(34.204.191.31) 您好!臺灣時間:2019/10/20 15:16
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
本論文永久網址: 
line
研究生:邱秉芬
研究生(外文):Ping-Feng Chiu
論文名稱:團隊衝突、團隊凝聚力與團隊滿意度之關聯性探討
論文名稱(外文):Exploring the Relationships among Group Conflict, Cohesion, and Satisfaction
指導教授:黃佳純黃佳純引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jie-Tsuen Huang
口試委員:黃培文陳冠浤王湧泉
口試委員(外文):Pei-Wen HuangGuan-Hong ChenYung-Chuan Wang
口試日期:2013-07-06
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄應用科技大學
系所名稱:人力資源發展系碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:團隊衝突團隊凝聚力團隊滿意度
外文關鍵詞:group conflictgroup cohesiongroup satisfaction
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
  • 點閱點閱:1178
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:86
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
團隊工作在當今的企業組織中,已是一種日益普遍的組織運作方式,然如何讓團隊運作能更有效率,對組織而言也相對具有挑戰性。其中一項挑戰就是團隊衝突。團隊衝突不但會影響成員對所屬團隊之滿意程度,且會降低團隊的凝聚力。因此,本研究主要在探討團隊衝突、團隊凝聚力及團隊滿意度之間的關係。本研究以台灣南部地區各類型產業之職場工作者為研究對象,以問卷方式進行調查,總計回收有效問卷為222份。經由描述性統計分析、信效度分析、驗證性因素分析、相關分析及迴歸分析後,本研究之實證結果如下所示:
一、關係衝突對團隊滿意度具有負向影響性。
二、程序衝突對團隊滿意度具有負向影響性。
三、關係衝突對團隊凝聚力具有負向影響性。
四、程序衝突對團隊凝聚力具有負向影響性。
五、團隊凝聚力對團隊滿意度具有正向影響性。
六、團隊凝聚力對於關係衝突與團隊滿意度間之關係具有中介效果。
七、團隊凝聚力對於程序衝突與團隊滿意度間之關係具有中介效果。

Teamwork is the norm in modern enterprises or organizations, yet the challenges of working in teams effectively are crucial. Group conflict is one of the challenges. Group conflict not only affects group satisfaction but also diminishes group cohesion. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among group conflict, group cohesion and group satisfaction. Data were collected from various organizations in Southern Taiwan containing 222 effective questionnaires. The researcher analyses those data by using descriptive statistics analysis, reliability/validity analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, correlation analysis, and regression analysis. The findings are as below.
1. Relationship conflict has a negative effect on group satisfaction.
2. Process conflict has a negative effect on group satisfaction.
3. Relationship conflict has a negative effect on group cohesion.
4. Process conflict has a negative effect on group cohesion.
5. Group cohesion has a positive influence on group satisfaction.
6. Group cohesion mediates in the link between relationship conflict and group satisfaction.
7. Group cohesion mediates in the link between process conflict and group satisfaction.

摘要 …………………………………………………………………………………i
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………………ii
謝誌 ……………………………………………………………………………… iii
目錄 ……………………………………………………………………………… iv
表目錄……………………………………………………………………………… v
圖目錄 ………………………………………………………………………………vi
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………… 1
第一節 問題背景與研究動機………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究目的……………………………………………………… 4
第三節 研究程序……………………………………………………… 5
第二章 文獻探討………………………………………………………… 7
第一節 團隊衝突……………………………………………………… 7
第二節 團隊凝聚力………………………………………………… 17
第三節 團隊滿意度………………………………………………… 27
第四節 團隊衝突、團隊凝聚力與團隊滿意度間之關係………… 32
第三章 研究架構與方法………………………………………………36
第一節 研究架構…………………………………………………… 36
第二節 研究假設…………………………………………………… 37
第三節 研究變項之操作性定義與衡量工具……………………… 38
第四節 研究對象選擇與資料收集過程…………………………… 43
第五節 資料分析方法……………………………………………… 44
第四章 資料結果分析………………………………………………… 48
第一節 樣本描述性統計分析………………………………………… 48
第二節 量表之信度與效度分析…………………………………… 53
第三節 團隊衝突、團隊凝聚力與團隊滿意度之描述性統計及
相關分析………………………………………………57
第四節 團隊衝突、團隊凝聚力與團隊滿意度之迴歸分析……… 60
第五節 團隊凝聚力對團隊衝突與團隊滿意度之中介效果分析… 63
第六節 研究假設結果彙整………………………………………… 65
第五章 結論與建議…………………………………………………… 66
第一節 研究結論……………………………………………………… 66
第二節 研究建議……………………………………………………… 69
第三節 研究限制與後續研究建議…………………………………… 72
參考文獻 中英文參考文獻……………………………………………… 74
附錄一 問卷…………………………………………………………………… 87

丁明勇、鄭毅萍 (譯) (2009)。組織行為學(原作者: S. P. McShane, M. A. V. Glinow)。 台北市:麥格羅希爾。(原著出版年:2009)
丁珮元(譯) (2006)。組織行為 (原作者: Stephen P. Robbins)。台北市: 台灣培生教育。
白慧嬰(2005)。桌球運動選手背景變項與團隊凝聚力相關之研究。台北:秀威資訊科技。
田靜婷、呂岱倚(2005)。探討團隊衝突型態在員工心理契約與創新行為關係間之干擾效果(未出版之碩士論文)。 朝陽科技大學,台中市。
朱志忠(2006)。跨部門團隊之團隊衝突的前因及影響—以校務資訊系統開發團隊為例(未出版之博士論文)。國立台灣大學,台北市。
邱淑妙(2006)。團隊人格特質、轉換型領導與團隊效能之關係探討—團隊凝聚力之中介角色(未出版之碩士論文)。國立中山大學,高雄市。
邱浩政(2008)。量化研究與分析-SPSS 中文視窗版資料分析範例解析。台北: 五南。
吳永佳(2011)。面對衝突,你要這樣做-說對話 吵好架。快樂工作人雜誌,132,94-102。
吳慧卿、鄭志富(2003)。選手知覺教練領導行為、團隊衝突、團隊凝聚力及滿意度關係之實證研究。台灣體育運動管理學報,2,124-147。
吳明隆(2006)。結構方程模式SIMPLIS的應用。台北: 五南。
吳明隆(2008)。結構方程模式SIMPLIS的應用。台北市 : 五南圖書出版股份有限公司。
林逸青(2002)。國中校長權力運作策略、衝突管理策略與學校效能之關係:微 觀政治分析(未出版之博士論文)。國立台北師範大學,台北市。
林耀南、朱志忠、林書宇(2012)。幽默風格、團體衝突與團體凝聚力之關聯性研究。創造學刊,3(1),71-92。
林萬定(2009)。派遣員工衝突類型、衝突處理方式與組織公民行為關聯性之探討(未出版之碩士論文)。國立高雄應用科技大學,高雄市。
周學雰(2008)。團隊凝聚力、自我效能、集體效能、競技倦怠與退出意圖的關係研究(未出版之碩士論文)。台北教育大學,台北市。
陳其昌(1993)。排球教練領導行為對團隊凝聚力的影響暨驗證運動情境領導理論之研究(未出版之碩士論文)。國立體育大學,桃園縣。
陳瓊茶(2005)。凝聚力與運動表現的關係探討。大專體育,78,146-148。
陳龍弘、蔡英美、陳瓊茶(2005)。家長式領導、負面情緒感受、離隊意圖和團隊滿意度之關係研究。國立體育學院論叢,15(2),205-216。
陳蓁琬、劉敏熙(2011)。承諾型人力資源管理實務、團隊凝聚力、合作組織氣候對員工 知識分享行為的影響 。第 14 屆科際整合管理研討會,183-199。
陳書榕(2013)。制定公平管理制度,避免衝突損耗企業成本。經理人月刊,101,136-137。
戚樹誠(2008)。組織行為學。台北:雙葉書廊。
戚樹誠、楊美玉、黃瓊億(2008)。團隊成員們的強勢溝通行為與團體關係衝突有關嗎? 探討團隊集體性的調節效果。組織與管理,1(2),37-60。
張守中(2008)。團隊凝聚力的變化機制與影響因素。人文及社會科學集刊,20(2),141-172。
黃囇莉(1999)。人際和諧與衝突: 本土化的理論與研究。台北市: 桂冠圖書公司。
黃勝輝(2003)。建構學習型組織提升學校衝突管理能力。教育資料與研究,50,89-95。
黃馨慧(2005)。團隊成員正面情感的組合對於團隊績效及個人人際滿意度之跨層次分析-以集體效能、凝聚力為中介變項(未出版之碩士論文)。東吳大學,台北市。
黃寶雀(2001)。團隊凝聚力對運動團隊的影響。大專體育,53,92-98。
黃寶雀、 王俊明(2005)。國小教練領導行爲對團隊氣氛及團隊滿意度的影響。國立體育學院論叢15( 2),57-68。
黃櫻美、林淑姬、林月雲(2009)。團隊多元化與團隊創新績效之關聯性研究: 以團隊外部活動與團隊凝聚力為中介歷程。中山管理評論,17(4),847-882。
溫金豐(2009)。組織理論與管理。台北市:華泰文化。
鄭伯壎、姜定宇(2006)。華人組織行為: 議題、作法及出版。台北:華泰出版社。
鄭伯壎、姜定宇、鄭弘岳(2003)。組織行為研究在台灣: 三十年回顧與展望。台北:桂冠圖書公司。
趙哲言(2006)。內部稽核群組效力與團隊凝聚力對內部稽核品質影響之研究(未出版之碩士論文)。中國文化大學,台北市。
劉得鵬(2004)。華人組織中的關係衝突與任務衝突:衝突層次與和諧性格的角色(未出版之碩士論文)。國立臺灣大學,台北市。
Amason, A. C. (1996). Distinguishing the effect of functional and dysfunctional conflict on strategic decision making: Resolving a paradox for top management team. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 123-148.
Amason, A. C., & Schweiger, D. M. (1997). The effects of conflict on strategic decision making effectiveness and organizational performance. In C. K. W. De Dreu & E. Van de Vliert(Eds.), Using conflict in organizations (pp.101-105). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Anderson, C. M., & Martin, M. M. (1995). Why employees speak to coworkers and bosses: Motives, gender, and organizational satisfaction. The Journal of Business Communication, 32(3), 249-265.
Anderson, C. M., & Martin, M. M. (1999). The relationship of argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness to cohesion, consensus, and satisfaction in small groups. Communication Reports, 12(1), 21-31.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1998). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Academy of Marketing Science, 23(4), 272-277.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderatior-mediatior variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.
Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 238-246.
Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York: Wiley.
Budge, S. (1981). Group cohesiveness reexamined. Group, 5, 10-18.
Campion, M. A., Medsker, G. J., & Higgs, A. C.(1993). Relations between work group characteristics and effectiveness: Implications for designing effective work groups. Personnel Psychology, 46, 823-847.
Carron, A. V. (1982). Cohesiveness in sport groups: Interpretations and considerations. Journal of Sport Psychology, 4 , 123-138.
Carrón, A. V, Brawley, L. R., &Widmeyer, W. N. (1998). The measurement of cohesiveness in sport groups. In J.L. Duda (Ed.), Advancements in sport and exercise psychology measurement (pp.213-226). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
Carrón, A. V., Widmeyer, W. N., & Brawley, L. R. (1985). The development of an instrument to assess cohesion in sport teams: the group environment questionnaire. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7(3), 224-266.
Carrón, A. V., Brawley, L. R., Bray S. R., Eys, M. A., Dorsch, K. D., Estabrooks, P. A., Hall, C. R., Hardy, J., Hausenblas, H., & Madison, R. (2004). Using consensus as a criterion for groupness: implications for the cohesion-group success relationship. Small Group Research, 35, 466-491.
Cartwright, D., & Zander, A. (1968). Group dynamics. New York: Harper & Row.
Casey-Campbell, M., & Martens, M. L. (2009). Sticking it all together: A critical assessment of the group cohesion--performance literature. International Journal of Management Reviews, 11(2), 223-246.
Chang, A., & Bordia, P. (2001). A multidimensional approach to the group cohesion-group performance relationship. Small Group Research, 32, 379-405.
Chin, W. W., & Todd, P. A. (1998). On the Use, Usefulness, and Ease of Use of Structural Equation Modeling in MIS Researcher: A Note of Caution. MIS Quarterly, 19(2), 237-462.
Coser, L. A. (1956). The Functions of Social Conflict. New York: The Free Press.
Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334.
CPP Inc. 2008. Workplace conflict and how businesses can harness it to thrive. Mountain View, CA.
De Cremer, D (2002). Respect and cooperation in social dilemmas: The importance of feeling included. Pers Soc Psychol Bull, 28, 1335-1341.
De Dreu, C. K. W., & Weingart, L. R. (2003). Task versus relationship conflict, team performance and team members’ satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 741-749.
De Dreu, C. K. W., Van Dierendonck, D., & Dijkstra, M. T. M.(2004). Conflict at work and individual well-being. International Journal of Conflict Management, 15(1), 6-26.
DeStephen, R. S., & Hirokawa, R. Y. (1998). Small group consensus: stability of group support of the decision, task process, and group relationships. Small Group Behavior, 19(2), 227-239.
Dion, K. L. (2000). Group cohesion: from ‘field of forces’ to multidimensional construct. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4, 7-26.
Doll, W. J., Xai, W., & Torkzadeh, G. (1994). A confirmatory factor analysis of the end-user computing satisfaction. MIS Quarterly, 18, 453-461.
Duffy, M. K., Shaw, J. D., & Stark, E. M. (2000). Performance and satisfaction in conflicted interdependent groups: when and how does self-esteem make a difference? Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 772-782.
Dyck, B., Bruning, N. S., & Driedger, L. (1996). Potential conflict, conflict stimulus, and organizational performance: An empirical test. The International Journal of Conflict Management, 7(4), 295-313.
Felstiner, W., Abel, R., & Sarat, A. (1981). The emergence and transformation of disputes: Naming, blaming and claiming. Law and Society Review, 15, 631.
Festinger, L. (1950). Informal social communication. Psychological Review, 57, 271-282.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 39-50.
Forrester, W. R., & Tashchian, A. (2006). Modeling the relationship between cohesion and performance in student work groups, International Journal of Management, 23(3), 499-464.
Forsyth, D. R.(2010). Group dynamics(5th ed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Gamero, N., Romá, V. G., & Peiró, J. M. (2008). The influence of intra-team conflict on work teams’ affective climate: A longitudinal study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81, 47-69.
Gladstein, D. L. (1984). A model of task group effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, 499-517.
Gross N., & Martin, W. E. (1952). On group cohesiveness. Am. J. Sociol, 57, 546–54
Guetzkow, H., & Gyr, J. 1954. An analysis of conflict in decision making groups. Human Relations, 7, 367-381.
Hellriegel, D., Slocum, J. W., & Woodman, R. W. (1989). Organizational Behavior . West Publishing Company.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis(6th ed). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Hare, A.P. (1980). Consensus versus majority vote: a laboratory experiment. Small Group Behavior, 11(2), 131-143.
Janis, I. L. (1982). Groupthink: Psychological studies of policy decisions and fiascos. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Janssen, O., De Vliert, E. V., & Veenstra, C. (1999). How task and person conflict shape the role of positive interdependence in management teams. Journal of Management, 25(2), 117-142.
Jehn, K. A. (1995). A multimethod examination of the benefits and detriments of intragroup conflict. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 256-282.
Jehn, K. A. (1997). A qualitative analysis of conflict types and dimensions in organizational groups. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 530-557.
Jehn, K. A., Chadwick, C., & Thatcer, S. (1997). To agree or not to agree: the effects of value congruence, individual demographic dissimilarity, and conflict on workgroup outcomes. International Journal of Conflict Management, 8(4), 287-306.
Jehn, K. A., & Chatman, J. A. (2000). The influence of proportional and perceptual conflict composition on team performance. International Journal of Conflict Management, 11, 56-73.
Jehn, K. A., & Maanix, E. (2001). The dynamic nature o conflict: A longitudinal study of intragroup conflict and group performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44, 238-251.
Jehn, K., Greer, L., & Levine, S., & Szulanski, G. (2008). The effects of conflict types, dimensions and emergent states on group outcomes. Group Decis Negot, 17, 465-495.
Knoll, K. E. (2000). Communication and cohesiveness in global virtual teams. The University of Texas at Austin, 22-25.
Kolb, D. M., & Putnam, L. L. (1992). The multiple faces of conflict in organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13, 311-324.
Kruglanski, A.W., & Higgins, E.T.(2003). Social Psychology-A General Reader. New York: Psychology Press.
MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1(2), 130-149.
McGrath, J. E. (1982). Dilemmatics: the study of choices and dilemmas, in Judgment Calls in Research, J. E. McGrath, J. Martin, & R. A. Kulke, eds. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 69-102.
McGrath, J. E. (1984). Groups:Interaction and performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
McGrath, J. E., & Kravitz, D. A. (1982). Group research. Annual Review of Psychology, 33, 195-230.
Marston, P. J., & Hecht, M. (1988). Group satisfaction, in R. S. Cathcart & L. A. Samovar(eds), Small Group Communication: A reader (Wm. C. Brown, Dubuque, Iowa), 236-246.
Mather, L., & Yngvesson, B. (1980-1981). Language, audience and the transformation of disputes. Law and Society Review, 15, 755.
Medina, F.J., Munduate, L., Dorado, M. A., Martínez, I., & Guerra, J. M.(2005). Types of intragroup conflict and affective reactions. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20, 219-230.
Mikalachi, A. (1969). Group cohesion reconsidered. London, Canada: University of Western Ontario School of Business Administration.
Mullen, B., & Copper, C. (1994). The relationship between group cohesiveness and performance: An integration. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 210-227.
Nibler, R., & Harris, K. L. (2003). The effects of culture and cohesiveness on intragroup conflict and effectiveness. The Journal of social psychology, 143(5), 613-631.
Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Park, H. S., & Park, M. (2008). Multilevel effects of conflict management preferences on satisfaction with group processes. International Journal of Conflict Management, 19(1), 57-71.
Passos, A. M., & Caetano, A. (2005). Exploring the effects of intragroup conflict and past performance feedback on team effectiveness. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20, 231-244.
Pearson, A. W., Ensley, M. D., & Amason, A. C. (2002). An assessment and refinement of Jehn’s intragroup conflict scale. The International Journal of Conflict Management, 13(2), 110-126.
Pelled, L. H. (1996). Relational demography and perceptions of group conflict and performance: A field investigation. The International Journal of Conflict Management, 7(3), 230-246.
Peterson, R. S. (1997). A directive leadership style in group decision making can be both virtue and vice: Evidence from elite and experimental groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1107-1121.
Peterson, R. S., & Behfar, K. J. (2003). The dynamic relationship between performance feedback, trust, and conflict in groups: A longitudinal study. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 92, 102-112.
Poitras, J. (2010). Meta-analysis of the impact of the research setting on conflict studies. International Journal of Conflict Management, 23(2), 116-132.
Pondy, L. R. (1967). Organizational conflict: concepts and models. Administrative Science Quarterly, 12, 296-320.
Priem, R. L., & Price, K. H. (1990). Process and outcome expectations for the dialectical inquiry, devil’s advocacy, and consensus techniques of strategic decision making. Group and Organization Studies, 16, 206-225.
Priem, R. L., Harrison, D. A., & Muir, N. K. (1995). Structured conflict and consensus outcomes in group decision making. Journal of Management, 21, 691-710.
Raines-Eudy, R. (2000). Using structural equation modeling to test for differential reliability and validity: An empirical demonstration. Structural Equation Modeling, 7, 124-141.
Reinig, B. A.(2003). Toward an understanding of satisfaction with the process and outcomes of teamwork. Journal of Management Information Systems. 19, 65-83.
Reinig, B. A., Horowitz, I., & Whittenburg G. E. (2011). A longitudinal analysis of satisfaction with group work. Group Decis Negot, 20, 215-237.
Robbins, S. P. (1996). Organizational Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International Inc.
Rozell, J. E., & Scroggins, W. A. (2010). How much is too much? The role of emotional intelligence in self-managed work team satisfaction and group processes. Team Performance Management. 16, 33-49.
Schwenk, C. R. (1999). Conflict in organizational decision making: An exploratory study of its effects in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations. Management Science, 36, 436-448.
Shields, D. L. L., Gardner, D. E., Bredemeier, B. J. L., & Bostro, A. (1997). The relationship between leadership behaviors and group cohesion in team sport. The Journal of Psychology,131(2), 196-210.
Sikes, B., Gubro, R. D., & Shonesy, L. (2010). Conflict in work teams. Proceedings of the Academy of Organizational Culture, Communications, and Conflict, 15(1), 15-19.
Simon, B., & Stürmer, S. (2003). Respect for group members: Intragroup determinants of collective identification and groupserving behavior. Pers Soc Psychol Bull, 29, 183–193.
Simons, T., & Peterson, R. (2000). Task conflict and relationship conflict in top management teams: The pivotal role of intragroup trust. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 102-111.
Simons, T., & Whitener, E. (1998). Intra-group trust scale: reliability and validity. Working Paper, Cornell University.
Spink, K. S. (1990). Group cohesion and collective efficacy of volleyball teams. Journal of Sport & Exercise sychology, 12, 301-311.
Stark, E. M., & Bierly III, P. E. (2009). An analysis of predictors of team satisfaction in product development teams with differing levels of virtualness. R&D Management, 39(5), 461-472.
Steiner, I. D. (1972). Group processes and productivity. New York: Academic Press.
Swan, W. B., Jr.(1983). Self-verification: Bringing social reality into harmony with the self. In J. Suls & A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Social Psychological Perspectives on the self, 2, 33-66. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Swan, W. B., Jr.(1987). Identify negotiation: Where two roads meet. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1038-1051.
Terry, P. C., Keohane, L., & Lane, H. J. (1996). Development and validation of a shortened version of the Profile of Mood States suitable for use with young athletes. Journal of Sports Science, 14, 49.
Thomas, K. W. (1976). Conflict and conflict management. In M. Dunette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Chicago: Rand-McNally.
Tjosvold, D. (1991). The Conflict-Positive Organization. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Tuckman, B. W. (1965). Development Sequence in Small Groups. Psychological Bulletin, 63 (6), 384-399.
Tuckman, B. W., & Jensen, M. A. C. (1977). Stages of small-group development revisited. Group & Organization Studies, 2(4), 419-427.
Wall, V., & Nolan, L. (1986). Perceptions of inequity, satisfaction, and conflict in task oriented groups. Human Relations, 39, 1033-1052.
Weinberg, S. B. (1979). Measurement of communication aspects of group cohesion. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 7(1), 55-60.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔