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研究生:吳宣蓓
研究生(外文):Shiuan-Be Wu
論文名稱:工時變遷與過長工時對健康的影響
論文名稱(外文):Trends in Long Working Hours and Their Impacts on Health
指導教授:鄭雅文鄭雅文引用關係
口試委員:林季平郭育良
口試日期:2011-07-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:健康政策與管理研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:114
中文關鍵詞:長工時變遷國際比較受僱者健康
外文關鍵詞:long working hourstrendsinternational comparisonworkers health
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:22
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
最近台灣疑似過勞死、超時工作的新聞事件頻傳,工時過長的問題再次受到各界關注,而過長工時對健康的危害亦受到關注。根據2009年主計處人力資源調查資料顯示,我國就業者每週工時≧50小時的比例高達17.6%,但是少有研究進一步探討台灣工時的變化趨勢、長工時者特徵,以及與國際比較的情形。雖然國外已累積許多研究,證實過長工時對工作者身心健康的影響深遠,但是台灣本土之流行病學證據仍有限,更少有研究探討工作特質是否影響工時與健康之關係。

本研究包含兩大主軸,第一部分以文獻回顧的方式,比較國際與台灣就業者之工時變化趨勢,並探討台灣長工時者的社會人口學變項分布情形與其變化。第二部分則以勞委會於2007年進行的受僱者調查資料,探討工時與健康的關係,並聚焦於工作特性因子在工時與健康關係中扮演的角色。

第一部分的研究結果顯示,工業先進國家與台灣工作者的平均工時皆呈下降趨勢。根據「人力資源調查」,2009年台灣就業者的長工時盛行率(每週工時≧49小時)為男性18.0%、女性16.6%;然而,同時期進行的「台灣社會變遷基本調查」卻發現長工時的盛行率為男性36.8%、女性33.8%,是人力資源調查的兩倍。

第二部分的研究結果發現,長工時在特定人口族群明顯較高,包括高齡者、男性已婚者、男性有家庭負荷者、女性沒有配偶、女性低教育程度者等。在工作類別上,工時較長的族群包括:雇主和自營業者、服務業、商業、輪班及固定晚班工作者、浮動薪資及按件計酬者、公司規模較小者,以及白領低技術性工作者者。複迴歸分析結果顯示,長工時者較易發生睡眠不足以及不良生活形態(包括缺乏運動習慣、抽菸、飲用提神飲料),但自評健康狀況與正常工時者並無顯著差異;區分性別的迴歸分析發現,男性每週工時≧60小時者其個人疲勞分數顯著較高,但在女性則無相關。

本研究建議,應關注高工時族群的工作壓力與身心健康問題,並將職場社會心理危害因素納入職場安全健康管理的風險評估。主計處按月舉辦的「人力資源調查」,測量工時的題目應更精確,並應區分實際與經常工時、支薪與非支薪加班工時,並應加入通勤時間、無酬家務勞動時間等面向。

In recent years, cases of sudden deaths allegedly attributed to overwork have triggered intensive discussion in Taiwan. According the the survey conducted by the government in 2009, 17.6% of the working people in Taiwan reported working 50 hours or more per week. However, very few studies have been conducted to examine the trends of working hours in Taiwan as compared to other countries, or the characterstics of workers with extensive working hours. Despite that studies from western countries have found associations between long working hours and poor health, little information was available concerning the health impacts of long working hours in working people in Taiwan.

There were two objectives in this study. First, we reviewed the trends of average weekly hours as well as the prevelance of workers with working hours of 49 hours or more per week in Taiwan and in selected countries during the period from 1870 to 2010. Secondly, we examined the associations between working hours and self-reported health outcomes using the data from a national survey conducted in 2007. The modifying effects of work factors on the associations between working hours and health outcomes were also examined.

Results from the first part indicated that average working hours were descending in Taiwan as well as in the selected developed countries. Data from the Taiwan Labour Force Survey in 2009 showed that 19.1% of male and 16.6% of female workers worked for 49 hours or more per week. However, data from the Taiwan Social Change Survey showed prevalence rates of 39.2% in male and 33.8% in female workers. The latter rates were two-fold than the former rates.

Results from the second part indicated that long working-hours were more prevelant in elder workers, men who were married or had family care workloads, women who were single or divorced, women with lower education levels. In terms of type of employment and work, it was noticed that long working hours were more prevalent in employers and the self-employed, workers in service sectors, works with rotating or night shifts, workers on performance-based or piece-rated pay systems, workers in smaller sized enterprises, and white collar low-skilled employees. Results from multivariate regression models showed that long working hours were associated with higher risk of sleep deprivation and unhealthy lifestyle (including lacking in exercise, smoking, and used of alcohol-containing energy drinks. However, no association was found between working hours and self-reported health status. When stratified by gender, only men with long working hours (60 hours or more per week) were found to have higher scores of personal burnout.

We suggest that job stress and health problems should be of concern among workers with long working hours. In addition, psychosocial work hazards other than long working hours should also be assessed monitored. We suggest that the questionnaire items used in national surveys should be improved by distinguishing actual verse ususal working hours and overtime work hours with pay verse without pay. Time spent on comuting and unpaid house work should also be assessed.


目 錄

第一章 緒論 1

第二章 工時的社會歷史變化與當代社會人口分布:國際比較 5
第一節 前言 5
第二節 研究方法 7
第三節 研究結果 14
第四節 討論與研究限制 32

第三章 台灣受僱者的工時與健康 43
第一節 前言 43
第二節 研究方法 46
第三節 研究結果 53
第四節 討論與研究限制 76

第四章 結論與政策建議 83

參考文獻 85

附錄一、1980、1990、2000和2009年「人力資源調查」,研究變項操作型定義和計分方式整理 91

附錄二、1994、1999、2004和2009年「台灣社會變遷基本調查」,研究變項操作型定義和計分方式整理 93

附錄三、1980至2009年「人力資源調查」樣本分布狀況(男性) 96

附錄四、1994至2009年「台灣社會變遷基本調查」樣本分布狀況(男性) 98

附錄五、1980年至2009年「人力資源調查」,男性人口學變項之(超)長工時盛行率 100

附錄六、2009年,「人力資源調查」和「台灣社會變遷基本調查」樣本分布狀況之比較 102

附錄七、台灣、歐盟、英國與美國,每週工時測量方式之比較 104

附錄八、2007年「工作環境安全衛生狀況認之調查」變項定義與處理方式 105

附錄九、國外工時與健康研究之整理 110


表 目 錄

表 一、各國法定工時規範之比較 16

表 二、2000年各國男、女性工作身分別之『長工時』和『超長工時』盛行率 22

表 三、2009年台灣「人力資源調查」和「台灣社會變遷調查」之工作身分別『每週平均工時』與『長工時』盛行率 23

表 四、1980至2009年「人力資源調查」工作身分別之『長工時』和『超長工時』之盛行率 25

表 五、2009年「人力資源調查」,男、女性每週平均工時之前十長行業(細分類) 31

表 六、2007年「工作環境安全衛生狀況認之調查」,研究對象背景變項之分布 54

表 七、2007年「工作環境安全衛生狀況認之調查」研究對象之健康狀況分布情形 57

表 八、2007年「工作環境安全衛生狀況認之調查」,研究對象男性
工時分組之人口學與工作特性變項分布情形 60

表 九、2007年「工作環境安全衛生狀況認之調查」,研究對象女性工時分組之人口學與工作特性變項分布情形 62

表 十、研究對象男、女性每週工時分組之健康狀況和健康行為分布情形 65

表 十一、研究對象男性工時分組之健康相關結果之勝算比與95%信賴區 67

表 十二、研究對象女性工時分組之健康相關結果之勝算比與95%信賴區(續) 68

表 十三、研究對象男性個人疲勞分數之複迴歸分析 72

表 十四、研究對象女性個人疲勞分數之複迴歸分析 74


圖 目 錄


圖 一、1870-2010年各國『每週平均工時』歷史變遷圖 19

圖 二、1980至2009年「人力資源調查」工作身分別『長工時』之盛行率 24

圖 三、1980至2009年「人力資源調查」年齡別之『長工時』盛行率變化趨勢 27

圖 四、1980至2009年「人力資源調查」婚姻別之『長工時』盛行率變化趨勢 28

圖 五、1980至2009年「人力資源調查」教育程度之『長工時』盛行率變化趨勢 29

圖 六、1980至2009年,「人力資源調查」行業別之『長工時』盛行率變化趨勢 31

圖 七、研究架構圖 46



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二、中文部分

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葉婉榆、鄭雅文、陳美如、邱文祥:職場疲勞狀況與工作過度投入之相關因素:以臺北市36家職場受雇員工為例。台灣衛誌2008;27(6):463-477。
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鄭雅文、吳宣蓓、翁裕峰:過勞職災的認定爭議與政策因應:日本經驗對台灣的啟示。台灣衛誌2011(已接受)。
鄭雅文、葉婉榆、陳怡欣、李佩蓉:台北市96年職場身心健康促進計劃:普篩及成效評估資料分析。台北市衛生局九十六年度研究計畫成果報告(計畫編號:AD9652)。
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