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研究生:吳家維
研究生(外文):Wu, Jia-Wei
論文名稱:女性勞動參與率決定因素之探討─以臺灣23個縣市為例
論文名稱(外文):The Determinants of Female Labor Force Participation Rate ─ Evidence from Taiwan
指導教授:彭祐宜彭祐宜引用關係
指導教授(外文):Peng, Yu-I
口試委員:鄧軫元田維華
口試委員(外文):Teng, Chen-YuanTian, Wei-Hua
口試日期:2013-05-30
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北大學
系所名稱:財政學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:財政學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:41
中文關鍵詞:女性勞動參與人口結構產業結構
外文關鍵詞:female labor force participationpopulation structureindustrial structure
相關次數:
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近年來,臺灣整體女性勞動參與率呈現逐漸上升之趨勢,但各地區的女性勞動參與程度卻存在不一致的情形,而這是否意味著各地區的區域環境特性之差異將影響女性的勞動參與意願?有鑑於此,本研究結合著「縣市重要統計指標」、「人力資源調查統計年報」以及「內政統計查詢網」等資料庫在1998-2010年間的長期追蹤資料,並採用OLS與固定效果模型來對各縣市的女性與已婚女性勞動參與率進行探討。
在女性勞動參與率的各項影響因素方面,根據實證結果顯示,『離婚率』與『非婚生嬰兒比例』皆存在正面顯著之影響,這顯示出女性經濟獨立意識的抬頭;『結婚率』與『孩童扶養比』則存在負面顯著之影響,這意味著孩童扶養人口的照顧負擔與婚後產生的家庭責任將降低女性的勞動參與意願;而『失業率(落後一期)』也透過「勞動沮喪效果」對女性勞動參與意願產生負面顯著之影響;此外,『產業結構』對女性勞動參與率也存在顯著之影響。在已婚女性勞動參與率的各項影響因素方面,『孩童扶養比』與『產業結構』的影響與女性勞動參與率之估計結果一致;而『社會增加率』呈現正面顯著之影響,這代表著能夠透過縣市間的遷移,來選擇就業條件較佳之縣市,以提升已婚女性的勞動參與意願;『女性大學以上比例』則呈現負面顯著之影響,這可能是因為教育程度較高之女性,其配偶之教育程度也會較高,因此當丈夫的薪資水準愈高時,將對已婚女性之勞動參與意願產生負面影響。
In recent years, the overall female labor force participation rate in Taiwan has presented an upward trend, but the increase in the female labor force participation rate among the counties have been inconsistent. To probe this circumstance, this study uses the panel data of 23 counties from the Statistical Yearbook Issued by Each County, the Yearbook of Manpower Survey Statistics and the Statistical Yearbook of the Interior over the period 1998-2010 to estimate the effects of regional characteristics on female labor force participation rate and female labor force participation rate of married women by applying the OLS regression model and the fixed effect model.
The main empirical results of female labor force participation rate can be summarized as follows. First, the estimated effects of divorce rate and out-of-wedlock birth rate are positive and significant; these effects represent the rise of women economic independence. Second, the estimated effects of marriage rate and youth dependency ratios are negative and significant because of the responsibilities of child rearing and household management. Third, the lagged unemployment rate yields a negative and significant influence through the discourage worker effect. Finally, female labor force participation rate remains determined to a significant extent by the industrial structure.
The main empirical results of female labor force participation rate of married women are: First, the influences of youth dependency ratios and industrial structure are consistent with the estimated effects in female labor force participation rate. Second, net migration rate has a positive and significant effect; this effect implies that married women choose a region with the better employment conditions to boost her labor force participation through the migration behavior. Finally, the percentage of college degree and over among married women has a negative and significant effect. Since high educated women are relatively more likely to marry high educated men, husband’s higher earnings produce an income effect that lowers wife’s work incentives.
目錄
第一章 緒論 ....................................................1
第一節 研究動機與目的 ...........................................1
第二節 研究方法與步驟 ...........................................4
第二章 文獻回顧 ................................................5
第一節 婚姻狀況 ................................................5
第二節 生育決策 ................................................8
第三節 孩童扶養 ................................................9
第四節 教育程度 ...............................................10
第五節 女性工資率與家庭所得 .....................................11
第六節 勞動市場條件 ............................................13
第七節 經濟發展與產業結構 .......................................13
第八節 公共政策 ...............................................15
第三章 資料來源與敘述統計分析 ...................................17
第一節 資料來源 ...............................................17
第二節 變數說明 ...............................................18
第四章 實證結果 ...............................................25
第一節 女性勞動參與率之OLS與固定效果模型的估計結果 .................26
第二節 已婚女性勞動參與率之OLS與固定效果模型的估計結果 ..............26
第五章 結論與建議 ..............................................33
第一節 結論 ...................................................33
第二節 政策建議 ...............................................36
第三節 研究限制與後續研究建議 ...................................36
參考文獻 .......................................................37
中文部份 .......................................................37
英文部分 .......................................................37

表目錄
表3-1、變數預期方向 .............................................22
表3-2、變數定義 ................................................23
表3-3、變數敘述性統計 ...........................................24
表4-1、女性勞動參與率之OLS估計結果 ................................28
表4-2、女性勞動參與率之固定效果模型估計結果 .........................29
表4-3、已婚女性勞動參與率之OLS估計結果 ............................31
表4-4、已婚女性勞動參與率之固定效果模型估計結果 .....................32
表5-1、女性勞動參與率之實證結果的比較 ..............................35

圖目錄
圖一 性別勞動參與率之歷年趨勢 ......................................1
圖二 臺灣以及各地區女性勞動參與率之歷年趨勢 ..........................2

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