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研究生:楊順宇
研究生(外文):Yang, Shunyu
論文名稱:家戶所得相對剝奪與健保醫療利用關聯分析–Yitzhaki指數應用
論文名稱(外文):Relative Deprivation and Medical Care Utilization–an Application of Yitzhaki Index
指導教授:劉彩卿劉彩卿引用關係
口試委員:黃智聰郭振雄
口試日期:2011-06-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北大學
系所名稱:財政學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:財政學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:醫療利用相對剝奪感所得不均
外文關鍵詞:medical care utilizationrelative deprivationincome inequality
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:1099
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:148
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
臺灣近年所得分配呈現惡化趨勢,根據行政院主計處的資料,近二十年吉尼係數與所得差距倍數增長幅度分別約為11%及22%。在社會比較的機制下,個人可能會因所得差異引發負面心裡感受,使得健康惡化進而增加健保醫療利用。本研究主要目的為探討臺灣是否因為所得分配惡化引起的相對剝奪感而增加健保醫療利用。此外,檢測菸酒及檳榔是否為相對剝奪感與健保醫療利用間的中介因子。
本研究應用Yitzhaki (1979)的相對剝奪感指數,探討其對健保給付與家戶門診自付費用的影響,採用合併橫斷面資料加以分析,民國88–95年「臺灣地區家庭收支調查」。同時考量潛在內生性偏誤的問題,分析方法採用兩階段最小平方法,並做內生性檢定。
迴歸分析結果顯示,相對剝奪感對家戶平均每人健保給付及門診自付費用的影響,呈現正向顯著關係。即家戶會因為所得差異引發的負面心理,增加家戶平均每人健保醫療利用。此外,研究結果顯示在相對剝奪感與健保醫療利用之間,菸草及檳榔消費具有部分中介效果。
由於相對剝奪感指數與健保醫療利用有關,同時,相對剝奪感反應家戶間的所得差異,較高的相對剝奪感指數伴隨著較大的所得差距或較高的所得不均度。所以,為促進國民身心健康及福祉,應更重視改善所得分配的政策。藉由強化所得分配政策以平抑國民相對剝奪感,同時亦可有效減輕健保財務壓力。

The trend of income distribution in Taiwan has been deteriorating during the past two decades. According to statistics, the Gini coefficient and the difference in household income between top 20% to lowest 20% were both found increased. The magnitude was 11% and 22%, respectively. Based on social comparison mechanism, people with lower income or life quality may feel upset or oppressive and then could cause the feeling of “relative deprivation”. Under the relative deprivation, they may be more likely to get sick and result in more medical expenditures. The objective of this paper was to examine whether there is an association between relative deprivation and medical expenditures. The use of tobacco, wine and betel nut were also included in the analysis to control their impacts on relative deprivation, i.e. examining the impact of the mediator.
The Yitzhaki’s index was applied to quantify the relative deprivation. Medical expenditures were grouped into two parts: NHI (National Health Insurance) coverage and out-of-pocket. Data were selected from 1999-2006 Survey of Family Income and Expenditure, which is a pooled cross-section data. To avoid the potential endogenous bias, the two stage least squares and Wu–Hausman test were adopted.
The result showed that relative deprivation has a positive significant effect on both types of medical expenditures. This indicated that people who have higher relative deprivation tended to have more expenditures no matter whether it is out-of–pocket or not. Besides, the impacts of tobacco, wine and betel nut use were shown to be significant. But we do not have strong evidence for a dominant mediator.
Due to the significant impact of relative deprivation, the authority needs to pay more attention on income redistribution policy to reduce the gap of income level and relative deprivation. By doing this, NHI financial crisis may be also improved.

第一章、緒論 1
第一節、研究動機與背景 1
第二節、研究目的 7
第三節、研究架構 8
第二章、文獻回顧 9
第一節、參照組與相對剝奪感的衡量 9
第二節、相對剝奪感與健康狀況的相關性 13
第三章、理論架構 18
第四章、研究設計與資料處理 27
第一節、實證模型 27
第二節、資料來源 30
第三節、變數定義 31
第四節、敘述統計 37
第五章、實證結果 50
第一節、健保醫療利用之迴歸分析結果與比較 50
第二節、菸草及檳榔、酒精飲料費的中介效果 63
第六章、結論與建議 66
第一節、結論 66
第二節、政策建議 69
第三節、研究限制與建議 70
參考資料 71
附錄 77

網際網路資料
行政院主計處網站:http://www.dgbas.gov.tw/mp.asp?mp=1

中文部分
謝啟瑞 (1996),健康經濟學,臺北市:五南圖書出版有限公司。
林慧淳 (2001),「區域剝奪與死亡率之相關:以臺灣為例」,臺灣大學衛生政策與管理研究所,碩士論文。
郭俊東 (2008),「相對剝奪感對自評健康及負面健康行為之影響」,臺灣大學衛生政策與管理研究所,碩士論文。
梁亞文、陳文意、李卓倫、龍紀萱、林育秀(2010),「區域剝奪與父母親社經狀況對臺灣新移民女性子女健康之影響」,醫護科技期刊,12:2,頁82-95。

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