跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.200.171.74) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/08/12 08:14
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:王謙
研究生(外文):Wang Chien
論文名稱:Schwartz人類價值觀模式之驗證-以臺灣地區人民為例
論文名稱(外文):Validation of the Structure of Schwartz Human Valu Theory: An Empirical Verification in Taiwan
指導教授:吳和堂吳和堂引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:教育學系
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:Schwartz人類價值觀價值觀價值觀模式
外文關鍵詞:Schwartzhuman valuevaluevalue structure
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:8
  • 點閱點閱:4400
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:279
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
本研究旨在探討臺灣地區人民的價值觀取向與Schwartz之人類價值觀理論模式的適配程度。研究方法採次級資料分析法,資料來源為中央研究院調查研究專題中心學術調查研究資料庫之2006「臺灣世界價值觀調查」原始資料,有效樣本為1227份。本研究之資料處理採用描述性統計、考驗、單因子變異數分析、驗証性因素分析與多元尺度分析等方法,分析結果之具體發現如下:
一、臺灣社會的價值觀屬性與西方社會的價值觀屬性相反。
二、臺灣地區人民的價值觀模式與Schwartz價值觀模式部份適配。
三、不同性別、年齡與教育程度之臺灣地區人民在Schwartz四個價值觀 構面之取向偏好與Schwartz的推論大部份一致。
四、縮減題項後之Schwartz PVQ價值量表,未能符合良好測驗之條件 與標準。
根據上述之研究結論,對後續之研究者與價值觀相關教育工作者,分別提出研究工具、研究內容、研究方法、統計方法與延伸研究等具體建議。

This study was intended to validate the structure of Schwartz human value theory by analyzing the secondary data of world values survey conducted in Taiwan on 2006. Secondary data analysis was adopted in this study. Totally 1227 valid samples had been extracted from 2006 world values survey database of Taiwan. The extracted data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way analysis of variance, confirmatory factor analysis and multidimensional scaling. Finding of this study are listed as follows:
1. The value attribute of Taiwanese society is contrary with Western society.
2. The value structure of Taiwanese is partially adapted with human value structure of Schwartz’s theory.
3. The value orientation of different gender, age and educational attainment of Taiwanese confirmed with the assumption of Schwartz’s theory.
4. The item reduced P.V.Q. value scale did not meet the conditions and standards of good test.
According to the finding above, recommendations have made to the educator and researcher for further reference.

目 次
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景與動機 ……………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究目的與問題 ……………………………………………… 9
第三節 名詞解釋 ……………………………………………………… 10
第四節 研究範圍與限制 ……………………………………………… 11
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 價值觀的理論 ………………………………………………… 13
第二節 價值觀的內涵 ………………………………………………… 45
第三節 價值觀的相關研究 …………………………………………… 54
第三章 研究設計與實施
第一節 研究架構與假設 ……………………………………………… 65
第二節 研究方法與樣本 ……………………………………………… 69
第三節 研究工具 ……………………………………………………… 75
第四節 資料處理與分析 ……………………………………………… 87
第五節 研究程序 ……………………………………………………… 89
第四章 研究結果與討論
第一節 敘述性統計分析 ……………………………………………… 91
第二節 驗證性因素分析 ……………………………………………… 94
第三節 人口特徵差異分析 ……………………………………………… 110
第四節 分佈構形檢定 ………………………………………………… 119
第五章 研究結論與建議
第一節 研究結論 ……………………………………………………… 127
第二節 研究建議 ……………………………………………………… 129
參考文獻
一、中文部份 ………………………………………………………… 133
二、西文部份 ………………………………………………………… 135
附錄
附錄一 英文版2006世界價值觀調查問卷 …………………………… 141
附錄二 中文版2006世界價值觀調查問卷 ………………………… 159
表 次

表2-1-1 組織文化層次比較表 ……………………………………………… 15
表2-1-2 Erikson心理社會理論的人生八大發展階段 ……………………… 18
表2-1-3 人類思維的神經邏輯層次的內涵 ………………………………… 22
表2-1-4 Kluckhohn與Srodtbeck的價值導向模式 ……………………… 24
表2-1-5 Rockeach的價值觀模式 ………………………………………… 32
表2-1-6 Schwartz的價值觀模式 …………………………………………… 34
表2-1-7 Schwartz十類價值取向與人口特徵相關性之實徵研究摘要表 … 41
表2-1-8 價值觀相關研究一覽表 43
表2-2-1 Schwartz PVQ 價值量表之原始題目對照表 …………………… 52
表2-3-1 價值關相關研究問題之分類統計 ………………………………… 60
表3-1-1 Schwartz四個構面屬性與十類價值取向之操作型定義對照表 … 67
表3-2-1 抽樣樣本代表性檢定結果 ………………………………………… 73
表3-2-2 成功樣本代表性檢定結果(加權後) …………………………… 74
表3-3-1 背景變項資料過錄對照表 ………………………………………… 79
表3-3-2 背景變項樣本摘要表 ……………………………………………… 80
表3-3-3 研究變項資料過錄對照表 ………………………………………… 80
表3-3-4 研究變項樣本摘要表 ……………………………………………… 83
表3-3-5 二個因素構面之轉軸後的因素矩陣 ……………………………… 85
表3-3-6 四個因素構面之轉軸後的因素矩陣 ……………………………… 86
表4-1-1 臺灣地區人民價值觀偏好之分析摘要 …………………………… 91
表4-1-2 臺灣地區人民價值觀四構面分析摘要 …………………………… 92
表4-2-1 驗證性因素分析之參數估計表 …………………………………… 96
表4-2-2 修正後之驗證性因素分析之參數估計表 ………………………… 97
表4-2-3 整體模型配適度檢定摘要表………………………………………… 101
表4-2-4 整體模型配適度檢定摘要表(Bollen-Stine bootstrap修正後) 102
表4-2-5 各測量指標之標準化因素負荷量與信效度檢定摘要表 ………… 104
表4-2-6 AVE區別效度分析摘要表 ……………………………………… 105
表4-3-1 不同性別之差異比較摘要表 ……………………………………… 110
表4-3-2 不同年齡之差異比較摘要表 ……………………………………… 111
表4-3-3 不同教育程度之差異比較摘要表 ………………………………… 113
表4-3-4 不同人口特徵變項在Schwartz四個價值構面之差異比較摘要表 114
表4-4-1 「因素分析」之因素負荷量與「多元尺度分析」之座標值對照表 122
表4-4-2 臺灣地區人民價值取向與Schwartz理論對照表 ……………… 125
圖 次

圖2-1-1 組織文化的三個層次 ……………………………………………… 15
圖2-1-2 社會系統理論在環境文化層面的模式 …………………………… 16
圖2-1-3 Erikson心理社會理論八大發展階段間之交互影響關係圖 ……… 19
圖2-1-4 人類思維的神經邏輯層次 ………………………………………… 21
圖2-1-5 Schwartz的十類價值取向之結構關係 …………………………… 36
圖2-3-1 「價值觀」相關博碩士論文篇數統計 …………………………… 59
圖2-3-2 「價值觀」相關博碩士論文分類排行統計 ……………………… 59
圖2-3-3 「價值觀」相關研究問題之分類排行統計 ……………………… 61
圖3-1-1 Schwartz價值觀模式之測量模式圖 ……………………………… 66
圖4-1-1 臺灣地區人民價值觀取向優先順序圖 …………………………… 92
圖4-2-1 標準化驗證性因素分析測量模式徑路圖 ………………………… 95
圖4-2-2 Bollen-Stine分佈圖 ……………………………………………… 102
圖4-3-1 不同性別之平均數圖 ……………………………………………… 115
圖4-3-2 不同年齡之平均數圖 ……………………………………………… 116
圖4-3-3 不同教育程度之平均數圖 ………………………………………… 118
圖4-4-1 線性適合度散佈圖(歐基里德直線距離模式) ………………… 119
圖4-4-2 因素分析所得之十項價值取向分佈構形 ………………………… 121
圖4-4-3 多元尺度分析所得之十項價值取向分佈構形 …………………… 122
圖4-4-4 Schwartz以最小空間分析法所得之人類價值觀環狀分佈構形 123
圖4-4-5 臺灣地區人民十項價值取向之環狀構形圖 ……………………… 124

中文部份
王力行(2009)。贏在軟實力:華人企業領袖的二十堂課。台北:天下文化。
王叢桂(2005)。華人價值觀研究。華人本土心理學,633-663。台北:遠流。
李柏英(2002)。評價歷程的理論與測量:探討價值觀與情境關聯的新取向。 應用心理研究,14,79-114。
李茂興(譯)(2001)。S. P. Robbins著。組織行為(Essentials of organizational behavior)。台北:揚智。
李德治、童惠玲(2009)。多變量分析:專題及論文常用的統計方法。台北:雙葉。
吳明隆(2010)。SPSS操作與應用-問卷統計分析實務。台北:五南。
吳明隆、張毓仁(2010):結構方程模式-實務應用秘笈。台北:五南。
杜素豪(2007)。世界價值觀調查推動計畫執行報告。行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫執行成果報告(計畫編號:NSC 95-2420-H-001-005)。
杜素豪(2008)。「世界價值觀調查」資料庫簡介。人文與社會科學簡訊,10(2),107-121。
沈清松(1994)。中國人的價值觀-人文學觀點。台北:桂冠。
沈善敬(譯)(2001)。D. Beaver原著。NLP學習法:類神經語言程式之個人與企業的超級學習策略(NLP for lazy learning : superlearning strategies for business and personal development)。台北:稻田。
林清山(1986)。多向度量尺法的理論及統計方法。中國測驗學會測驗年刊,33,109-124。
黃藿(譯)(1986)。Risieri Frondizi原著。價值是什麼-價值學導論(What is value?: An introduction to axiology)。台北:聯經。
張偉豪(2011)。SEM論文寫作不求人。高雄:鼎茂。
楊國樞(1994)。傳統價值觀與現代價值觀能否同時並存。收錄於:楊國樞主編:中國人的價值觀-社會科學觀點。台北:桂冠。
楊國樞(1981)。中國人的性格與行為:形成與蛻變。中華心理學刊,23,39-57。
楊國樞(1988)。台灣民眾之性格與行為的變遷, 見中國人的蛻變。台北:桂冠。
楊國樞(2005)。華人本土心理學。台北:遠流。
楊國樞(2008)。華人本土心理學與華人本土契合性。台北:五南。
楊中芳(1992)。中國人真是具有集體主義傾向嗎?試論中國人的價值體系。 中國人的價值觀國際研討會論文集。台北:漢學研究中心。
楊崇森(1992)。中國人的價值觀國際研討會論文集。 台北:漢學研究中心。
楊浩二(譯)(1996)。S. S. Schiffman, M. L. Reynolds, &; F. W. Young 著。多元尺度法 : 理論、方法與應用( Introduction to multidimensional scaling theory, methods and applications)。台北 : 國立編譯館。
楊振富(譯)(2005)。Friedman與Wyman著。世界是平的(The world is flat: A brief history of the twenty-first century)。台北:雅言文化。
孫效智(2001)。生命教育的內涵與實施。哲學雜誌,35,4-31。


貳、英文部份
Allport, G. W., &; Vernon, P. (1930). The field of personality. Psychological Bulletin, 27, 677-730.
Allport, G. W., &; Odbert, H. S. (1936). Trait-names: A psycho-lexical study. Psychological monographs, 47(1).
Allport, G. W., Vernon, P. E., &; Lindzev, G. (1960). A study of values. Boston MA: Houghton Miffllin.
Allport, G. W. (1961). Pattern and growth in personality. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart &; Winston.
Anderson, N. H. (1968). Likableness ratings of 555 personality-trait words. Journal of personality and social psychology, 9(3), 272.
Bagozzi, R. P., &; Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 16(1), 74-94.
Bakan, D. (1966). The duality of human existence: An essay on psychology and religion. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart &; Winston.
Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an ecology of mind: collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution, and epistemology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Becker, H. (1957). Current sacred-secular theory and its development. Modern sociological theory in continuity and change, 133-185.
Bilsky, W., &; Koch, M. (2000). On the content and structure of values: Universals or methodological artifacts? In B. J. Blasius, J. Hox, E. deLeeuw &; P. Schmidt (Eds.). Social science methodology in the New Millennium. Updated and extended proceedings of the fifth international conference on logic and methodology, Oct. 3-6, 2000, Cologne [CD-ROM]. Leverkusen: Leske+Budrich.
Beaver, D. (1998). NLP for lazy learning: superlearning strategies for business and personal development. Rockport, MA: Element Books.
Bond, M. H., &; The Chinese Culture Connection. (1987). Chinese values and the search for culture-free dimensions of culture. Journal of cross-cultural psychology, 18(2), 143-164.
Braithwaite, V. A., &; Law, H. (1985). Structure of human values: Testing the adequacy of the Rokeach Value Survey. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(1), 250.
Chodorow, N. J. (1990). What is the relation between psychoanalytic feminism and the psychoanalytic psychology of women? Rhode (ed.), 114-130.

Craig, G. J. &; Baucum, D. (2002). Human development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Davison, M. L., &; Sireci, S. G. (2000). Multidimensional scaling. In H. E. A. Tinsley &; S. D. Brown (Eds.)(2000). Handbook of applied multivariate statistics and mathematical modeling. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Daniel, L. (1958). The passing of traditional society: Modernizing the Middle East. New York, NY: The Free Press.
Dilts, R. (1990). Changing belief systems with NLP. Capitola, CA: Meta.
Erikson, E. (1963). Childhood and society. New York, NY: WW Norton &; Company.
Erikson, E. (1968). Youth: Identity and crisis. New York, NY: WW Norton &; Company.
Fornell, C., &; Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 39-50.
Freud, S., &; Strachey, J. (1949). Abriß der psychoanalyse. New York, NY: WW Norton &; Company.
Getzels, J. W. (1957). Changing Values Challenge the School. School Review, 65, 92-102.
Getzels J. W., Lipham J.M. &; Campbell R. F. (1968), Educational administration as a social process: theory, research, practice. New York, NY: Harper &; Row.
Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Guttman, L. (1954). A new approach to factor analysis: the Radex. In Paul F. Lazarsfeld (Ed), Mathematical thinking in the social sciences. New York, NY: Free Press.
Gurtman, M. B. (1992). Trust, distrust, and interpersonal problems: A circumplex analysis. Journal of personality and social psychology, 62(6), 989.
Gurtman, M. B., &; Pincus, A. L. (2003). The circumplex model: Methods and research applications. Handbook of psychology, 407–428.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J. and Anderson, R. E. (2009). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Held M., Muller J., Deutsch F., Grzechnik E., &; Welzel C. (2009). Value structure and dimension: empirical evidence from the German world values survey. World Values Reasearch 2(3), 55-76.
Hills, M. D. (2002). Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's values orientation theory. Online readings in psychology and culture, 4(4), 3.
Hinz, A., Brähler, E., Schmidt, P., &; Albani, C. (2005). Investigating the circumplex structure of the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ). Journal of Individual Differences, 26(4), 185.
Hofstede, Geert H. (1980). Culture's consequences: international difference in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Hofstede, Geert H. (1991). Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. Berkshire, UK: McGrew-Hill.
Hofstede, Geert H. (2001). Culture's consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations(2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Horowitz, I. L. (1972). Three worlds of development: The theory and practice of international stratification. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Hoyle, R. H., P. (1995). Writing about structural equation models, In R. H. Hoyle(Ed) (1995). Structural equation modeling, concepts, issues, and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hu, L., &; Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55.
Ian M. &; Wendy J. (2001), Brief NLP Therapy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Inglehart, R. (1997). Modernization and Postmodernization. Cultural, Economic and Po-litical Change in 43 Societies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Inglehart, R. &; Welzel , C. (2005). Modernization, cultural change and democracy: The human development sequence. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Jackson, D. L., Gillaspy Jr, J. A., &; Purc-Stephenson, R. (2009). Reporting practices in confirmatory factor analysis: An overview and some recommendations. Psychological Methods, 14(1), 6.
Getzels, J. W., Lipham, J. M., &; Campbell, R. F. (1968). Educational administration as a social process: Theory, research, practice. New York, NY: Harper &; Row.
Nye, J. S. (2004). Soft power: The means to success in world politics. New York, NY: Public Affairs
Karsh, B., &; Cole, R. E. (1968). Industrialization and the convergence hypothesis: Some aspects of contemporary Japan. Journal of Social Issues, 24(4), 45-64.
Kerr, C., Harbison, F. H., Dunlop, J. T., &; Myers, C. A. (1960). Industrialism and industrial man. Int'l Lab. Rev., 82, 236.
Kluckhohn, C. (1951). Values and value-orientations in the theory of action. In T. Parsons &; E. A. Shils(Eds), Towards a general theory of action(pp.388-433). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kluckhohn, F. R., &; Strodtbeck, F. L. (1961). Variations in value orientations. Evanston. Chicago, IL: Row, Peterson.
Kohn, M. L., &; Schooler, C. (1983). Work and personality: An inquiry into the impact of social stratification: Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Levy, M. J. (1966). Modernization &; the structure of societies: The organizational contexts of societies (Vol. 2). NJ: Princeton University Press.
Luthans, F., Vogelgesang, G. R., &; Lester, P. B. (2006). Developing the psychological capital of resiliency. Human Resource Development Review, 5(1), 25.
McDonald, R. P., &; Ho, M. H. R. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. Psychological Methods, 7(1), 64.
Metzger, T. A. (1998). Confucian thought and the modern Chinese quest for moral autonomy. Journal of social sciences and psilosophy, 1, 197-238.
Morris, C. W. (1956). Varieties of human value. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Meyer, J. W., Boli-Bennett, J., &; Chase-Dunn, C. (1975). Convergence and divergence in development. Annual review of sociology, 1, 223-246.
Mulaik, S. A., James, L. R., Van Alstine, J., Bennett, N., Lind, S., &; Stilwell, C. D. (1989). Evaluation of goodness-of-fit indices for structural equation models. Psychological Bulletin, 105(3), 430.
Odum, H. T. (1971). Environment, power and society: New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience.
Ott, J. S. (1989). The Organizational culture perspective. Chicago, IL: Dorsey Press.
Lee, P. Y. (1996). The nature of values and valuations: theory, measurement and application. Unpublished PHD, Dissertation, University of London.
Parsons, T., &; Bales, R. F. (1955). Family, socialization and interaction process. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Patterson, J. L., &; Kelleher, P. (2005). Resilient school leaders: Strategies for turning adversity into achievement. PA: ASCD.
Redfield, R. (1955). The little community: Viewpoints for the study of a human whole. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago press.
Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York, NY: Free Press.
Frondizi, R.(1971). What is value?: an introduction to axiology. Chicago, IL: Open Court
Sagiv, L., &; Schwartz, S. H. (2000). Value priorities and subjective well-being: Direct relations and congruity effects. European journal of social psychology, 30(2), 177-198.
Schein, E. H. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Schreiber, J. B., Nora, A., Stage, F. K., Barlow, E. A., &; King, J. (2006). Reporting structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis results: A review. The Journal of Educational Research, 99(6), 323-338.
Schreiber, J. B. (2008). Core reporting practices in structural equation modeling. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 4(2), 83-97.
Schumacker, R. E., &; Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Schwartz, S. H. &; Bilsky, W. (1987). Toward a universal psychological structure of human values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 550-562.
Schwartz, B. (1990). The creation and destruction of value. American psychologist, 45(1), 7.
Schwartz, S. H. &; Bilsky, W. (1990). Toward a theory of the universal content and structure of values: extensions and cross-cultural replications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 878-891.
Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: theoretical advancesand empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology( Vol. 25, pp.1-65). New York, NY: Academic Press.
Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of humanvalues? Journal of Social Issues, 50, 19-45.
Schwartz, S. H. &; Sagiv, L. (1995). Identifying culture-specifics in the content and structure f values. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26, 92-116.
Schwartz, S. H., Melech, G., Lehmann, A., Burgess, S., Harris, M., &; Owens, V. (2001). Extending the cross-cultural validity of the theory of basic human values with a different method of measurement. Journal of cross-cultural Psychology, 32(5), 519-542.
Schwartz, S. H., &; Boehnke, K. (2004). Evaluating the structure of human values with confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of research in personality, 38(3), 230-255.
Schwartz, S. H. (2006). Basic human values: an overview. Sociologie, 42, 249-288.
Scott, J. (1988). Deconstructing equality vs. difference: On the uses of post-structuralist theory. Feminist Studies, 14, 33-50.
Scott, W. A. (1965). Values and organizations. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
Seligman, M. E. P. (2008). Positive health. Applied Psychology, 57, 3-18.
Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Building resilience. Harvard Business Review(56), 8.
Smith, M. B. (1969). Social psychology and human values. Chicago, IL: Aldine.
Spaak, H. (1969). Basic values of western culture. New York, NY: Columbia University Press
Stern, P. C., Dietz, T., &; Guagnano, G. A. (1998). A brief inventory of values. Educational and psychological measurement, 58(6), 984-1001.
Super, D. E. (1970). Manual of Work Values Inventory. Chicago, IL: Riverside.
Trommsdorff, G. (1983). Value change in Japan. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 7(4), 337-360.
Weber, Max. (1903-1917). The Methodology of the Social Sciences. Edited by Edward Shils &; Henry Finch. New York, NY: Free Press.
Weinberg, I. (1969). The problem of the convergence of industrial societies: a critical look at the state of a theory. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 11(1), 1-15.
Wegscheider-Cruse, S., &; Bryan, M. (2005). Learning to balance your life: 6 powers that restore your energy and spirit. FL: Health Communications.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top