動(DEMOGRAPHY) 38
五、族群遷移 39
(一) 長期遷移(long-term migration)分析 39
(二) 近期遷移(recent migration)分析 40
六、適應性演化 40
伍、討論 42
一、遺傳歧異度 42
二、玉山杜鵑複合群早期的有效族群數量大 44
三、玉山杜鵑複合群族群退縮的歷史 45
四、族群退縮後物種分歧 46
五、族群破碎化與適應性演化 48
陸、參考文獻 52
柒、表附錄 60
捌、圖附錄 75
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