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研究生:黃齡瑩
研究生(外文):Lin-ying Huang
論文名稱:中歐地方NGOs與公民社會發展--以斯洛伐克Prešov城市為例
論文名稱(外文):The development of local NGOs and civil society in central Europe-- A case of Prešov city of slovakia
指導教授:張家銘張家銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chia-ming Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:社會學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:社會學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:114
中文關鍵詞:斯洛伐克公民社會非政府組織全球化相對自主性社會信任
外文關鍵詞:SlovakiaCivil SocietyNGOGlobalizationRelative AutonomySocial Trust
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斯洛伐克自1989年鐵幕垮台以來,同時面臨與捷克分離獨立以及政治轉型的急迫性現實衝擊,來自國內政治尚未穩定成熟的壓力,以及國際的民主化浪潮等內外因素,都對其公民社會發展有相當大的影響。中歐公民社會和全球環境密不可分,全球化的力量與地方非政府組織的在地性相互作用,發展出今日斯洛伐克地方公民社會。
本研究從全球化與在地性的觀點出發,以斯洛伐克Prešov地方社會為研究分析的舞台,討論其地方非政府組織的運作與公民社會的發展。首先掌握全球化力量對地方認同的衝擊,及其影響當地非政府組織的發展,針對當地非政府組織內部運作進行討論,了解當地非政府組織現況與地方特色;同時,分析斯洛伐克在加入歐盟後,當地非政府組織與大環境制度的互動。另外,利用兩個來自外部的因素,分析當地公民社會對地方發展的貢獻與所扮演的社會角色和功能,一是討論當地非政府組織相對於政府的自主性,了解地方公民社會組織如何改變地方發展;二是強調當地社會信任程度,如何非政府組織發揮其角色和功能,並進而對當地草根民主實踐形成阻礙。
本文綜合了全球化、相對自主性與地方社會信任三個面向的檢視,以Prešov市為例,深入了解斯洛伐克地方非政府組織的運作,及其與公民社會發展的關係。斯洛伐克繼承過去共產所遺留下的制度深植於政府行政體系與社會文化價值觀,難以輕易改變,不論是在國內制度或是社會信任等層面,皆無法跳脫惡性循環迴圈。快速社會轉變所造成的社會失序與制度遺產,使得非政府組織在公民社會發展的力量薄弱,第三部門在斯洛伐克的處境依舊艱困茫然。
Since the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989, Slovakia faced with the urgency impact of independence from Czech and political transition. There is a large impact on the development of civil society from the unstable political pressure and the international wave of democratization. Civil society of central-Europe and the global environment are inseparable, the forces of globalization and local NGOs interactions in the development of local civil society in Slovakia today.

In this study, starting from globalization localization as the point of view, focus on the development of civil society and the operation of local NGOs in Prešov city of Slovakia. First focus on the globalization's impact of local identity, and the impacts of the internal operation of the local NGOs. Trying to find current situation and the local characteristics of NGOs. Meanwhile, analysis of Slovakia joined the EU, the interaction between local NGO and the environment system. In addition, two factors from external, analysis of civil society contribution to local development, also discuss the social roles or functions of NGOs. First, to discuss the relative autonomy of local NGO opposed to the government, to understand how the local civil society organizations to change the local development. Second, to emphasize the degree of social trust, how NGO to play its role and function, furthermore hinder the formation of local grass-roots democracy practice.

The combination of three-oriented view: globalization, the relative autonomy and social trust, focus on Prešov City as the represented case. To understand the operation of the local non-governmental organizations, and the development of civil society in Slovakia. Slovakia inherited the legacy by the communist system is deeply rooted in the government administrative system and socio-cultural values, it is difficult to change. Regardless of the level of the domestic system or social trust are unable to transcend the vicious cycle loop. Social disorder caused by rapid social change and institutional heritage, making the NGOs in the development of civil society is weak, the situation of the third sector in Slovakia is still in a difficult situation.
第一章 緒論....................................1
第一節 研究背景...................................1
第二節 研究問題意識................................4
第三章 理論回顧與文獻探討...........................8
第一節 理論回顧...................................8
一、公民社會概念的發展與意涵.........................9
二、公民社會在中歐的意義與發展......................12
三、民族國家下的公民社會...........................16

第二節 非政府組織在斯洛克..........................23
一、1989年後發展概述..............................23
二、S.O.S第三部門運動.............................26
三、OK’98動員與83號法案...........................27
四、社會角色與發展困境.............................28

第三章 研究架構與研究方法........................31
第一節 研究架構..................................31
第二節 研究方法與限制.............................35
一、 研究方法................................35
二、 研究限制................................37
第三節 研究範圍與研究對象..........................39
一、 Prešov-斯洛伐克東部多元文化歷史重鎮.........39
二、 當地非政府組織...........................43
三、 Prešov公民社會形成與發展..................49
第一節 地方社會生活之變遷..........................50
一、傳統與改變...................................50
二、追求美國夢...................................56
三、社會秩序的重建................................58
第二節 非政府組織發展與運作.........................61
一、共產時期社會組織的轉型......................63
二、社會救助與環境保護團體......................65
三、社會夥伴關係共享(LSIPs)....................69
第五章 制度環境下的困境............................72
第一節 國內制度限制...............................74
一、 中央集權與官僚化..........................74
二、 資源分配不公..............................77
二、 不健全的立法.............................79
第二節 外部因素下的自主性可能.......................81
一、 無法預期的延遲效應........................81
二、 過度依賴國際援助..........................82
三、 社會風氣尚未成熟..........................84
第六章 角色功能與草根實踐...........................88
第一節 角色實踐與公共參與...........................88
一、 喚起公民意識..............................89
二、 消除社會不平等............................90
三、 協助修法.................................90
第二節 社會信任薄弱...............................91

第七章 結論......................................95
第一節 研究發現與意義..............................95
一、 研究發現.................................95
二、 研究意義.................................97
第二節 研究建議..................................100

參考書目……………………………………………………………………………………………………101

附錄
附件一、九十八年度國科會計畫『轉型與全球化中的地方社會發展:捷克與斯洛伐克個案的社會學研究』研究架構.............108
附件二、十八年度國科會計畫『轉型與全球化中的地方社會發展:捷克與斯洛伐克個案的社會學研究』深入訪談問題...........109
附件三、斯洛伐克社會夥伴關係共享計畫LSIPs簡介........113


圖表
圖1. 公共領域的四個部門...........................10
圖2. 研究架構圖..................................34
圖3. 斯洛伐克行政自治區圖..........................39
圖4. Prešov市區Šariš啤酒廣告看板..................40

表1. 安德森民族主義的擴散式論證.....................18
表2. 1989年後斯洛伐克非政府組織發展階段..............24
表3. Prešov居民國籍(2001)........................41
表4. Prešov居民宗教信仰(2001).....................41
表5. 斯洛伐克Prešov地區NGO/NPO訪談對象說明..........45
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Latest update 1 November 2008.
斯洛伐克官方統計局:http://portal.statistics.sk/showdoc.do?docid=359
斯洛伐克內政部公共管理科: http://portal.ives.sk/registre/startoz.do
斯洛伐克社會夥伴關係共享計畫:
http://www.forumpartnerships.zsi.at/attach/slovak.pdf
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