跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.215.79.68) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/07/04 05:11
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:王含羽
研究生(外文):Han-yu Wang
論文名稱:牛樟芝-中草藥醱酵產物對第二型登革病毒感染之保護效果評估
論文名稱(外文):The protective effect of Chinese herbs with Antrodia cinnamomea fermented product on dengue virus type II infection
指導教授:吳彰哲
指導教授(外文):Chang-Jer Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:65
中文關鍵詞:登革病毒牛樟芝中草藥
外文關鍵詞:dengue virusAntrodia cinnamomeaChinese herbs
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:14
  • 點閱點閱:713
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:107
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
登革病毒 (dengue virus, DENV) 主要藉由病媒蚊傳播感染至人體內,其感染後可能會引起登革熱 (dengue fever, DF),或是更嚴重的疾病如:登革出血熱/登革休克症候群 (dengue hemorrhagic fever/ dengue shock syndrome, DHF/DSS)。然而免疫系統較差與第二次感染登革病毒的人其可能更容易造成登革出血熱。本實驗以7種中草藥對登革病毒的影響進行探討,結果發現中草藥51與牛樟芝共同發酵物 (AC-CH51) 相較於單獨牛樟芝發酵物 (AC) 可減少病毒斑之形成,並且降低由DENV2誘導的細胞死亡。AC-CH51以DENV2感染前處理細胞可提高抗病毒的效果,在此顯示AC-CH51的抗病毒的作用,可能一部份可與細胞相互作用以影響DENV2吸附於細胞上。進一步以DENV2感染動物模式證實於感染前3天餵食AC-CH51可降低血球比容、減緩血小板低下與腸胃道出血情形,並且可提高感染小鼠之存活率。此外,在免疫不全的小鼠 (neonatal mice) 中發現AC-CH51可增強前發炎與抗病毒細胞激素iNOS、IL-1β、IFN-β之表現,也可降低由LPS誘導RAW264.7之一氧化氮產量。於我們目前的研究顯示,AC-CH51可能有助於增強抗登革病毒感染的臨床結果。
Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may give rise to dengue fever (DF) or severe illness dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). People with weakened immune systems or those with a second or subsequent dengue infection are believed to be at greater risk for developing dengue hemorrhagic fever. Herein, 6 kinds of Chinese herbs (CH) were chosen, and their effects on the anti-dengue virus were investigated. We found that the co-fermentation of the CH51 with Antrodia cinnamomea (AC-CH51) showed better reduction of plaque formation as well as an decrease in the DENV2-induced cell death, compared to the fermentation of the Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) alone. Interestingly, their efficiency was significantly increased by pre-treating cells. This suggests that the anti-viral effect by AC-CH51, in part, by the interference of virus adsorption. We further demonstrated that AC-CH51 attenuates hematocrit, thrombocytopenia and gastrointestinal bleeding, and improves survival rate in neonatal mice after virus infection. Moreover, this fermentation enhances pro-inflammation and anti-viral cytokines (iNOS, IL-1β, IFN-β) expression in immunodeficient hosts (neonatal mice), whereas reduces LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7. Notice on issuing of contravention indicates that AC-CH51 may have an immunomodulatory effect against virus infection. Consequently, given our present findings, we propose that the AC-CH51 may contribute to the enhancement of clinical outcomes against dengue viral infection.
目錄 I
表目錄 IV
圖目錄 V
中文摘要 VI
Abstract VII
第一章 緒論 1
壹、登革病毒 (Dengue virus) 1
一、登革病毒之流行病學 1
二、登革病毒之簡介 1
三、登革病毒之生活史 3
四、登革病毒感染之疾病病徵 3
1. 登革熱 3
2. 登革出血熱/登革休克症候群 4
五、登革病毒之預防與治療 4
貳、中草藥 (Chinese herbs) 5
一、中草藥的研究與發展現況 5
二、中草藥之功效 5
參、牛樟芝 (Antrodia cinnamomea) 6
一、牛樟芝介紹 6
1. 牛樟芝的命名 7
2. 牛樟芝之分類學 7
3. 牛樟芝的型態與生長環境 7
二、牛樟芝生理活性成份 8
1. 多醣體 (Polysaccharides) 8
2. 三萜類化合物 (Triterpenoids) 8
三、牛樟芝之功效 8
1. 抗氧化 9
2. 抗發炎 9
3. 抗癌 9
4. 抗菌、抗病毒 9
5. 保護肝臟 10
6. 免疫調節 10
7. 調節血糖、血脂 10
肆、實驗目的 11
第二章 實驗材料與方法 12
壹、實驗材料 12
貳、儀器設備及分析軟體 16
參、實驗方法 16
一、牛樟芝-中草藥發酵產物一般成分分析 16
1. 水分含量測定 16
2. 灰份含量測定 16
3. 粗蛋白含量測定 16
4. 總醣含量測定 17
5. 硫酸根含量 17
二、細胞實驗 17
1. 細胞培養 17
2. 登革病毒產生方式 18
3. 登革病毒效價測定 18
4. 細胞毒性試驗 (MTS assay) 19
5. 牛樟芝-中草藥發酵物對於登革病毒感染之影響 19
三、動物實驗 23
1. 腸胃道出血觀察 23
2. 組織中病毒之病毒效價測定 23
3.偵測組織中病毒蛋白及細胞激素RNA表現量 24
4. 偵測組織中病毒蛋白質表現量 25
5. 組織病理切片 26
6. 血液分析 27
四、統計分析 27
第三章 結果 28
壹、七種中草藥萃取物對於抗登革病毒感染之in vitro試驗 28
一、單獨牛樟芝發酵物及中草藥對於BHK-21之細胞毒性試驗 28
二、牛樟芝-中草藥發酵物對於BHK-21之細胞毒性試驗 28
三、單獨牛樟芝發酵物及中草藥對於抗第二型登革病毒感染之能力 28
四、牛樟芝-中草藥發酵物對於抗第二型登革病毒感染之能力 28
五、抑制病毒斑生成 29
六、降低胞內登革病毒非結構性蛋白NS3表現 29
七、降低胞內病毒抗原之表現 29
貳、牛樟芝發酵物與牛樟芝-中草藥發酵物之成分分析 30
參、牛樟芝-中草藥發酵物對於登革病毒感染乳鼠之影響 30
一、感染前3天餵食牛樟芝-中草藥發酵物之感染乳鼠保護效果評估 30
二、登革臨床症狀之觀察 30
三、感染前3天餵食牛樟芝-中草藥發酵物之乳鼠各組織NS3表現 31
四、感染前3天餵食牛樟芝-中草藥發酵物之乳鼠組織中病毒效價 31
五、感染乳鼠之病理切片 31
六、牛樟芝-中草藥發酵物影響感染乳鼠之leukocytes 31
七、牛樟芝-中草藥發酵物影響發炎相關細胞激素之表現 32
八、牛樟芝-中草藥發酵物對於以LPS誘導一氧化氮產量之影響 32
第四章 討論 33
壹、牛樟芝-中草藥發酵物對於DENV2不同感染階段之活性 33
貳、牛樟芝-中草藥發酵物對於抗病毒之機制探討 34
參、第二型登革病毒感染C3H/HeN乳鼠模式之探討 34
肆、感染前3天餵食牛樟芝-中草藥發酵物對第二型登革病毒感染C3H/HeN乳鼠之保護效果評估 35
第五章 結論 38
第六章 參考文獻 39
第七章 圖表 47



上海第二醫學院附三院氣管炎組。1972。合成魚腥草素治療慢性氣管炎對免疫實驗觀察。醫藥工程 8:9。
水野卓、川合正允。1996。菇類的化學-生化學。國立編譯館。台北。台灣。
邱雅凰。2007。海藻萃取物抑制日本腦炎病毒感染及免疫功能調節之研究。國立台灣海洋大學食品科學系碩士學位論文。基隆。台灣。
李松初、謝杏冰、鄧錦惠。1981。新魚腥草素對孢子絲菌病的臨床療效及體外抗真菌試驗報告。廣東醫學。2:22。
施嘉琳。2003。中草藥發酵產物之功能性評估。台南科技大學生物科技研究所。台南。台灣。
梁雅婷。2002。枸杞之抗氧化與抗致突變性質及多糖組成分析。國立中興大學食品科學研究所碩士論文。台中。台灣。
陳啟楨。2003。台灣的國寶樟芝。鄉間小路(8)22-23。
黃冠華。2012。。國立台灣海洋大學食品科學系碩士學位論文。基隆。台灣。
黃鈴娟。2000。樟芝與姬松菇之抗氧化物質及多醣組成分析。碩士論文。國立中興大學食品科學系。台中。台灣。
黃松根、何政坤、吳國伍、沈勇強、劉文玉。1996。牛樟天然林組成與結構調查。台灣林業科學。11:349-357。
陸平成、許益民、王永珍、劉勁松、周宗安、顧志香、王元倫、房德興。1991。板藍根多醣對小鼠的免疫調節作用。中藥藥理與臨床。2:24-25。
董佑伶。2010。。國立台灣海洋大學食品科學系碩士學位論文。基隆。台灣。
楊心玲。2001。樟芝對人體臍帶血管內皮細胞之影響及作用之探討。行政院國家科學委員會九十年度保健食品研究開發計畫。
黎雪如、吳慰萱、周婭、沈水。1990。枸杞多糖對小鼠腹腔巨噬細胞C3b 受體和Fc 受體的影響。中華微生物學和免疫學雜誌。10:27。
謝曉惠。2004。中草藥發酵產物對抑制腫瘤細胞之功能性評估。台南科技大學。生物科技所。台南。台灣。
謝明村編。1999。方劑學。國立中國醫藥研究所。台北。台灣。
顏貴榮。2002。樟芝對STZ誘發高血糖鼠血糖調節與抗氧化之影響。私立天主教輔仁大學碩士論文。台北。台灣。
顏正華主編。2002。中藥學。知音出版社。台北。台灣。
衛生署。2012。疾病管制局全球資訊網登革熱專區。行政院衛生署。台北。台灣。
Akaike T, Maeda H (2000) Nitric oxide and virus infection. Immunology 101: 300-308.
AOAC. (1997) Offical Methods of Analysis. 16th edition Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC, USA.
Avila-Aguero ML, Avila-Aguero CR, Um SL, Soriano-Fallas A, Canas-Coto A, et al. (2004) Systemic host inflammatory and coagulation response in the Dengue virus primo-infection. Cytokine 27: 173-179.
Benarroch D, Selisko B, Locatelli GA, Maga G, Romette JL, et al. (2004) The RNA helicase, nucleotide 5'-triphosphatase, and RNA 5'-triphosphatase activities of Dengue virus protein NS3 are Mg2+-dependent and require a functional Walker B motif in the helicase catalytic core. Virology. 2004/10/07 ed. pp. 208-218.
Bonilla FA, Oettgen HC (2010) Adaptive immunity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 125: S33-40.
Chang CJ, Luh HW, Wang SH, Lin HJ, Lee SC, et al. (2001) The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) interacts with dengue virus core protein. DNA Cell Biol 20: 569-577.
Chang TT, Chou WN (1995) Antrodia-Cinnamomea Sp-Nov on Cinnamomum-Kanehirai in Taiwan. Mycological Research 99: 756-758.
Chang TT, Chou WN (2004) Antrodia cinnamomea reconsidered and A-salmonea sp nov on Cunninghamia konishii in Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 45: 347-352.
Chen CH, Yang SW, Shen YC (1995) New steroid acids from Antrodia cinnamomea, a fungal parasite of Cinnamomum micranthum. J Nat Prod 58: 1655-1661.
Chen K, Plumb GW, Bennett RN, Bao Y (2005) Antioxidant activities of extracts from five anti-viral medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 96: 201-205.
Chen LC, Lei HY, Liu CC, Shiesh SC, Chen SH, et al. (2006) Correlation of serum levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor with disease severity and clinical outcome in dengue patients. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74: 142-147.
Chen ST, Lin YL, Huang MT, Wu MF, Cheng SC, et al. (2008) CLEC5A is critical for dengue-virus-induced lethal disease. Nature 453: 672-676.
Chen WJ, Chen SL, Chien LJ, Chen CC, King CC, et al. (1996) Silent transmission of the dengue virus in southern Taiwan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55: 12-16.
Chen X, Wang Z, Yang Z, Wang J, Xu Y, et al. (2011) Houttuynia cordata blocks HSV infection through inhibition of NF-kappaB activation. Antiviral Res 92: 341-345.
Cherng IH, Chiang HC, Cheng MC, Wang Y (1995) Three new Triterpenoids from Antrodia-Cinnamomea. J Nat Prod. 58: 365-371.
Cherng IH, Wu DP, Chiang HC (1996) Triterpenoids from Antrodia cinnamomea. Phytochemistry 41: 263-267.
Chiang HC, Wu DP, Cherng IW, Ueng CH (1995) A Sesquiterpene Lactone, Phenyl and Biphenyl Compounds from Antrodia-Cinnamomea. Phytochemistry 39: 613-616.
Chua MN, Molanida R, de Guzman M, Laberiza F (1993) Prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time as a predictor of bleeding in patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 24 Suppl 1: 141-143.
Clyde K, Kyle JL, Harris E (2006) Recent advances in deciphering viral and host determinants of dengue virus replication and pathogenesis. J Virol 80: 11418-11431.
Coller BA, Barrett AD, Thomas SJ (2011) The development of Dengue vaccines. Introduction. Vaccine 29: 7219-7220.
Cos P, Maes L, Vanden Berghe D, Hermans N, Pieters L, et al. (2004) Plant substances as anti-HIV agents selected according to their putative mechanism of action. J Nat Prod 67: 284-293.
Da Fonseca BA, Fonseca SN (2002) Dengue virus infections. Curr Opin Pediatr 14: 67-71.
Damonte, E.B., Matulewicz, M.C., and Cerezo, A.S. (2004). Sulfated seaweed polysaccharides as antiviral agents. Curr Med Chem. 11, 2399-2419.
Dodgson KS (1961) Determination of inorganic sulphate in studies on the enzymic and non-enzymic hydrolysis of carbohydrate and other sulphate esters. Biochem J 78: 312-319.
Drasar P, Moravcova J (2004) Recent advances in analysis of Chinese medical plants and traditional medicines. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 812: 3-21.
Edelman R (2007) Dengue vaccines approach the finish line. Clin Infect Dis 45 Suppl 1: S56-60.
Egloff MP, Benarroch D, Selisko B, Romette JL, Canard B (2002) An RNA cap (nucleoside-2'-O-)-methyltransferase in the flavivirus RNA polymerase NS5: Crystal structure and functional characterization. EMBO J 21: 2757-2768.
Eo SK, Kim YS, Lee CK, Han SS (1999) Antiviral activities of various water and methanol soluble substances isolated from Ganoderma lucidum. J Ethnopharmacol 68: 129-136.
Falgout B, Chanock R, Lai CJ (1989) Proper processing of dengue virus nonstructural glycoprotein NS1 requires the N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence and the downstream nonstructural protein NS2a. J Virol 63: 1852-1860.
Falgout B, Pethel M, Zhang YM, Lai CJ (1991) Both nonstructural proteins NS2B and NS3 are required for the proteolytic processing of dengue virus nonstructural proteins. J Virol 65: 2467-2475.
Fesq H, Bacher M, Nain M, Gemsa D (1994) Programmed cell death (apoptosis) in human monocytes infected by influenza A virus. Immunobiology 190: 175-182.
Gubler DJ (1998) Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Clin Microbiol Rev 11: 480-496.
Guha-Sapir D, Schimmer B (2005) Dengue fever: New paradigms for a changing epidemiology. Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2: 1.
Halstead SB (1982) WHO fights dengue haemorrhagic fever. WHO Chron 36: 65-67.
Halstead SB (1988) Pathogenesis of dengue: Challenges to molecular biology. Science 239: 476-481.
Halstead SB (2002) Dengue hemorrhagic fever: Two infections and antibody dependent enhancement, a brief history and personal memoir. Rev Cubana Med Trop 54: 171-179.
Halstead SB, O'Rourke EJ, Allison AC (1977) Dengue viruses and mononuclear phagocytes. II. Identity of blood and tissue leukocytes supporting in vitro infection. J Exp Med 146: 218-229.
Halstead SB, Simasthien P (1970) Observations related to the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever. II. Antigenic and biologic properties of dengue viruses and their association with disease response in the host. Yale J Biol Med 42: 276-292.
Hathirat P, Isarangkura P, Srichaikul T, Suvatte V, Mitrakul C (1993) Abnormal hemostasis in dengue hemorrhagic fever. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 24 Suppl 1: 80-85.
Hayashi K, Kamiya M, Hayashi T (1995) Virucidal effects of the steam distillate from Houttuynia cordata and its components on HSV-1, influenza virus, and HIV. Planta Med 61: 237-241.
Henchal EA, Putnak JR (1990) The dengue viruses. Clin Microbiol Rev 3: 376-396.
Hofmann J, Pletz MW, Liebert UG (1999) Rubella virus-induced cytopathic effect in vitro is caused by apoptosis. J Gen Virol 80: 1657-1664.
Hseu YC, Chen SC, Chen HC, Liao JW, Yang HL (2008) Antrodia camphorata inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Food Chem Toxicol 46: 2680-2688.
Hseu YC, Wu FY, Wu JJ, Chen JY, Chang WH, et al. (2005) Anti-inflammatory potential of Antrodia Camphorata through inhibition of iNOS, COX-2 and cytokines via the NF-kappaB pathway. Int Immunopharmacol 5: 1914-1925.
Hseu YC, Yang HL, Lai YC, Lin JG, Chen GW, et al. (2004) Induction of apoptosis by Antrodia camphorata in human premyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. Nutr Cancer 48: 189-197.
Hsieh YC, Rao YK, Wu CC, Huang CY, Geethangili M, et al. (2010) Methyl antcinate A from Antrodia camphorata induces apoptosis in human liver cancer cells through oxidant-mediated cofilin- and Bax-triggered mitochondrial pathway. Chem Res Toxicol 23: 1256-1267.
Hsu YL, Kuo PL, Cho CY, Ni WC, Tzeng TF, et al. (2007) Antrodia cinnamomea fruiting bodies extract suppresses the invasive potential of human liver cancer cell line PLC/PRF/5 through inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB pathway. Food Chem Toxicol 45: 1249-1257.
Huang JH, Liao TL, Chang SF, Su CL, Chien LJ, et al. (2007) Laboratory-based dengue surveillance in Taiwan, 2005: a molecular epidemiologic study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 903-909.
Huang LC, Huang, S.J., Chen, C.C., Mau, J.L. (1999) Antioxidant properties of Antrodia camphorata. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, Sydney, Australia, pp: 275-283.
Iwasaki A, Medzhitov R (2004) Toll-like receptor control of the adaptive immune responses. Nat Immunol 5: 987-995.
Juffrie M, van Der Meer GM, Hack CE, Haasnoot K, Sutaryo, et al. (2000) Inflammatory mediators in dengue virus infection in children: Interleukin-8 and its relationship to neutrophil degranulation. Infect Immun 68: 702-707.
Kao CL, King CC, Chao DY, Wu HL, Chang GJ (2005) Laboratory diagnosis of dengue virus infection: Current and future perspectives in clinical diagnosis and public health. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 38: 5-16.
Kittigul L, Pitakarnjanakul P, Sujirarat D, Siripanichgon K (2007) The differences of clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in children and adults with dengue virus infection. J Clin Virol 39: 76-81.
Konishi E, Kosugi S, Imoto J (2006) Dengue tetravalent DNA vaccine inducing neutralizing antibody and anamnestic responses to four serotypes in mice. Vaccine 24: 2200-2207.
Kuhn RJ, Zhang W, Rossmann MG, Pletnev SV, Corver J, et al. (2002) Structure of dengue virus: Implications for flavivirus organization, maturation, and fusion. Cell 108: 717-725.
Lee IH, Huang RL, Chen CT, Chen HC, Hsu WC, et al. (2002) Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides exhibit anti-hepatitis B virus effects. FEMS Microbiol Lett 209: 63-67.
Lee IK, Liu JW, Yang KD (2005) Clinical characteristics and risk factors for concurrent bacteremia in adults with dengue hemorrhagic fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 221-226.
Litman GW, Cannon JP, Dishaw LJ (2005) Reconstructing immune phylogeny: New perspectives. Nat Rev Immunol 5: 866-879.
Liu DZ, Liang HJ, Chen CH, Su CH, Lee TH, et al. (2007) Comparative anti-inflammatory characterization of wild fruiting body, liquid-state fermentation, and solid-state culture of Taiwanofungus camphoratus in microglia and the mechanism of its action. J Ethnopharmacol 113: 45-53.
Liu KJ, Leu SJ, Su CH, Chiang BL, Chen YL, et al. (2010) Administration of polysaccharides from Antrodia camphorata modulates dendritic cell function and alleviates allergen-induced T helper type 2 responses in a mouse model of asthma. Immunology 129: 351-362.
Lu MC, Hwang SL, Chang FR, Chen YH, Chang TT, et al. (2009) Immunostimulatory effect of Antrodia camphorata extract on functional maturation of dendritic cells. Food Chemistry 113: 1049-1057.
Medzhitov R, Janeway CA, Jr. (1997) Innate immunity: The virtues of a nonclonal system of recognition. Cell 91: 295-298.
Mizuno T, Kinoshita T, Zhuang C, Ito H, Mayuzumi Y (1995) Antitumor-active heteroglycans from niohshimeji mushroom, Tricholoma giganteum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 59: 568-571.
Mukhopadhyay S, Kuhn RJ, Rossmann MG (2005) A structural perspective of the flavivirus life cycle. Nat Rev Microbiol 3: 13-22.
Murphy EA, Davis JM, Brown AS, Carmichael MD, Ghaffar A, Mayer EP (2012) Effects of oat β-glucan on the macrophage cytokine response to herpes simplex virus 1 infection in vitro. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 32:362-367
Noisakran S, Perng GC (2008) Alternate hypothesis on the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)/dengue shock syndrome (DSS) in dengue virus infection. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 233: 401-408.
Okanurak K, Sornmani S, Indaratna K (1997) The cost of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 28: 711-717.
Peng CC, Chen KC, Peng RY, Chyau CC, Su CH, et al. (2007) Antrodia camphorata extract induces replicative senescence in superficial TCC, and inhibits the absolute migration capability in invasive bladder carcinoma cells. J Ethnopharmacol 109: 93-103.
Phuong do T, Ma CM, Hattori M, Jin JS (2009) Inhibitory effects of antrodins A-E from Antrodia cinnamomea and their metabolites on hepatitis C virus protease. Phytother Res 23: 582-584.
Preugschat F, Strauss JH (1991) Processing of nonstructural proteins NS4A and NS4B of dengue 2 virus in vitro and in vivo. Virology 185: 689-697.
Randolph VB, Winkler G, Stollar V (1990) Acidotropic amines inhibit proteolytic processing of flavivirus prM protein. Virology 174: 450-458.
Rothman AL (2004) Dengue: Defining protective versus pathologic immunity. J Clin Invest 113: 946-951.
Schlesinger JJ, Brandriss MW, Walsh EE (1987) Protection of mice against dengue 2 virus encephalitis by immunization with the dengue 2 virus non-structural glycoprotein NS1. J Gen Virol 68: 853-857.
Shen YC, Yang SW, Lin CS, Chen CH, Kuo YH, et al. (1997) Zhankuic acid F: A new metabolite from a formosan fungus Antrodia cinnamomea. Planta Medica 63: 86-88.
Shiao MS (2003) Natural products of the medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum: Occurrence, biological activities, and pharmacological functions. Chem Rec 3: 172-180.
Song TY, Yen GC (2002) Antioxidant properties of Antrodia camphorata in submerged culture. J Agric Food Chem 50: 3322-3327.
Song TY, Yen GC (2003) Protective effects of fermented filtrate from Antrodia camphorata in submerged culture against CCl4-induced hepatic toxicity in rats. J Agric Food Chem 51: 1571-1577.
Talarico LB, Damonte EB (2007) Interference in dengue virus adsorption and uncoating by carrageenans. Virology 363: 473-485.
Wang HB, Zheng QY (1997) Effects of Phytolacca acinosa polysaccharides I with different schedules on its antitumor efficiency in tumor bearing mice and production of IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, TNF, CSF activity in normal mice. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 19: 197-213.
Wang WK, Chao DY, Kao CL, Wu HC, Liu YC, et al. (2003) High levels of plasma dengue viral load during defervescence in patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever: Implications for pathogenesis. Virology 305: 330-338.
Wasserman RL, Sorensen RU (1999) Evaluating children with respiratory tract infections: The role of immunization with bacterial polysaccharide vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J 18: 157-163.
Winkler G, Maxwell SE, Ruemmler C, Stollar V (1989) Newly synthesized dengue-2 virus nonstructural protein NS1 is a soluble protein but becomes partially hydrophobic and membrane-associated after dimerization. Virology 171: 302-305.
Wu SH, Ryvarden, L. and Chang, T. T. (1997) Antrodia camphorate (“Niu-Chang-Chih”), new combination of a medicinal fungus in Taiwan Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 38: 273-275.
Wu SH, Liang HC (2005) Antimicrobial activity of extract from Antrodia camphorata cultured on pearl barley by solid-state fermentation. Taiwanese Journal of the Agricultural Chemistry and Food Science 43: 295-303.
Wu SH, Yu ZH, Dai YC, Chen CT, Su CH, et al. (2004) Taiwanofungus, a polypore new genus. Fungal Seience 19: 109-116.
Yu IM, Zhang W, Holdaway HA, Li L, Kostyuchenko VA, et al. (2008) Structure of the immature dengue virus at low pH primes proteolytic maturation. Science 319: 1834-1837.
Zang M, Su CH (1990) Ganoderma camphoratum, a new taxon in genus Ganoderma from Taiwan. China Acta Bot Yunnanica 12: 395-396.
Zellweger RM, Prestwood TR, Shresta S (2010) Enhanced infection of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in a mouse model of antibody-induced severe dengue disease. Cell Host Microbe 7: 128-139.
Zhang L, Mohan PM, Padmanabhan R (1992) Processing and localization of Dengue virus type 2 polyprotein precursor NS3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5. J Virol 66: 7549-7554.
Zhang W, Chipman PR, Corver J, Johnson PR, Zhang Y, et al. (2003) Visualization of membrane protein domains by cryo-electron microscopy of dengue virus. Nat Struct Biol 10: 907-912.
Zhang W, Singam R, Hellermann G, Kong X, Juan HS, et al. (2004) Attenuation of dengue virus infection by adeno-associated virus-mediated siRNA delivery. Genet Vaccines Ther 2: 8.
Zhang ZS, Yan YS, Weng YW, Huang HL, Li SQ, et al. (2007) High-level expression of recombinant dengue virus type 2 envelope domain III protein and induction of neutralizing antibodies in BALB/C mice. J Virol Methods 143: 125-131.
Zhao J, Kim KD, Yang X, Auh S, Fu YX, et al. (2008) Hyper innate responses in neonates lead to increased morbidity and mortality after infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105: 7528-7533.
Zhao, S.S., and Leung, K.S.Y. (2010). Quality evaluation of mycelial Antrodia camphorata using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detector and mass spectrometry (DAD-MS). Chinese Medicine 5, 4.

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 20. 鄧振源,曾國雄,1989年,「層級分析法 (AHP) 的內涵特性與應用 (上)」, 中國統計學報,第27期第6卷,頁5-22。
2. 27.蕭丁訓、林光、張志清、陳基國,2005年,「由上海港的發展看台灣港口的競爭策略」,航運季刊,第14期第4卷,頁85-107。
3. 27.蕭丁訓、林光、張志清、陳基國,2005年,「由上海港的發展看台灣港口的競爭策略」,航運季刊,第14期第4卷,頁85-107。
4. 27.蕭丁訓、林光、張志清、陳基國,2005年,「由上海港的發展看台灣港口的競爭策略」,航運季刊,第14期第4卷,頁85-107。
5. 20. 鄧振源,曾國雄,1989年,「層級分析法 (AHP) 的內涵特性與應用 (上)」, 中國統計學報,第27期第6卷,頁5-22。
6. 20. 鄧振源,曾國雄,1989年,「層級分析法 (AHP) 的內涵特性與應用 (上)」, 中國統計學報,第27期第6卷,頁5-22。
7. 15.倪安順、梁金樹、林光,2005年「以航商資源基礎探討港口選擇行為」,運輸計劃季刊,第34期第1卷,頁1-26。
8. 15.倪安順、梁金樹、林光,2005年「以航商資源基礎探討港口選擇行為」,運輸計劃季刊,第34期第1卷,頁1-26。
9. 15.倪安順、梁金樹、林光,2005年「以航商資源基礎探討港口選擇行為」,運輸計劃季刊,第34期第1卷,頁1-26。
10. 7.林谷蓉,2008年「兩岸直航問題之探討-以基隆港郵輪旅遊發展為例」,海洋文化學刊 ,第五期,頁187-230。
11. 7.林谷蓉,2008年「兩岸直航問題之探討-以基隆港郵輪旅遊發展為例」,海洋文化學刊 ,第五期,頁187-230。
12. 7.林谷蓉,2008年「兩岸直航問題之探討-以基隆港郵輪旅遊發展為例」,海洋文化學刊 ,第五期,頁187-230。
13. 5.宋佩玲、王明元,2007年,「郵輪旅客對台灣的意象研究」,商業現代化學刊 第4期第2卷,頁107-116。
14. 5.宋佩玲、王明元,2007年,「郵輪旅客對台灣的意象研究」,商業現代化學刊 第4期第2卷,頁107-116。
15. 5.宋佩玲、王明元,2007年,「郵輪旅客對台灣的意象研究」,商業現代化學刊 第4期第2卷,頁107-116。