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研究生:周傳鈴
研究生(外文):Chuan-Ling Chou
論文名稱:淡水河流域的矽藻群聚結構與地理區位相關性研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on the Relationship between the Diatom Community Structure and Biogeographic Characteristics in Tam-sui River
指導教授:吳俊宗
指導教授(外文):Jiunn-Tzong Wu
口試委員:王一匡江殷儒
口試委員(外文):Y- K WangYin-Ru Chiang
口試日期:2013-07-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:生態學與演化生物學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生態學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:淡水河矽藻生物地理棲境群落結構生物指標
外文關鍵詞:BiogeographyDiatomsNicheTamsui RiverDiatom communityBioindicator
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藻類是良好的環境指標,矽藻可作為生物指標來判定當下水環境狀況或是重建古環境變遷,更具有生物地理特性。由於國內尚十分欠缺矽藻的生物地理學研究,因此本研究以北台灣淡水河系為研究對象,旨在建立矽藻群聚結構與環境關係,進而作為該地理區位之指標。本研究自2010年4月至2012年7月,於淡水河系五個河川樣站,進行漲、退潮各四次之河岸邊的附生基質和流動水域的矽藻採集。以各樣點出現的藻種相對頻度和組成在不同河系間分佈的差異,建立各河川樣點矽藻族群距離,以此做為辨識河系矽藻族群地理分佈的依據。從5個樣點8次的調查結果,共記錄了53屬,224種矽藻。出現藻種最多的屬為Navicula,共出現56種,其次是Nitzschia,出現了42種。出現之平均數量以Nitzschia 佔29.7%最高,其次是Cyclotella 佔27.6%。矽藻群聚結構受潮汐的影響,特別是圓心矽藻和浮游型矽藻二類之數量分布與河口距離成正關係,推論此與水域環境中的鹽度及水深有關。本研究以矽藻族群之棲地功能群及生態功能群分析各樣點間之差異,並作親緣關係分析。結果發現矽藻的群聚結構在不同河系與不同潮汐狀態下,具有空間和時間上之可供辨識的族群差異性。因此,矽藻生物地理學可以被應用於鑑定地理區位,其於不同河系位置之群聚結構,是該環境之獨特而有效的微物跡證。

Diatom communities are often used as bio-indicators in reflecting water quality of the contemporary environment and for the reconstruction of the paleoenvironmental conditions. Also, the biogeography of diatoms has been studied and used in some applications. However, little is known about the biogeographic pattern of diatoms in Taiwan. The objectives of this study were to analyze the biogeographical pattern of diatom communities along the Tamsui River of northern Taiwan, to elucidate their site-specificity, and to assess its applicability as trace evidences of locality. Both the benthic and planktonic diatoms were collected from April 2010 to July 2012, covering those from five tributaries and 4 seasons. For each season, samples were taken both at ebb and flow tides. The ecological guilds and niche guilds at these sites were elucidated, based on the community data. The correlation of these data with geographic information and water quality were analyzed. From the 8 sampling events, 224 diatom species from 53 genera were recorded. Navicula and Nitzschia were the dominant genus with 56 and 42 species, respectively. The diatom community structures were affected by the tides, showing that the abundance of Centricae and planktonic diatoms were positively correlated with the distance to the estuary. Mechanisms behind that could be the effects of salinity and water depth. The results showed that the diatom communities exhibited a site-specificity and a seasonal variation pattern. The present study suggests that the diatom communities could serve as trace evidences in different areas of applications.

摘要……………………………………………………………………………….........Ⅰ
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………Ⅱ
目錄………………………………………………………………………………….…Ⅲ
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………………….……Ⅴ
表目錄………………………………………………………………………….………Ⅵ
附錄……………………………………………………………………….……………Ⅶ
1、 前言…………………………………………………………………………………1
1.1. 研究目的………………………………………………………………………1
1.2. 矽藻的分布…………………………………………………………..………..2
1.3 矽藻的兩大類群群聚特徵…………………………………………..………..4
一、 浮游型矽藻..............................................……………………….………5
二、 附生型矽藻……………………………………………………...………7
1.4. 生物指標…………………………………………………….…………….…13
2、 材料與方法………………………………………………………………….……14
2.1.研究樣區………………………………………………………… ….….……14
2.1.1. 樣區水文地理環境背景……………………………………….…….. …14
2.1.2.採樣點…………………………………………………………………..…15
2.2. 實驗方法……………………………………………………………….……17
2.2.1. 實驗設計…………………………………………………………………17
2.2.1.1. 調查淡水河主流和各支流河系矽藻群聚的分佈特徵…………….17
2.2.1.2. 建立樣區水域環境因子之資料…………………………………….17
2.2.2. 矽藻採樣方法……………………………………………………………18
2.2.2.1. 矽藻玻片製作…………………………………...…………………18
2.2.2.2. 矽藻鑑定………………………………………………...…………18
2.2.3.親緣分析……………………………………………………………………19
2.2.4.水質理化資料收集…………………………………………………....……19
2.2.5.水質與矽藻統計分析………………………………………………....……20
3、 結果………………………………………………………………………...………21
3.1. 淡水河主流與各支流之矽藻組成…………………………………….……21
3.1.1.以棲地功能群 (niche guilds) 歸類的矽藻群聚結構之地理分佈格局...24
3.2.刷藻與原水矽藻組成變化與漲退潮關係…………………............................25
3.2.1.生態功能群的矽藻群聚與地理分佈……………………….……………28
3.2.2.生態功能群下的矽藻群聚類型…………………………………….……29
3.3. 矽藻族群結構……………………………………………..............................36
3.3.1.五個河系樣區之矽藻族群差異……………………………………..……36
3.3.2.不同採集方式對矽藻族群之影響………………………………..............38
3.3.3.漲潮與退潮河岸基質的矽藻族群差異………………………..................40
3.3.4.漲潮與退潮原水的矽藻族群差異………………………………..………43
3.4. 藻類的生物指標值……………………………………………………..……45
3.5. 藻類與環境水質關係…………………………………………………..……46
3.5.1.水質平均值…………………………………………………………..……46
3.5.2.矽藻分布與水質關係………………………………………..……………48
3.5.3.CCA雙序圖 (Biplot) 的分析結果……………………………….....……51
4、 討論…………………………………………………………………………..……53
4.1. 矽藻群聚結構樣式……………………………………………………..……53
4.2.矽藻族群結構樣式……………………………………………………………55
4.3.水質因子與矽藻分佈…………………………………………………………57
5、 結論…………………………………………………………………………..……58
6、引用文獻……………………………………………………………………………59


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