跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.200.86.95) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/05/28 09:40
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:張文心
研究生(外文):Wen-Hsin Chang
論文名稱:紅甘藷葉的攝取對健康男性運動後體內壓力指標及發炎反應之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Purple Sweet Potato Leaves Consumption on the Exercise-induced Stress Markers and Inflammation in Healthy Male
指導教授:胡雪萍胡雪萍引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:臺北醫學大學
系所名稱:保健營養學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:173
中文關鍵詞:紅甘藷葉運動植物化學物質壓力指標發炎反應
外文關鍵詞:purple sweet potato leavesexercisephytochemicalstress markersinflammation
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
  • 點閱點閱:400
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
本研究的目的是先利用 HPLC 分析出紅甘藷葉中主要的植物化學物質的種類及含量;並探討給予紅甘藷葉飲食,對健康男性運動後體內壓力指標及發炎反應之影響。實驗共分三個部份,第一部份:將紅甘藷葉進行萃取,利用一般呈色法及 HPLC 配合 PDA 檢測系統,分析其類胡蘿蔔素 (carotenoids)、酚酸 (phenolic acids)、類黃酮 (flavonoids) 及花青素 (anthocyanins) 的種類及含量。第二部份:人體試驗採隨機交叉設計,招募健康成年男性為受試者。實驗為期共五週,第一週為適應期,之後進行兩階段分別為期 7 天的飲食介入期 (紅甘藷葉 vs. 控制/低多酚飲食),且間隔 14 天的排空期。分別於兩階段飲食介入期結束後,受試者進行 70% VO2max 的運動達 1 小時,並於運動前及結束後第 0、1 及 3 小時 (Post-E0, Post-E1h 及 Post-E3h) 抽取受試者血液樣本以進行氧化壓力指標、IL-6 及熱休克蛋白表現分析。第三部份:人體試驗設計同第一部份,並將飲食介入期延長為 14 天;運動後採集血液的時間點拉長至 48 小時。於兩階段飲食介入期間,會收集實驗飲食樣本以進行植物化學物質含量分析;受試者血液及尿液樣本以進行四大壓力指標、促/抗發炎細胞激素濃度及 NF-κB 蛋白表現分析。綜合三部份研究結果顯示,紅甘藷葉中含有 59.3 ± 3.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW) 的總多酚類濃度、10.6 ± 0.69 mg quercetin equivalent (QCE)/g DW 的總類黃酮濃度及 1.34 ± 0.04 mg/g DW 的總花青素濃度;經 HPLC 分析後發現含有較高含量屬於類胡蘿蔔素的 lutein 及 β-carotene;屬酚酸的 caffeic acid;屬類黃酮的 quercetin 及屬花青素的 cyanidin。而與控制飲食相比,紅甘藷葉飲食也含有較高含量的總多酚類、總類黃酮及總花青素濃度 (2.85 vs. 0.63 mg GAE/g DW; 0.36 vs. 0.01 mg QCE/g DW; 0.03 vs 0 mg/g DW, p<0.0001)。因此受試者攝食紅甘藷葉飲食後,血漿及尿液中總多酚類濃度會顯著增加;血中總抗氧化能力 (如 FRAP) 也顯著上升;而受試者進行 1 小時的中強度運動後,血漿中四大壓力指標及PBMC中 NF-κB 蛋白表現量皆呈現顯著的飲食介入效應:氧化壓力指標 (TBARS & PC)、機械性壓力指標 (CK)、代謝性壓力指標 (cortisol) 及熱壓力指標 (HSP72);然而對於促/抗發炎細胞激素則無顯著影響。結論:長期攝取富含植物化學物質的紅甘藷葉飲食,可增加體內的抗氧化力以抵禦因運動所誘導生成的各種壓力傷害,然而對於發炎反應則無延緩的效果。

PURPOSES: This study was to identify and quantify the phytochemical contents of purple sweet potato leaves (PSPLs) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and evaluate the effects of PSPLs diet consumption on the time course of exercise-induced stress markers and inflammation. METHODS: The study was distributed into three parts. Part 1 Study: The carotenoid, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents of PSPLs extract were measured by spectrophotometry and HPLC coupled to photodiode array (PDA) detection. Part 2 Study: A crossover design was applied, subjects participated in a two-step dietary intervention period. Each subject was given a high- (PSPLs) or low-polyphenol (control) diet for 7 days with a 2 weeks washout period. After each dietary intervention period, all subjects performed 1 hour of treadmill running at a speed corresponding to 70% of each subject’s individual maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Blood samples were taken before exercise and at 0, 1, and 3 hours (Post-E0, Post-E1h 及 Post-E3h) after exercise. Part 3 Study: This study followed the design used by Study 1. We extended the dietary intervention for 14 days and the blood collection required up to 48 hours after exercise. RESULTS: The total polyphenol, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents of PSPLs were 59.3 ± 3.05 mg GAE/g DW, 10.6 ± 0.69 mg QCE/g DW, and 1.34 ± 0.04 mg/g DW, respectively. Very high concentrations of lutein, β-carotene, caffeic acid, quercetin, and cyanidin were found in PSPLs. There is a significant difference between two diets in total polyphenol, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents (2.85 vs. 0.63 mg GAE/g DW; 0.36 vs. 0.01 mg QCE/g DW; 0.03 vs 0 mg/g DW, p<0.0001). PSPLs consumption significantly increased plasma and urine total polyphenols concentration and total antioxidant power (ferric reducing ability of plasma; FRAP). The pattern of change between two dietary interventions was significant for stress markers (oxidative stress: TBARS and PC, intervention main effect, p=0.013 and 0.031; mechanic stress: CK, p=0.049; metabolic stress: cortisol, p=0.014 and thermal stress: HSP72, p=0.002) and NF-κB protein expression. However, there was no significant difference between two diets in pro-/anti- inflammatory cytokines. CONCLUSION: Consumption of PSPLs diet, a meal rich in phytochemical contents, could offer protection against the stress damage caused by exercise, but fail to attenuate inflammation.

中文摘要 I
英文摘要 III
致謝 V
縮寫對照表 VII
目錄 IX
表目錄 XIV
圖目錄 XV
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
第一節 運動與氧自由基之產生 3
第二節 運動與發炎反應之產生 5
第三節 運動與各種壓力及發炎反應之生物標記 (biomarkers) 10
一、 氧化壓力指標 10
二、 機械性壓力指標 15
三、 代謝性壓力指標 15
四、 熱壓力指標 17
五、 發炎反應指標 22
第四節 抗氧化營養素的補充對運動之效益 24
一、抗氧化維生素 24
二、植物性化學物質 (phytochemicals) 27
第五節 植物性化學物質 (phytochemicals) 的介紹及生理效應 31
一、多酚類 (polyphenols) 31
二、類黃酮化合物 (flavonoids) 33
三、酚酸 (phenolic acids) 35
第六節 台灣產鄉土蔬菜 – 紅甘藷葉之介紹及相關研究 39
一、動物實驗模式 40
二、細胞模式 40
三、人體試驗模式 41
第三章 研究動機 42
第四章 紅甘藷葉中植物化學物質成份為何 43
第一節 研究目的 43
第二節 實驗材料與方法 43
一、紅甘藷葉的收集及處理 43
二、分析項目 45
三、統計分析 49
第三節 結果 50
一、紅甘藷葉中植物化學物質之分析 50
二、紅甘藷葉中主要類胡蘿蔔素及酚類化合物定性及定量之分析 50
第四節 討論 62
一、 紅甘藷葉中的植物化學物質之探討 62
二、 紅甘藷葉中花青素之探討 64
第五節 結論 66
第五章 短期攝取紅甘藷葉對健康男性經中強度運動後體內氧化壓 力、IL-6 及熱休克蛋白表現之影響 67
第一節 研究目的 67
第二節 實驗設計與方法 67
一、實驗對象招募 67
二、實驗材料與製備 68
三、實驗設計與流程 69
四、檢體的收集與前處理 72
五、分析項目 72
六、統計分析 78
第三節 結果 79
一、受試者的基本資料 79
二、飲食介入與中強度運動對體內氧化壓力指標之影響 81
三、飲食介入與中強度運動對體內 IL-6 之影響 87
四、飲食介入與中強度運動對體內 HSP72 之影響 89
第四節 討論 91
一、紅甘藷葉飲食的介入對氧化壓力指標之探討 91
二、紅甘藷葉飲食的介入對 IL-6 濃度之探討 93
三、紅甘藷葉飲食的介入對 HSP72 含量之探討 94
第五節 結論 95
第六章 攝取紅甘藷葉對健康男性經中強度運動後不同時間點之體 內壓力指標及發炎反應的影響 96
第一節 研究目的 96
第二節 實驗設計與方法 96
一、實驗對象招募 96
二、實驗材料與製備 96
三、實驗設計與流程 97
四、檢體的收集與前處理 99
五、分析項目 101
六、統計分析 107
第三節 結果 108
一、兩種實驗飲食之植物化學物質含量及抗氧化能力分析: 108
二、受試者的基本資料及血液生化值檢測 110
三、飲食介入與中強度運動對體內抗氧化物質含量及總抗氧化能力之 影響 113
四、飲食介入與中強度運動對體內四大壓力指標之影響: 119
五、飲食介入與中強度運動對體內發炎反應之影響 129
第四節 討論 132
一、實驗飲食中植物化學物質含量及總抗氧化能力之探討: 132
二、紅甘藷葉飲食的介入對體內抗氧化狀態之探討 132
三、紅甘藷葉飲食的介入對體內四大壓力指標之探討: 134
四、紅甘藷葉飲食的介入對體內發炎反應之影響: 137
五、飲食介入對於運動後 Time course 的效應 139
第五節 結論 143
第七章 實驗限制及未來展望 144
第八章 參考文獻 146
第九章 附錄 170
第十章 已發表的論文 174

史雅中、許美智 (2004) 補充葡萄籽萃取物對馬拉松運動所誘導氧化壓力之影響。國立體育學院運動科學研究所碩士論文。
林雅玲 (2004) 探討台灣鄉土蔬菜-紅甘藷葉中多酚類之生體可利用率及對人體抗氧化狀態之影響。台北醫學大學保健營養學系碩士論文。
林筱涵 (2009) 含杏仁果及紅甘藷葉之飲食介入對力竭性耐力運動後抗氧化及運動能力之影響。台北醫學大學保健營養學系碩士論文。
洪千雅 (2000) 仙草抗氧化機能性之研究。國立中興大學食品科學系研究所博士論文。
湯淑貞 (2000) 台灣紅色鄉土蔬菜萃取物之抗氧化效力研究。中國文化大學生活應用科學研究所碩士論文。
黃為瑜 (2003) 紅色鄉土蔬菜中類黃酮抗氧化力及其對淋巴求DNA氧化損傷的保護作用。中國文化大學生活應用科學研究所碩士論文。
黃恔瑋 (2004) 植物化學物質之抗氧化力及其抗突變性。中國文化大學生活應用科學研究所碩士論文。
黃美子 (2006) 台灣鄉土蔬菜-紅甘藷葉粗萃物對人類結直腸癌細胞之影響。台北醫學大學保健營養學系碩士論文。
黃雅萍 (2006) 紫色蕃薯葉及其成份對於TNF-α 所誘導人類動脈內皮細胞發炎之影響。中國文化大學生活應用科學研究所碩士碩士論文。
黃萾芬 (2007) 台灣鄉土蔬菜-紅甘藷葉介入對經中強度運動後體內氧化壓力、細胞激素及熱休克蛋白表現之影響。台北醫學大學保健營養學系碩士論文。
張文心 (2005) 台灣鄉土蔬菜-紅甘藷葉對運動期之籃球選手其抗氧化力與免疫狀態的調節。台北醫學大學保健營養學系碩士論文。
鄭雅分 (2005) 探討紅甘藷葉對位時炸油老鼠結直腸癌化之效應。台北醫學大學保健營養學系碩士論文。
鄭統隆、施怡如、曾東海、賴永昌、吳明哲 (2008) 甘藷花青素與多酚含量之研究。台灣農業研究 57:33-48。
傅偉光、陳秀瑩、仇志強、陳景川。台灣地區食品成份資料庫。行政院衛生署編印。1998。

Abraham E (2000) NF-kappa B activation. Crit Care Med 28:N100-104.
Abravaya K, Phillips B, and Morimoto RI (1991) Heat shock-induced interactions of heat shock transcription factor and the human hsp70 promoter examined by in vivo footprinting. Mol Cell Biol 11:586-592.
Adlercreutz H, Härkönen M, Kuoppasalmi K, Näveri H, Huhtaniemi I, Tikkanen H, Remes K, Dessypris A, and Karvonen J (1986) Effect of training on plasma anabolic and catabolic steroid hormones and their response during physical exercise. Int J Sports Med Suppl 1:27-28.
Adlercreutz H and Mazur W (1997) Phyto-oestrogens and Western diseases. Ann Med 29:95-120.
Aguiló A, Tauler P, Fuentespina E, Tur JA, Córdova A, and Pons A (2005) Antioxidant response to oxidative stress induced by exhaustive exercise. Physiol Behav 84:1-7.
Alessio HM (1993) Exercise-induced oxidative stress. Med Sci Sports Exerc 25: 218-224.
Alessio HM (2000) Lipid peroxidation in healthy and diseased models: influence of different types of exercise. In: Handbook of Oxidants and Antioxidants in Exercise. (Hanninen O., eds) pp 115-128. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Alessio HM, Hagerman AE, Fulkerson BK, Ambrose J, Rice RE, and Wiley RL (2000) Generation of reactive oxygen species after exhaustive aerobic and isometric exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32:1576-81.
Ali MH, Schlidt SA, Chandel NS, Hynes KL, Schumacker PT, and Gewertz BL (1999) Endothelial permeability and IL-6 production during hypoxia: role of ROS in signal transduction. Am J Physiol 277:L1057-1065.
Allen RG and Tresini M (2000) Oxidative stress and gene regulation. Free Radic Biol Med 28:463-499.
Amin J, Ananthan J, and Voellmy R (1988) Key features of heat shock regulatory elements. Mol Cell Biol 8:3761-3769.
Andrei IM, Roy JS, and Pang NS (2000) Exercise elevates plasma level but not gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in blood mononuclear cell. J Appl Physiol 89:1499-1504.
Armstrong RB (1986) Muscle damage and endurance events. Sports Med 3:370-381.
Astrand PO and Rodahl K (1986) Circulation. In: Textbook of work physiology: physiological basis of exercise. (van Dalen DB., eds) pp 170-175. McGraw Hill Company, New York.
Baeuerle PA and Henkel T (1994) Function and activation of NF-kappa B in the immune system. Annu Rev Immunol 12:141-179.
Benjamin IJ and McMillan DR (1998) Stress (heat shock) proteins: molecular chaperones in cardiovascular biology and disease. Circ Res 83:117-132.
Benzie IF and Strain JJ (1996) The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power": the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 239:70-76.
Bhasin S, Storer TW, Berman N, Callegari C, Clevenger B, Phillips J, Bunnell TJ, Tricker R, Shirazi A, and Casaburi R (1996) The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men. N Engl J Med 335:1-7.
Bloomer RJ, Goldfarb AH, and McKenzie MJ (2006) Oxidative stress response to aerobic exercise: comparison of antioxidant supplements. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:1098-1105.
Buege JA and Aust SD (1978) Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 52:302-310.
Cairo G, Bardella L, Schiaffonati L, and Bernelli-Zazzera A (1985) Synthesis of heat shock proteins in rat liver after ischemia and hyperthermia. Hepatology 5:357-361.
Cannon JG (2000) Inflammatory cytokines in nonpathological states. News Physiol Sci 15:298-303.
Cevallos-Casals BA and Cisneros-Zevallos L (2003) Stoichiometric and kinetic studies of phenolic antioxidants from Andean purple corn and red-fleshed sweetpotato. J Agric Food Chem 51:3313-3319.
Chang WH, Chen CM, Hu SP, Kan NW, Chiu CC, and Liu JF (2007a) Effect of purple sweet potato leaf consumption on the modulation of the antioxidative status in basketball players during training. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 16:455-461.
Chang WH, Chen CM, Hu SP, Kan NW, Chiu CC, and Liu JF (2007b) Effect of purple sweet potato leaves consumption on the modulation of the immune response in basketball players during the training period. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 16:609-615.
Chen CM, Li SC, Lin YL, Hsu CY, Shieh MJ, and Liu JF (2005) Consumption of purple sweet potato leaves modulates human immune response: T-lymphocyte functions, lytic activity of natural killer cell and antibody production. World J Gastroenterol 11:5777-5781.
Chen CY, Huang YL, and Lin TH (1998) Association between oxidative stress and cytokine production in nickel-treated rats. Arch Biochem Biophys 356:127-132.
Chen JC, Ho FM, Pei-Dawn Lee Chao, Chen CP, Jeng KC, Hsu HB, Lee ST, Wen Tung Wu, and Lin WW (2005) Inhibition of iNOS gene expression by quercetin is mediated by the inhibition of IkappaB kinase, nuclear factor-kappa B and STAT1, and depends on heme oxygenase-1 induction in mouse BV-2 microglia. Eur J Pharmacol 521:9-20.
Chen Z, Hagler J, Palombella VJ, Melandri F, Scherer D, Ballard D, and Maniatis T (1995) Signal-induced site-specific phosphorylation targets I kappa B alpha to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Genes 9:1586-1597.
Child RB, Wilkinson DM, Fallowfield JL, and Donnelly AE (1998) Elevated serum antioxidant capacity and plasma malondialdehyde concentration in response to a simulated half-marathon run. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30:1603-1607.
Chiu HL and Fan MJ (1998) Anthocyanin and flower color expression. J Chinese Soc Hort Sci 44:102-115.
Cho SY, Park SJ, Kwon MJ, Jeong TS, Bok SH, Choi WY, Jeong WI, Ryu SY, Do SH, Lee CS, Song JC, and Jeong KS (2003) Quercetin suppresses proinflammatory cytokines production through MAP kinases andNF-kappaB pathway in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage. Mol Cell Biochem 243:153-160.
Chu YH, Chang CL, and Hsu HF (2000) Flavonoid content of several vegetables and their antioxidant activities. J Sci Food Agri 80:561-566.
Clarkson PM (1997) Eccentric exercise and muscle damage. Int J Sports Med Suppl 4:S314-317.
Clifford MN (1996) Symposium on polyphenols and anthocyanins as food colourants and antioxidants. In: Anthocyanins in foods. (Pfannhauser W and Strigl A., ed) pp 1-19. Brussels, Belgium.
Cuvelier ME, Richard H, and Berset C (1992) Comparison of the antioxidative activity of some acid-phenols: Structure-activity relationship. Biosci Biotech Biochem 56:324-325.
da Costa C, Horton D, and Margolis S (2000) Analysis of anthocyanins in foods by liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr, A 881: 403-410.
Davies KJA, Quintanilha TA, Brook GA, and Packer L (1982) Free radicals and tissue damage produced by exercise. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 107:1198-1205.
Deaton CM and Marlin DJ (2003) Exercise-associated oxidative stress. Clin Tech Equine Prac 2: 278-291.
Dekkers JC, van Doornen LJ, and Kemper HC (1996) The role of antioxidant vitamins and enzymes in the prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage. Sports Med 21:213-238.
Ding Z, Kuhr S, and Engelhardt UH (1992) Influence of catechins and theaflavins on the astringent taste of black tea brews. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 195:108-111.
Dolmetsch RE, Xu K, and Lewis RS (1998) Calcium oscillations increase the efficiency and specificity of gene expression. Nature 392:933-936.
Dufaux B, Heine O, Kothe A, Prinz U, and Rost R (1997) Blood glutathione status following distance running. Int J Sports Med 18:89-93.
Durham WJ, Li YP, Gerken E, Farid M, Arbogast S, Wolfe RR, and Reid MB (2004) Fatiguing exercise reduces DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB in skeletal muscle nuclei. J Appl Physiol 97:1740-1745.
Durst RW and Wrolstad RE (2001) Separation and characterization of anthocyanins by HPLC. In: Current protocols in food analytical chemistry. (Wrolstad RE., eds) pp F1.3.1-F1.3.13. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Hinson JP, Bornstein SR, Scherbaum WA, and Vinson GP (1998) Intraadrenal interactions in the regulation of adrenocortical steroidogenesis. Endocr Rev 19:101-143.
Emenhiser C, Sander CS, and Schwartz SJ (1995) Capability of a polymeric C30 stationary phase to resolve cis-trans carotenoid isomers in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A 707:205-216.
Emenhiser C, Englert G, Sander LC, Ludwig B, and Schwartz SJ (1996) Isolation and structural elucidation of the predominant geometrical isomers of alpha-carotene. J Chromatogr A 719:333-343.
Febbraio MA and Koukoulas I (2000) HSP72 gene expression progressively increases in human skeletal muscle during prolonged, exhaustive exercise. J Appl Physiol 89:1055-1060.
Febbraio MA and Pedersen BK (2002) Muscle-derived interleukin-6: mechanisms for activation and possible biological roles. FASEB J 16:1335-1347.
Febbraio MA and Pedersen BK (2005) Contraction-induced myokine production and release: is skeletal muscle an endocrine organ? Exerc Sport Sci Rev 33:114-119.
Fehrenbach E and Niess AM (1999) Role of heat shock proteins in the exercise response. Exerc Immunol Rev 5:57-77.
Fehrenbach E, Passek F, Niess AM, Pohla H, Weinstock C, Dickhuth HH, and Northoff H (2000) HSP expression in human leukocytes modulated by endurance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32:592-600.
Fischer CP, Hiscock NJ, Penkowa M, Basu S, Vessby B, Kallner A, Sjoberg LB, and Pedersen BK (2004) Supplementation with vitamins C and E inhibits the release of interleukin-6 from contracting human skeletal muscle. J Physiol 558:633-645.
Fischer CP, Hiscock NJ, Basu S, Vessby B, Kallner A, Sjoberg LB, Febbraio MA, and Pedersen BK (2006) Vitamin E isoform-specific inhibition of the exercise-induced heat shock protein 72 expression in humans. J Appl Physiol 100:1679-1687.
Floyd RA, Watson JJ, Wong PK, Altmiller DH, and Rickard RC (1986) Hydroxyl free radical adduct of deoxyguanosine: sensitive detection and mechanisms of formation. Free Radic Res Commun 1:163-172.
Frankel EN, German JB, and Teissedre PL (1995) Principal phenolic phytochemicals in selected California Wines and their antioxidant activity in inhibiting oxidation of human low density lipoproteins. J Agric Food Chem 43:890-894.
Furuta S, Suda I, Nishiba Y, and Yamakawa O (1998) High tert-butylperoxyl radical scavenging activities of sweetpotato cultivars with purple flesh. Food Sci Technol Int Tokyo 29:33-35.
Gabay C and Kushner I (1999) Acute-phase proteins and other systemic responses to inflammation. N Engl J Med 340:448-454.
Galbo H (1981) Endocrinology and metabolism in exercise. Int J Sports Med 2:203-211.
García-Mediavilla V, Crespo I, Collado PS, Esteller A, Sánchez-Campos S, Tuñón MJ, and González-Gallego J (2007) The anti-inflammatory flavones quercetin and kaempferol cause inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and reactive C-protein, and down-regulation of the nuclear factor kappaB pathway in Chang Liver cells. Eur J Pharmacol 577:221-229.
Ghosh S, May MJ, and Kopp EB (1998) NF-kappa B and Rel proteins: evolutionarily conserved mediators of immune responses. Annu Rev Immunol 16:225-260.
Giusti MM, Rodriguez-Saona LE, Griffin D, and Wrolstad RE (1999) Electrospray and tandem mass spectroscopy as tools for anthocyanin characterization. J Agric Food Chem 47:4657-4664.
Giusti MM and Wrolstad RE (2001) Characterization and measurement of anthocyanins by UV-visible spectroscopy. In: Current protocols in food analytical chemistry. (Wrolstad RE., eds) pp F1.2.1-F.2.13. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Goda Y, Shimizu T, Kato Y, Nakamura M, Maitani T, Yamada T, Terahara N, and Yamaguchi M (1997) Two acylated anthocyanins from purple sweet potato. Phytochemistry 44:183-186.
Goldfarb AH, Patrick SW, Bryer S, and You T (2005a) Vitamin C supplementation affects oxidative-stress blood markers in response to a 30-minute run at 75% VO2max. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 15:279-290.
Hagobian TA, Jacobs KA, Subudhi AW, Fattor JA, Rock PB, Muza SR, Fulco CS, Braun B, Grediagin A, Mazzeo RS, Cymerman A, and Friedlander AL (2006) Cytokine responses at high altitude: effects of exercise and antioxidants at 4300 m. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:276-285.
Halliwell B and Gutteridge JMC (1999) Free radicals in biology and medicine. Oxford University Press Inc., New York.
Hertog MG, Hollman PC, and Katan MB (1992) Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids of 28 vegetables and 9 fruits commonly consumed in The Netherlands. J Agric Food Chem 40:2379-2383.
Hertog MG, Hollman PC, and van de Putte B (1993) Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids of tea infusions, wines, and fruit juices. J Agric Food Chem 41:1242-1246.
Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, and Kromhout D (1997) Antioxidant flavonols and coronary heart disease risk. Lancet 349:699-706.
Hollander J, Fiebig R, Gore M, Ookawara T, Ohno H, and Ji LL (2001) Superoxide dismutase gene expression is activated by a single bout of exercise in rat skeletal muscle. Pflugers Arch 442:426-434.
Hopkins SJ (2003) The pathophysiological role of cytokines. Leg Med (Tokyo) Suppl 1:S45-57.
Hosokawa N, Hirayoshi K, Kudo H, Takechi H, Aoike A, Kawai K, and Nagata K (1992) Inhibition of the activation of heat shock factor in vivo and in vitro by flavonoids. Mol Cell Biol 12:3490-3498.
Islam MS, Yoshimoto M, Terahara N, and Yamakawa O (2002) Anthocyanin compositions in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 66:2483-2486.
Islam S (2006) Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) Leaf: Its Potential Effect on Human Health and Nutrition. J food Sci 71:R13-18.
Iwaki K, Chi SH, Dillmann WH, and Mestril R (1993) Induction of HSP70 in cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes by hypoxia and metabolic stress. Circulation 87:2023-2032.
Jaattela M (1999) Heat shock proteins as cellular lifeguards. Ann Med 31:261-271.
Jackman RW and Kandarian SC (2004) The molecular basis of skeletal muscle atrophy. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 287:C834-843.
Jackson MJ, Khassaf M, Vasilaki A, McArdle F, and McArdle A (2004) Vitamin E and the oxidative stress of exercise. Ann NY Acad Sci 1031:158-168.
Jeukendrup AE, Vet-Joop K, Sturk A, Stegen JH, Senden J, Saris WH, and Wagenmakers AJ (2000) Relationship between gastro-intestinal complaints and endotoxaemia, cytokine release and the acute-phase reaction during and after a long-distance triathlon in highly trained men. Clin Sci (Lond) 98:47-55.
Ji LL, Gomez-Cabrera MC, Steinhafel N, and Vina J (2004) Acute exercise activates nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB signaling pathway in rat skeletal muscle. FASEB J 18:1499-1506.
Ji LL (2007) Antioxidant signaling in skeletal muscle: a brief review. Exp Gerontol 42:582-593.
Ji LL (2008) Modulation of skeletal muscle antioxidant defense by exercise: Role of redox signaling. Free Radic Biol Med 44:142-152.
He J, Wallace TC, Keatley KE, Failla ML, and Giusti MM (2009) Stability of black raspberry anthocyanins in the digestive tract lumen and transport efficiency into gastric and small intestinal tissues in the rat. J Agric Food Chem 57:3141-3148.
Johnson M and Pace RD (2010) Sweet potato leaves: properties and synergistic interactions that promote health and prevent disease. Nutr Rev 68:604-615.
Kanter MM, Lesmes GR, Kamisky LA, Ham-Saeger JL, and Nequin ND (1988) Serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase changes following an eighty kilometer race. Eur J Appl Physiol 57:60-63.
Karlsen A, Retterstøl L, Laake P, Paur I, Kjølsrud-Bøhn S, Sandvik L, and Blomhoff R (2007) Anthocyanins inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB activation in monocytes and reduce plasma concentrations of pro-inflammatory mediators in healthy adults. J Nutr 137:1951-1954.
Keller C, Steensberg A, Pilegaard H, Osada T, Saltin B, Pedersen BK, and Neufer PD (2001) Transcriptional activation of the IL-6 gene in human contracting skeletal muscle: influence of muscle glycogen content. FASEB J 15:2748-2750.
Keul J and Doll E (1972) Oxidative energy supply. In: Energy metabolism of human muscle. (Jokl E., ed) pp 52-71. Karger, Basel.
Khani S and Tayek JA (2001) Cortisol increases gluconeogenesis in humans: its role in the metabolic syndrome. Clin Sci (Lond) 101:739-747.
Khansari DN, Murgo AJ, and Faith RE (1990) Effects of stress on the immune system. Immunol Today 11:170-175.
Khassaf M, Child RB, McArdle A, Brodie DA, Esanu C, and Jackson MJ (2001) Time course of responses of human skeletal muscle to oxidative stress induced by nondamaging exercise. J Appl Physiol 90:1031-1035.
Khassaf M, McArdle A, Esanu C, Vasilaki A, McArdle F, Griffiths RD, Brodie DA, and Jackson MJ (2003) Effects of vitamin C supplements on antioxidant defence and stress proteins in human lymphocytes and skeletal muscle. J Physiol 549:645-652.
Kosmidou I, Vassilakopoulos T, Xagorari A, Zakynthinos S, Papapetropoulos A, and Roussos C (2002) Production of interleukin-6 by skeletal myotubes: role of reactive oxygen species. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 26:587-593.
Lako J, Trenerry VC, Wahlqvist M, Wattanapenpaiboon N, Sotheeswaran S, and Premier R (2007) Phytochemical flavonols, carotenoids and the antioxidant properties of a wide selection of Fijian fruit, vegetables and other readily available foods. Food Chem 101:1727-1741.
Lee MJ, Wang ZY, Li H, Chen L, Sun Y, Gobbo S, Balentine DA, and Yang CS (1995) Analysis of plasma and urinary tea polyphenols in human subjects. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 4:393-399.
Lee JB, Shin YO, Min YK, and Yang HM (2010) The effect of Oligonol intake on cortisol and related cytokines in healthy young men. Nutr Res Pract 4:203-207.
Levine RL and Stadtman ER (2001) Oxidative modification of proteins during aging. Exp Gerontol 36:1495-1502.
Li X and Stark GR (2002) NFkappaB-dependent signaling pathways. Exp Hematol 30:285-296.
Liu Y, Lormes W, Baur C, Opitz-Gress A, Altenburg D, Lehmann M, and Steinacker JM (2000) Human skeletal muscle HSP70 response to physical training depends on exercise intensity. Int J Sports Med 21:351-355.
Liu Y, Lormes W, Wang L, Reissnecker S, and Steinacker JM (2004) Different skeletal muscle HSP70 responses to high-intensity strength training and low-intensity endurance training. Eur J Appl Physiol 91:330-335.
Lyall KA, Hurst SM, Cooney J, Jensen D, Lo K, Hurst RD, and Stevenson LM (2009) Short-term blackcurrant extract consumption modulates exercise-induced oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 297:R70-81.
Manach C, Williamson G, Morand C, Scalbert A, and Rémésy C (2005) Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies. Am J Clin Nutr 81:230S-242S.
Marnett LJ (2000) Oxyradicals and DNA damage. Carcinogenesis 21: 361- 370.
Mastaloudis A, Leonard SW, and Traber MG (2001) Oxidative stress in athletes during extreme endurance exercise. Free Radic Biol Med 31:911-922.
Mastaloudis A, Morrow JD, Hopkins DW, Devaraj S, and Traber MG (2004) Antioxidant supplementation prevents exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but not inflammation, in ultramarathon runners. Free Radic Biol Med 36:1329-1341.
May MJ and Ghosh S (1998) Signal transduction through NF-kappa B. Immunol Today 19:80-88.
Meyer M, Pahl HL, and Baeuerle PA (1994) Regulation of the transcription factors NF-kappa B and AP-1 by redox changes. Chem Biol Interact 91:91-100.
McAnulty SR, McAnulty LS, Nieman DC, Dumke CL, Morrow JD, Utter AC, Henson DA, Proulx WR, and George GL (2004) Consumption of blueberry polyphenols reduces exercise-induced oxidative stress compared to vitamin C. Nutr Res 24:209-221.
McAnulty SR, McAnulty LS, Nieman DC, Morrow JD, Shooter LA, Holmes S, Heward C, and Henson DA (2005) Effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on plasma homocysteine and oxidative stress in highly trained athletes before and after exhaustive exercise. J Nutr Biochem 16:530-537.
Merken HM and Beecher GR (2000) Liquid chromatographic method for the separation and quantification of prominent flavonoid aglycones. J Chromatogr A 897:177-184.
Michailidis Y, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, Fatouros IG, Koutedakis Y, Papassotiriou I, and Kouretas D (2007) Sampling time is crucial for measurement of aerobic exercise-induced oxidative stress. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:1107-1113.
Moldoveanu AI, Shephard RJ, and Shek PN (2001) The cytokine response to physical activity and training. Sports Med 31:115-144.
Moon JH, Nakata R, Oshima S, Inakuma T, and Terao J (2000) Accumulation of quercetin conjugates in blood plasma after the short-term ingestion of onion by women. Am J Physiol 279:R461-R467.
Morand C, Manach C, Crespy V, and Remesy C (2000) Quercetin 3-O-beta-glucoside is better absorbed than other quercetin forms and is not present in rat plasma. Free Radic Res 33:667-676.
Morillas-Ruiz J, Zafrilla P, Almar M, Cuevas MJ, López FJ, Abellán P, Villegas JA, and González-Gallego J (2005) The effects of an antioxidant-supplemented beverage on exercise-induced oxidative stress: results from a placebo-controlled double-blind study in cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol 95:543-549.
Morillas-Ruiz JM, Villegas García JA, López FJ, Vidal-Guevara ML, and Zafrilla P (2006) Effects of polyphenolic antioxidants on exercise-induced oxidative stress. Clin Nutr 25:444-453.
Morrow JD, Hill KE, Burk RF, Nammour TM, Badr KF, and Roberts LJ 2nd (1990) A series of prostaglandin F2-like compounds are produced in vivo in humans by a non-cyclooxygenase, free radical-catalyzed mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci 87:9383-9387.
Morrow JD and Roberts LJ (1997) The isoprostanes: unique bioactive products of lipid peroxidation. Prog Lipid Res 36:1-21.
Moskaug JØ, Carlsen H, Myhrstad MC, and Blomhoff R (2005) Polyphenols and glutathione synthesis regulation. Am J Clin Nutr 81:277S-283S.
Murkovic M, Mülleder U, Adam U, and Pfannhauser W (2001) Detection of anthocyanins from elderberry juice in human urine. J Sci Food Agric 81:934-937.
Myhrstad MC, Carlsen H, Nordstrom O, Blomhoff R, and Moskaug JØ (2002) Flavonoids increase the intracellular glutathione level by transactivation of the γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase catalytical subunit promoter. Free Radic Biol Med 32:386-393.
Nair MP, Mahajan S, Reynolds JL, Aalinkeel R, Nair H, Schwartz SA, and Kandaswami C (2006) The flavonoid quercetin inhibits proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor alpha) gene expression in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells via modulation of the NF-kappa beta system. Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:319-328.
Nehlsen-Cannarella SL, Fagoaga OR, Nieman DC, Henson DA, Butterworth DE, Bailey E, Warren BJ, and Davis JM (1997) Carbohydrate and the cytokine response to 2.5 hours of running. J Appl Physiol 82:1662-1667.
Nieman DC, Nehlsen-Cannarella SL, and Fagoaga OR (1998) Influence of mode and carbohydrate on the cytokine response to heavy exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30:671-678.
Nieman DC, Henson DA, Smith LL, Utter AC, Vinci DM, Davis JM, Kaminsky DE, and Shute M (2001) Cytokine changes after a marathon race. J Appl Physiol 91:109-114.
Nieman DC, Davis JM, Henson DA, Walberg-Rankin J, Shute M, Dumke CL, Utter AC, Vinci DM, Carson JA, Brown A, Lee WJ, McAnulty SR, and McAnulty LS (2003) Carbohydrate ingestion influences skeletal muscle cytokine mRNA and plasma cytokine levels after a 3-h run. J Appl Physiol 94:1917-1925.
Nieman DC, Henson DA, McAnulty SR, McAnulty LS, Morrow JD, Ahmed A, and Heward CB (2004) Vitamin E and immunity after the Kona Triathlon World Championship. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:1328-1335.
Nieman DC, Davis JM, Henson DA, Gross SJ, Dumke CL, Utter AC, Vinci DM, Carson JA, Brown A, McAnulty SR, McAnulty LS, and Triplett NT (2005) Muscle cytokine mRNA changes after 2.5 h of cycling: influence of carbohydrate. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:1283-1290.
Nieman DC, Henson DA, Davis JM, Angela Murphy E, Jenkins DP, Gross SJ, Carmichael MD, Quindry JC, Dumke CL, Utter AC, McAnulty SR, McAnulty LS, Triplett NT, and Mayer EP (2007a) Quercetin''s influence on exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and muscle and leukocyte cytokine mRNA. J Appl Physiol 103:1728-1735.
Nieman DC, Henson DA, Davis JM, Dumke CL, Gross SJ, Jenkins DP, Murphy EA, Carmichael MD, Quindry JC, McAnulty SR, McAnulty LS, Utter AC, and Mayer EP (2007b) Quercetin ingestion does not alter cytokine changes in athletes competing in the Western States Endurance Run. J Interferon Cytokine Res 27:1003-1011.
Niess AM, Hartmann A, Grunert-Fuchs M, Poch B, and Speit G (1996) DNA damage after exhaustive treadmill running in trained and untrained men. Int J Sports Med 17:397-403.
Niess AM, Fehrenbach E, Schlotz E, Sommer M, Angres C, Tschositsch K, Battenfeld N, Golly IC, Biesalski HK, Northoff H, and Dickhuth HH (2002) Effects of RRR-alpha-tocopherol on leukocyte expression of HSP72 in response to exhaustive treadmill exercise. Int J Sports Med 23:445-452.
Odake K, Terahara N, Saito N, Toki K, and Honda T (1992) Chemical structure of two anthocyanins from purple sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas. Phytochemistry 31:2127-2130.
Oki T, Masuda M, Furuta S, Nishiba Y, Terahara N, and Suda I (2002) Involvement of Anthocyanins and other Phenolic Compounds in Radical-Scavenging Activity of Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potato Cultivars. J Food Sci 67:1752-1756.
Olson EN and Williams RS (2000) Remodeling muscles with calcineurin. Bioessays 22:510-519.
Ordon Ez AAL, Gomez JD, Vattuone MA, and Isla MI (2006) Antioxidant activities of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swart extracts. Food Chem 97:452-458.
Ostrowski K, Rohde T, Zacho M, Asp S and Pedersen BK (1998) Evidence that interleukin-6 is produced in human skeletal muscle during prolonged running. J Physiol 508:949-953.
Ostrowski K, Rohde T, Asp S, Schjerling P, and Pedersen BK (1999) Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance in strenuous exercise in humans. J Physiol 515:287-291.
Pahl HL (1999) Activators and target genes of Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factors. Oncogene 18:6853-6866.
Panza VS, Wazlawik E, Ricardo Schütz G, Comin L, Hecht KC, and da Silva EL (2008) Consumption of green tea favorably affects oxidative stress markers in weight-trained men. Nutrition 24:433-442.
Parsell DA and Lindquist S (1993) The function of heat-shock proteins in stress tolerance: degradation and reactivation of damaged proteins. Annu Rev Genet 27:437-496.
Parthasarathy S, Santanam N, Ramachandran S, and Meilhac O (2000) Potential role of oxidized lipids and lipoproteins in antioxidant defense. Free Rad Res 33:197-215.
Päth G, Bornstein SR, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, and Scherbaum WA (1997) Interleukin-6 and the interleukin-6 receptor in the human adrenal gland: expression and effects on steroidogenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82:2343-2349.
Peake JM, Suzuki K, Hordern M, Wilson G, Nosaka K, and Coombes JS (2005) Plasma cytokine changes in relation to exercise intensity and muscle damage. Eur J Appl Physiol 95:514-521.
Peake JM, Suzuki K, and Coombes JS (2007) The influence of antioxidant supplementation on markers of inflammation and the relationship to oxidative stress after exercise. J Nutr Biochem 18:357-371.
Pedersen BK, Ostrowski K, Rohde T, and Bruunsgaard H (1998) The cytokine response to strenuous exercise. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 76:505-511.
Peng J, Jones GL, and Watson K (2000) Stress proteins as biomarkers of oxidative stress: effects of antioxidant supplements. Free Radic Biol Med 28:1598-1606.
Peters EM, Anderson R, Nieman DC, Fickl H, and Jogessar V (2001a) Vitamin C supplementation attenuates the increases in circulating cortisol, adrenaline and anti-inflammatory polypeptides following ultramarathon running. Int J Sports Med 22:537-543.
Peters EM, Anderson R, and Theron AJ (2001b) Attenuation of increase in circulating cortisol and enhancement of the acute phase protein response in vitamin C-supplemented ultramarathoners. Int J Sports Med 22:120-126.
Pilaczynska-Szczesniak L, Skarpanska-Steinborn A, Deskur E, Basta P, and Horoszkiewicz-Hassan M (2005) The influence of chokeberry juice supplementation on the reduction of oxidative stress resulting from an incremental rowing ergometer exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 15:48-58.
Pittaluga M, Parisi P, Sabatini S, Ceci R, Caporossi D, Valeria Catani M, Savini I, and Avigliano L (2006) Cellular and biochemical parameters of exercise-induced oxidative stress: relationship with training levels. Free Radic Res 40:607-614.
Pockley AG (2001) Heat shock proteins in health and disease: therapeutic targets or therapeutic agents? Expert Rev Mol Med 3:1-21.
Prasad S, Phromnoi K, Yadav VR, Chaturvedi MM, and Aggarwal BB (2010) Targeting inflammatory pathways by flavonoids for prevention and treatment of cancer. Planta Med. 76:1044-1063.
Rabah IO, Hou DX, Komine S, and Fujii M (2004) Potential chemopreventive properties of extract from baked sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam. Cv. Koganesengan). J Agric Food Chem 52:7152-7157.
Radak Z, Pucsuk J, Boros S, Josfai L, and Taylor AW (2000) Changes in urine 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels of super-marathon runners during a four-day race period. Life Sci 66:1763-1767.
Reznick AZ and Packer L (1994) Oxidative damage to proteins: spectrophotometric method for carbonyl assay. Methods Enzymol 233:357-363.
Rhind SG, Gannon GA, Shek PN, Brenner IK, Severs Y, Zamecnik J, Buguet A, Natale VM, Shephard RJ, and Radomski MW (1999) Contribution of exertional hyperthermia to sympathoadrenal-mediated lymphocyte subset redistribution. J Appl Physiol 87:1178-1185.
Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, and Paganga G (1996) Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radic Biol Med 20:933-956.
Rice-Evans CA (2001) Flavonoid antioxidants. Curr Med Chem 8:797-807.
Rodriguez-Saona LE and Wrolstad RE (2001) Extraction, isolation, and purification of anthocyanins. In: Current protocols in food analytical chemistry. (Wrolstad RE., eds) pp F1.1.1-F1.1.11. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Rouseff RL, Martin SF, and Youtsey CO (1987) Quantitative survey of narirutin, naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin in Citrus. J Agric Food Chem 35:1027-1030.
Ryan AJ, Gisolfi CV, and Moseley PL (1991) Synthesis of 70K stress protein by human leukocytes: effect of exercise in the heat. J Appl Physiol 70:466-471.
Sacheck JM and Blumberg JB (2001) Role of vitamin E and oxidative stress in exercise. Nutrition 17:809-814.
Sacheck JM, Milbury PE, Cannon JG, Roubenoff R, and Blumberg JB (2003) Effect of vitamin E and eccentric exercise on selected biomarkers of oxidative stress in young and elderly men. Free Radic Biol Med 34:1575-1588.
Salo DC, Donovan CM, and Davies KJ (1991) HSP70 and other possible heat shock or oxidative stress proteins are induced in skeletal muscle, heart, and liver during exercise. Free Radic Biol Med 11:239-246.
Satterlee DG (1992) Ascorbic acid and physiological stress in poultry. In: Ascorbic Acid in Domestic Animals: Proceedings of the Second Symposium. (Wenk G., eds) pp 43-59. Hoffmann-La Roche, Basel.
Scalbert A and Williamson G (2000) Dietary intake and bioavailability of polyphenols. J Nutr 130:2073S-2085S.
Scalbert A, Morand C, Manach C, and Rémésy (2002) Absorption and metabolism of polyphenols in the gut and impact on health. Biochem Pharmacol 56:276-282.
Schmid P, Pusch HH, Wolf W, Pilger E, Pessenhofer H, Schwaberger G, Pristautz H, and Purstner P (1982) Serum FSH, LH, and testosterone in humans after physical exercise. Int J Sports Med 3:84-89.
Schröder H, Navarro E, Tramullas A, Mora J, and Galiano D (2000) Nutrition antioxidant status and oxidative stress in professional basketball players: effects of a three compound antioxidative supplement. Int J Sports Med 21:146-150.
Serafini M, Maiani G, and Ferro-Luzzi A (1998) Alcohol-free red wine enhances plasma antioxidant capacity in humans. J Nutr 128:1003-1007.
Shastry S, Toft DO, and Joyner MJ (2002) HSP70 and HSP90 expression in leucocytes after exercise in moderately trained humans. Acta Physiol Scand 175:139-146.
Singh VN (1992) A Current Perspective on Nutrition and Exercise. J Nutr 122: 760-765.
Singleton UL and Rossi J (1965) Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Vit 16:144.
Skarpanska-Stejnborn A, Pilaczynska-Szczesniak L, Basta P, Deskur-Smielcka E, and Horoszkiewicz-Hassan M (2008) The influence of supplementation with artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on selected redox parameters in rowers. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 18:313-327.
Skarpanska-Stejnborn A, Pilaczynska-Szczesniak L, Basta P, and Deskur-Smielecka E (2009) The influence of supplementation with Rhodiola rosea L. extract on selected redox parameters in professional rowers. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 19:186-199.
Smith LL (2000) Cytokine hypothesis of overtraining: a physiological adaptation to excessive stress? Med Sci Sports Exerc 32:317-231.
Snoeckx LH, Cornelussen RN, Van Nieuwenhoven FA, Reneman RS, and Van Der Vusse GJ (2001) Heat Shock Proteins and Cardiovascular Pathophysiology. Physiol Rev 81:1461-1497.
Steensberg A, Febbraio MA, Osada T, Schjerling P, van Hall G, Saltin B, and Pedersen BK (2001) Interleukin-6 production in contracting human skeletal muscle is influenced by pre-exercise muscle glycogen content. J Physiol 537:633-639.
Storz G, Tartaglia LA, and Ames BN (1990) Transcriptional regulator of oxidative stress-inducible genes: direct activation by oxidation. Science 248:189-194.
Suda I, Oki T, Masuda M, Kobayashi M, Nishiba Y, and Furuta S (2003) Physiological functionality of purple-fleshed sweet potatoes containing anthocyanins and their utilization in foods. Japan Agric Res Q 37:167-173.
Suzuki K, Totsuka M, Nakaji S, Yamada M, Kudoh S, Liu Q, Sugawara K, Yamaya K, and Sato K (1999) Endurance exercise causes interaction among stress hormones, cytokines, neutrophil dynamics, and muscle damage. J Appl Physiol 87:1360-1367.
Suzuki K, Nakaji S, Yamada M, Liu Q, Kurakake S, Okamura N, Kumae T, Umeda T, and Sugawara K (2003) Impact of a competitive marathon race on systemic cytokine and neutrophil responses. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:348-355.
Tauler P, Gimeno I, Aguilo A, Guix MP, and Pons A (1999) Regulation of erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities in athletes during competition and short-term recovery. Pflugers Arch 438:782-787.
Teow CC, Truong VD, McFeeters RF, Thompson RL, Pecota KV, and Yencho GC (2007) Antioxidant activities, phenolic and β-carotene contents of sweet potato genotypes with varying flesh colours. Food Chem 103:829-838.
Terao J, Yamaguchi S, Shirai M, Miyoshi M, Moon JH, Oshima S, Inakuma T, Tsushida T, and Kato Y (2001) Protection by quercetin and quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucuronide of peroxynitrite-induced antioxidant consumption in human plasma low-density lipoprotein. Free Radic Res 35:925-931.
Thompson-Gorman SL and Zweier JL (1990) Evaluation of the role of xanthine oxidase in myocardial reperfusion injury. J Biol Chem 265:6656-6663.
Thompson D, Williams C, McGregor SJ, Nicholas CW, McArdle F, Jackson MJ, and Powell JR (2001) Prolonged vitamin C supplementation and recovery from demanding exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 11:466-481.
Thompson HS, Clarkson PM, and Scordilis SP (2002) The repeated bout effect and heat shock proteins: intramuscular HSP27 and HSP70 expression following two bouts of eccentric exercise in humans. Acta Physiol Scand 174:47-56.
Tian Q, Konczak I, and Schwartz SJ (2005) Probing anthocyanin profiles in purple sweet potato cell line (Ipomoea batatas L. Cv. Ayamurasaki) by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 53:6503-6509.
Tidball JG (2005) Inflammatory processes in muscle injury and repair. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 288:R345-353.
Tran PL, Kim SA, Choi HS, Yoon JH, and Ahn SG (2010) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 and exhibits anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. BMC Cancer 10:276.
Tremblay MS, Copeland JL, and Van Helder W (2004) Effect of training status and exercise mode on endogenous steroid hormones in men. J Appl Physiol 96:531-539.
Tremblay MS, Copeland JL, and Van Helder W (2005) Influence of exercise duration on post-exercise steroid hormone responses in trained males. Eur J Appl Physiol 94:505-513.
Truong VD, McFeeters RF, Thompson RT, Dean LL, and Shofran B (2007) Phenolic acid content and composition in leaves and roots of common commercial sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas L.) cultivars in the United States. J Food Sci 72:C343-349.
Tsakiris S, Parthimos T, Tsakiris T, Parthimos N, and Schulpis KH (2006) alpha-tocopherol supplementation reduces the elevated 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine blood levels induced by training in basketball players. Clin Chem Lab Med 44:1004-1008.
van Acker FA, Schouten O, Haenen GR, van der Vijgh WJ, and Bast A (2000) Flavonoids can replace α-tocopherol as an antioxidant. FEBS Lett 473:145-148.
Vassilakopoulos T, Karatza MH, Katsaounou P, Kollintza A, Zakynthinos S, and Roussos C (2003) Antioxidants attenuate the plasma cytokine response to exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 94:1025-1032.
Vendemiale G, Grattagliano I, and Altomare E (1999) An uptake on the role of free radicals and antioxidant defense in human disease. Int J Clin lab Res 29:49-55.
Vider J, Laaksonen DE, Kilk A, Atalay M, Lehtmaa J, Zilmer M, and Sen CK (2001a) Physical exercise induces activation of NF-kappaB in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Antioxid Redox Signal 3:1131-1137.
Vider J, Lehtmaa J, Kullisaar T, Vihalemm T, Zilmer K, Kairane C, Landõr A, Karu T, and Zilmer M (2001b) Acute immune response in respect to exercise-induced oxidative stress. Pathophysiology 7:263-270.
Wadsworth TL and Koop DR (1999) Effects of the wine polyphenolics quercetin and resveratrol on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Biochem Pharmacol 15:941-949.
Walker BR, Connacher AA, Webb DJ, and Edwards CR (1992) Glucocorticoids and blood pressure: a role for the cortisol/cortisone shuttle in the control of vascular tone in man. Clin Sci (Lond) 83:171-178.
Ward JF, Limoli CL, Calabro-Jones P, and Evans JW (1988) Radiation versus chemical damage to DNA. In: Anticarcinogenesis and Radiation Protection. (Ceruti PA., eds) pp 321–327. Plenum, New York.
Welch WJ (1993) Heat shock proteins functioning as molecular chaperones: their roles in normal and stressed cells. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 339:327-333.
Williams RJ, Spencer JPE, and Rice-Evans C (2004) Serial review: flavonoids and isoflavones (phytoestrogens): absorption, metabolism, and bioactivity. Free Radic Biol Med 36:838-849.
Yochum L, Kushi LH, Meyer K, and Folsom AR (1999) Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 149:943-949.
Yoshimoto M, Kurata R, Okuno S, Ishiguro K, Yamakawa O, Tsubata M, Mori S, and Takagaki K (2006) Nutritional value and physiological functions of sweetpotato leaves. Acta Hort 703:107-116.
Zhao C, Giusti MM, Malik M, Moyer MP, and Magnuson BA (2004) Effects of commercial anthocyanin-rich extracts on colonic cancer and nontumorigenic colonic cell growth. J Agric Food Chem 52:6122-6128.
Zoppi CC, Hohl R, Silva FC, Lazarim FL, Neto JM, Stancanneli M, and Macedo DV (2006) Vitamin C and e supplementation effects in professional soccer players under regular training. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 13:37-44.
Zwart LL, Meerman JH, Commandeur JN, and Vermeulen NP (1999) Biomarkers of free radical damage applications in experimental animals and in humans. Free Radic Biol Med 26:202-226.
Zweier JL (1988) Measurement of superoxide-derived free radicals in the reperfused heart. Evidence for a free radical mechanism of reperfusion injury. J Biol Chem 263:1353-1357.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top