跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.201.97.0) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/04/16 09:57
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:林懿苑
研究生(外文):Lin, Yi-Yuan
論文名稱:長期運動訓練對於高血壓族群心血管功能之影響及其生理機制─以高血壓動物模式探討
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Long-term Exercise Training on Cardiovascular Function in Hypertension and Physiological Mechanisms-Using Hypertensive Animal Model
指導教授:楊艾倫楊艾倫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yang, Ai-Lun
口試委員:李信達蔡秀純
口試委員(外文):Lee, Shin-DaTsai, Shiow-Chwen
口試日期:2011-06-09
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:臺北巿立體育學院
系所名稱:身心障礙者轉銜及休閒教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:高血壓運動訓練心血管功能胰島素類胰島素生長因子-1
外文關鍵詞:hypertensionexercise trainingcardiovascular functioninsulininsulin-like growth factor-1
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:1742
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:357
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:24
背景和目的:近年來由於國人飲食逐漸西化,心血管疾病高居國人十大死因的前三名。高血壓是造成心血管疾病的重要危險因子之一,且高血壓患者罹患冠狀動脈心臟病、中風、與周邊血管病變的機率及致死率皆高於正常血壓者。許多研究顯示,特定荷爾蒙 (如:胰島素(insulin) 和類胰島素生長因子-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) ) 對於調控心血管功能扮演重要的角色,而在實驗動物研究中發現,高血壓會造成胰島素和類胰島素生長因子-1所調控的血管功能明顯地受損。目前已知運動訓練能夠降低心血管疾病危險因子及改善部分的心血管功能,但尚無研究探討運動訓練對於高血壓族群之胰島素和類胰島素生長因子-1所調控的心血管功能之影響。因此本研究之目的是以高血壓動物模式,探討長期運動訓練對於胰島素和類胰島素生長因子-1所調控的心血管功能之影響,並進一步探究其生理機制。方法:本研究以高血壓鼠 (spontaneously hypertensive rat, SHR) 和正常血壓鼠 (Wistar Kyoto rat, WKY) 為實驗動物模式,將高血壓鼠隨機分成運動組 (SHR-EX) 和非運動組 (SHR),再以週齡相符的正常血壓鼠作為對照組 (WKY)。在實驗過程中,運動組以跑步機進行中等強度運動訓練,每天一小時,每週五天,為期八週。在實驗結束後,將各組分別進行心血管功能之分析,以及檢測血液中脂質過氧化物和抗氧化酵素的活性。除此之外,也分析各組血管內皮功能相關蛋白質的表現量。結果:由本研究結果顯示,透過長期運動訓練可以顯著地改善高血壓族群之胰島素和類胰島素生長因子-1所調控的心血管功能,其生理機制與血管舒張反應之訊息路徑、抗氧化能力、以及血管內皮功能相關蛋白質的表現量等變化有關。結論:本研究提供長期運動介入改善高血壓族群心血管功能之部份理論依據。
Background and purpose: In recent years, cardiovascular disease is the top ten cause of death in Taiwan, which is related to diet changes and lack of exercise. Hypertension is one of the major factors for cardiovascular disease. Also, people with hypertension have higher risk in coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and other fatal diseases than those with normal blood pleasure. It is known that insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) play important roles in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Also, previous studies have demonstrated that insulin-mediated and IGF-1-mediated vascular function in hypertensive rats is impaired. Moreover, many researchers have reported that exercise training can reduce cardiovascular risk factors and improve parts of cardiovascular function. However, the effects of exercise intervention on insulin-mediated and IGF-1-mediated cardiovascular function in hypertension remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the influences of long-term exercise training on insulin-mediated and IGF-1-mediated cardiovascular function in hypertension and physiological mechanisms. Methods: The hypertensive animal model was used in this study. The spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were randomly divided into exercise training (SHR-EX) and sedentary (SHR) groups. The SHR-EX group was trained by treadmill at moderate intensity for 5 days/week, 8 weeks. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats was used as normotensive control group. At the end of experiments, the cardiovascular responses were measured and compared among three groups. The serum levels of antioxidants and oxidants were also evaluated. In addition, the vascular protein expression was examined. Results: After long-term exercise training, the insulin-mediated and IGF-1-mediated cardiovascular function was significantly improved in hypertension. These improvements could be associated with the vasorelaxant signaling pathway, antioxidant levels, and vascular protein levels. Conclusion: This study provides parts of physiological mechanisms for the improvements of cardiovascular function in hypertension by long-term exercise training.
中文摘要 IV
ABSTRACT VI
誌謝 VIII
目錄 IX
表目錄 XI
圖目錄 XI
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究目的 1
第三節 研究問題 1
第四節 研究假設 2
第貳章 文獻探討 3
第一節 高血壓定義 3
第二節 高血壓流行病學 4
第三節 高血壓與心血管疾病 4
第四節 氧化壓力和抗氧化物質與心血管疾病 6
第五節 胰島素和類胰島素生長因子-1與心血管疾病 9
第六節 高血壓治療與運動 11
第参章 材料與方法 14
第一節 高血壓實驗動物 14
第二節 長期運動訓練計畫 14
第三節 休息時心搏率與血壓之量測 15
第四節 檸檬酸合成酵素活性分析 16
第五節 血管舒張反應測量 17
a. 血液和血管段製備 17
b. 血管活性測試 18
c. 內皮依賴型血管舒張反應 18
d. 非內皮依賴型血管舒張反應 19
e. PI3-kinase和一氧化氮合成酶的角色 19
第六節 西方點墨法 19
a. 組織溶解物之制備 19
b. 蛋白質之定量 20
c. 樣品的製備 20
d. 電泳膠片的轉漬與blotting 21
e. 一級與二級抗體 21
第七節 脂質過氧化物和抗氧化酵素的活性分析 22
a. 超氧歧化酶酵素活性分析 22
b. 過氧化氫酶酵素活性分析 22
c. 脂質過氧化丙二醛濃度分析 22
第八節 統計分析 22
第肆章 結果 24
第一節 基本生理參數 24
第二節 檸檬酸合成酵素活性 24
第三節 血管舒張反應測試 25
a. 胰島素所調節之血管舒張反應 25
b. 類胰島素生長因子-1所調節之血管舒張反應 25
c. 乙醯膽鹼所調節之血管舒張反應 26
d. SNP所調節之血管舒張反應 27
e. Wortmannin及L-NAME抑制劑對於胰島素所調節之血管舒張反應 27
f. Wortmannin及L-NAME抑制劑對於類胰島素生長因子-1所調節之血管舒張反應 28
g. Wortmannin及L-NAME抑制劑對於乙醯膽鹼所調節之血管舒張反應 28
第四節 血管內皮功能相關蛋白質表現量 29
a. 胰島素受器之蛋白質表現量變化 29
b. 類胰島素生長因子-1受器之蛋白質表現量變化 29
c. 胰島素受體底物-1之蛋白質表現量變化 29
d. 內皮一氧化氮合成酶之蛋白質表現量變化 30
第五節 脂質過氧化物和抗氧化酵素的活性 30
a. 抗氧化酵素活性 30
b. 脂質過氧化丙二醛濃度分析 30
第伍章 討論 32
參考文獻 43
圖與表說明 52


國民營養健康狀況調查 (NAHSIT 2004-2008) (2009,11月) 臺北:行政院衛生署。
Alderton, W. K., Cooper, C. E., & Knowles, R. G. (2001). Nitric oxide synthases: structure, function and inhibition. The Biochemical Journal, 357(3), 593-615.
Amstad, P., Moret, R., & Cerutti, P. (1994). Glutathione peroxidase compensates for the hypersensitivity of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase overproducers to oxidant stress. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 269(3), 1606-1609.
Ballermann, B. J., Dardik, A., Eng, E., & Liu, A. (1998). Shear stress and the endothelium. Kidney International, 67, 100-108.
Berry, C., Brosnan, M. J., Fennell, J., Hamilton, C. A., & Dominiczak, A. F. (2001). Oxidative stress and vascular damage in hypertension. Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, 10(2), 247-255.
Bertagnolli, M., Campos, C., Schenkel, P. C., de Oliveira, V. L., De Angelis, K., Bello-Klein, A., Rigatto, K., & Irigoyen, M. C. (2006). Baroreflex sensitivity improvement is associated with decreased oxidative stress in trained spontaneously hypertensive rat. Journal of Hypertension, 24(12), 2437-2443.
Brook, R. D., & Julius, S. (2000). Autonomic imbalance, hypertension, and cardiovascular risk. American Journal of Hypertension, 13(2), 112-122.
Cai, H., & Harrison, D. G. (2000). Endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases: the role of oxidant stress. Circulation Research, 87(10), 840-844.
Cheeseman, K. H., & Slater, T. F. (1993). An introduction to free radical biochemistry. British Medical Bulletin, 49(3), 481-493.
Chen, H. H., Chiang, I. P., & Jen, C. J. (1996). Exercise Training Increases Acetylcholine-Stimulated Endothelium-Derived Nitric Oxide Release in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Journal of Biomedical Science, 3(6), 454-460.
Chobanian, A. V., Bakris, G. L., Black, H. R., Cushman, W. C., Green, L. A., Izzo, J. L., Jr., Jones, D. W., Materson, B. J., Oparil, S., Wright, J. T., Jr., & Roccella, E. J. (2003). The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 289(19), 2560-2572.
Choi, E. Y., & Cho, Y. O. (2007). The effects of physical training on antioxidative status under exercise-induced oxidative stress. Nutrition Research and Practice, 1(1), 14-18.
Clarkson, P. M., & Thompson, H. S. (2000). Antioxidants: what role do they play in physical activity and health? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72(2), 637-646.
Duncan, E. R., Shah, A. M., & Kearney, M. T. (2005). Obesity and endothelial function. Circulation Research, 97(4), 52.
Ersin Fadillioglu ., Burhanettin Kaya., Efkan Uz M.D., Memet Hanifi Emre., & M.D., S. Ü. (2000). Effects of Moderate Exercise on Mild Depressive Mood, Antioxidants and Lipid Peroxidation. Bull Clin Psychopharmacol, 10, 194-200.
Esler, M., Rumantir, M., Kaye, D., Jennings, G., Hastings, J., Socratous, F., & Lambert, G. (2001). Sympathetic nerve biology in essential hypertension. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 28(12), 986-989.
Faraci, F. M., & Didion, S. P. (2004). Vascular protection: superoxide dismutase isoforms in the vessel wall. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 24(8), 1367-1373.
Fatehi-Hassanabad, Z., Chan, C. B., & Furman, B. L. (2010). Reactive oxygen species and endothelial function in diabetes. European Journal of Pharmacology, 636(1-3), 8-17.
Furchgott, R. F., & Zawadzki, J. V. (1980). The obligatory role of endothelial cells in the relaxation of arterial smooth muscle by acetylcholine. Nature, 288(5789), 373-376.
Gielen, S., Adams, V., Mobius-Winkler, S., Linke, A., Erbs, S., Yu, J., Kempf, W., Schubert, A., Schuler, G., & Hambrecht, R. (2003). Anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training in the skeletal muscle of patients with chronic heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 42(5), 861-868.
Goke, B., & Fehmann, H. C. (1996). Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I: their role as risk factors in the development of diabetic cardiovascular disease. Diabetes research and clinical practice. Supplement, 30, 93-106.
Goto, C., Nishioka, K., Umemura, T., Jitsuiki, D., Sakagutchi, A., Kawamura, M., Chayama, K., Yoshizumi, M., & Higashi, Y. (2007). Acute moderate-intensity exercise induces vasodilation through an increase in nitric oxide bioavailiability in humans. American Journal of Hypertension, 20(8), 825-830.
Graham, D. A., & Rush, J. W. (2004). Exercise training improves aortic endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and determinants of nitric oxide bioavailability in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Journal of Applied Physiology, 96(6), 2088-2096.
Green, D. J., Walsh, J. H., Maiorana, A., Burke, V., Taylor, R. R., & O'Driscoll, J. G. (2004). Comparison of resistance and conduit vessel nitric oxide-mediated vascular function in vivo: effects of exercise training. Journal of Applied Physiology, 97(2), 749-755.
Griendling, K. K., Sorescu, D., Lassegue, B., & Ushio-Fukai, M. (2000). Modulation of protein kinase activity and gene expression by reactive oxygen species and their role in vascular physiology and pathophysiology. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 20(10), 2175-2183.
Gunduz, F., Kocer, G., Ulker, S., Meiselman, H. J., Baskurt, O. K., & Senturk, U. K. (2011). Exercise training enhances flow-mediated dilation in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Physiological Research, In press.
Hamilton, C. A., Brosnan, M. J., McIntyre, M., Graham, D., & Dominiczak, A. F. (2001). Superoxide excess in hypertension and aging: a common cause of endothelial dysfunction. Hypertension, 37(2), 529-534.
Hasdai, D., Rizza, R. A., Holmes, D. R., Jr., Richardson, D. M., Cohen, P., & Lerman, A. (1998). Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I cause coronary vasorelaxation in vitro. Hypertension, 32(2), 228-234.
Higashi, Y., Sasaki, S., Kurisu, S., Yoshimizu, A., Sasaki, N., Matsuura, H., Kajiyama, G., & Oshima, T. (1999). Regular aerobic exercise augments endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in normotensive as well as hypertensive subjects: role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide. Circulation, 100(11), 1194-1202.
Higashi, Y., & Yoshizumi, M. (2004). Exercise and endothelial function: role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide and oxidative stress in healthy subjects and hypertensive patients. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 102(1), 87-96.
Husain, K. (2004). Interaction of regular exercise and chronic nitroglycerin treatment on blood pressure and rat aortic antioxidants. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1688(1), 18-25.
Imrie, H., Abbas, A., Viswambharan, H., Rajwani, A., Cubbon, R. M., Gage, M., Kahn, M., Ezzat, V. A., Duncan, E. R., Grant, P. J., Ajjan, R., Wheatcroft, S. B., & Kearney, M. T. (2009). Vascular insulin-like growth factor-I resistance and diet-induced obesity. Endocrinology, 150(10), 4575-4582.
Kelly, T. N., Gu, D., Chen, J., Huang, J. F., Chen, J. C., Duan, X., Wu, X., Yau, C. L., Whelton, P. K., & He, J. (2008). Hypertension subtype and risk of cardiovascular disease in Chinese adults. Circulation, 118(15), 1558-1566.
Kim, J. A., Montagnani, M., Koh, K. K., & Quon, M. J. (2006). Reciprocal relationships between insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction: molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms. Circulation, 113(15), 1888-1904.
Kinney LaPier, T. L., & Rodnick, K. J. (2001). Effects of aerobic exercise on energy metabolism in the hypertensive rat heart. Physical Therapy, 81(4), 1006-1017.
Kobayashi, T., & Kamata, K. (2002). Short-term insulin treatment and aortic expressions of IGF-1 receptor and VEGF mRNA in diabetic rats. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 283(5), 1761-1768.
Laterza, M. C., de Matos, L. D., Trombetta, I. C., Braga, A. M., Roveda, F., Alves, M. J., Krieger, E. M., Negrao, C. E., & Rondon, M. U. (2007). Exercise training restores baroreflex sensitivity in never-treated hypertensive patients. Hypertension, 49(6), 1298-1306.
Lee, S., Park, Y., Zuidema, M. Y., Hannink, M., & Zhang, C. (2011). Effects of interventions on oxidative stress and inflammation of cardiovascular diseases. World Journal of Cardiology, 3(1), 18-24.
Lopez, A. D., Mathers, C. D., Ezzati, M., Jamison, D. T., & Murray, C. J. (2006). Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data. Lancet, 367(9524), 1747-1757.
Maiorana, A., O'Driscoll, G., Taylor, R., & Green, D. (2003). Exercise and the nitric oxide vasodilator system. Sports Medicine, 33(14), 1013-1035.
Margaritis, I., Tessier, F., Prou, E., Marconnet, P., & Marini, J. F. (1997). Effects of endurance training on skeletal muscle oxidative capacities with and without selenium supplementation. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 11(1), 37-43.
Mates, J. M., Perez-Gomez, C., & Nunez de Castro, I. (1999). Antioxidant enzymes and human diseases. Clinical Biochemistry, 32(8), 595-603.
McCallum, R. W., Hamilton, C. A., Graham, D., Jardine, E., Connell, J. M., & Dominiczak, A. F. (2005). Vascular responses to IGF-I and insulin are impaired in aortae of hypertensive rats. Journal of Hypertension, 23(2), 351-358.
Miyagawa, K., Ohashi, M., Yamashita, S., Kojima, M., Sato, K., Ueda, R., & Dohi, Y. (2007). Increased oxidative stress impairs endothelial modulation of contractions in arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats. Journal of Hypertension, 25(2), 415-421.
Moriguchi, J., Itoh, H., Harada, S., Takeda, K., Hatta, T., Nakata, T., & Sasaki, S. (2005). Low frequency regular exercise improves flow-mediated dilatation of subjects with mild hypertension. Hypertension Research, 28(4), 315-321.
Muniyappa, R., & Quon, M. J. (2007). Insulin action and insulin resistance in vascular endothelium. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 10(4), 523-530.
Muzykantov, V. R. (2001). Targeting of superoxide dismutase and catalase to vascular endothelium. Journal of Controlled Release, 71(1), 1-21.
Oparil, S., Zaman, M. A., & Calhoun, D. A. (2003). Pathogenesis of hypertension. Annals of Internal Medicine, 139(9), 761-776.
Overton, J. M., Tipton, C. M., Matthes, R. D., & Leininger, J. R. (1986). Voluntary exercise and its effects on young SHR and stroke-prone hypertensive rats. Journal of Applied Physiology, 61(1), 318-324.
Overton, J. M., VanNess, J. M., & Takata, H. J. (1998). Effects of chronic exercise on blood pressure in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. American Journal of Hypertension, 11(1), 73-80.
Ozcelik, O., Ozkan, Y., Karatas, F., & Kelestimur, H. (2005). Exercise training as an adjunct to orlistat therapy reduces oxidative stress in obese subjects. The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 206(4), 313-318.
Paoletti, R., Gotto, A. M., Jr., & Hajjar, D. P. (2004). Inflammation in atherosclerosis and implications for therapy. Circulation, 109(23), 20-26.
Pialoux, V., Brown, A. D., Leigh, R., Friedenreich, C. M., & Poulin, M. J. (2009). Effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on vascular regulation and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women. Hypertension, 54(5), 1014-1020.
Requena, J. R., Fu, M. X., Ahmed, M. U., Jenkins, A. J., Lyons, T. J., Baynes, J. W., & Thorpe, S. R. (1997). Quantification of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal adducts to lysine residues in native and oxidized human low-density lipoprotein. The Biochemical Journal, 322, 317-325.
Ridker, P. M. (2001). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein: potential adjunct for global risk assessment in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Circulation, 103(13), 1813-1818.
Ridker, P. M. (2003). Clinical application of C-reactive protein for cardiovascular disease detection and prevention. Circulation, 107(3), 363-369.
Rizzoni, D., Porteri, E., Castellano, M., Bettoni, G., Muiesan, M. L., Tiberio, G., Giulini, S. M., Rossi, G., Bernini, G., & Agabiti-Rosei, E. (1998). Endothelial dysfunction in hypertension is independent from the etiology and from vascular structure. Hypertension, 31(1), 335-341.
Ross, R. (1999). Atherosclerosis--an inflammatory disease. The New England Journal of Medicine, 340(2), 115-126.
Rubanyi, G. M., Freay, A. D., Kauser, K., Johns, A., & Harder, D. R. (1990). Mechanoreception by the endothelium: mediators and mechanisms of pressure- and flow-induced vascular responses. Blood Vessels, 27(2-5), 246-257.
Saengsirisuwan, V., Perez, F. R., Sloniger, J. A., Maier, T., & Henriksen, E. J. (2004). Interactions of exercise training and alpha-lipoic acid on insulin signaling in skeletal muscle of obese Zucker rats. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, 287(3), 529-536.
Shephard, R. J., & Balady, G. J. (1999). Exercise as cardiovascular therapy. Circulation, 99(7), 963-972.
Simon, G. (2004). Pathogenesis of structural vascular changes in hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 22(1), 3-10.
Siu, P. M., Donley, D. A., Bryner, R. W., & Alway, S. E. (2003). Citrate synthase expression and enzyme activity after endurance training in cardiac and skeletal muscles. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(2), 555-560.
Slater, T. F. (1984). Free-radical mechanisms in tissue injury. The Biochemical Journal, 222(1), 1-15.
Sowers, J. R. (1997). Insulin and insulin-like growth factor in normal and pathological cardiovascular physiology. Hypertension, 29(3), 691-699.
Sowers, J. R. (2004). Insulin resistance and hypertension. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 286(5), 1597-1602.
Srere, P. (1969). Citrate synthase. Methods Enzymol, 13, 3-5.
Su, C. F., Chang, Y. Y., Pai, H. H., Liu, I. M., Lo, C. Y., & Cheng, J. T. (2005). Mediation of beta-endorphin in exercise-induced improvement in insulin resistance in obese Zucker rats. Diabetes / Metabolism Reviews, 21(2), 175-182.
Sun, M. W., Qian, F. L., Wang, J., Tao, T., Guo, J., Wang, L., Lu, A. Y., & Chen, H. (2008). Low-intensity voluntary running lowers blood pressure with simultaneous improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and insulin sensitivity in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension Research, 31(3), 543-552.
Taddei, S., Virdis, A., Ghiadoni, L., Salvetti, G., & Salvetti, A. (2000). Endothelial dysfunction in hypertension. Journal of Nephrology, 13(3), 205-210.
Touyz, R. M. (2004). Reactive oxygen species, vascular oxidative stress, and redox signaling in hypertension: what is the clinical significance? Hypertension, 44(3), 248-252.
Touyz, R. M., & Briones, A. M. (2011). Reactive oxygen species and vascular biology: implications in human hypertension. Hypertension Research, 34(1), 5-14.
Vanhoutte, P. M. (1997). Endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. European Heart Journal, 18, 19-29.
Vecchione, C., Colella, S., Fratta, L., Gentile, M. T., Selvetella, G., Frati, G., Trimarco, B., & Lembo, G. (2001). Impaired insulin-like growth factor I vasorelaxant effects in hypertension. Hypertension, 37(6), 1480-1485.
Walther, C., Gielen, S., & Hambrecht, R. (2004). The effect of exercise training on endothelial function in cardiovascular disease in humans. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 32(4), 129-134.
Wilcox, J. N., Subramanian, R. R., Sundell, C. L., Tracey, W. R., Pollock, J. S., Harrison, D. G., & Marsden, P. A. (1997). Expression of multiple isoforms of nitric oxide synthase in normal and atherosclerotic vessels. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 17(11), 2479-2488.
Yang, A. L., Chao, J. I., & Lee, S. D. (2007). Altered insulin-mediated and insulin-like growth factor-1-mediated vasorelaxation in aortas of obese Zucker rats. International Journal of Obesity (Lond), 31(1), 72-77.
Yang, A. L., Yeh, C. K., Su, C. T., Lo, C. W., Lin, K. L., & Lee, S. D. (2010). Aerobic exercise acutely improves insulin- and insulin-like growth factor-1-mediated vasorelaxation in hypertensive rats. Experimental Physiology, 95(5), 622-629.
Zeng, G., Nystrom, F. H., Ravichandran, L. V., Cong, L. N., Kirby, M., Mostowski, H., & Quon, M. J. (2000). Roles for insulin receptor, PI3-kinase, and Akt in insulin-signaling pathways related to production of nitric oxide in human vascular endothelial cells. Circulation, 101(13), 1539-1545.
Zhou, M. S., Schulman, I. H., & Raij, L. (2009). Role of angiotensin II and oxidative stress in vascular insulin resistance linked to hypertension. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 296(3), 833-839.



QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top