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研究生:洪子芸
研究生(外文):Tzu-Yun Hung
論文名稱:Yagé: 波哥大的病苦與療癒
論文名稱(外文):Yagé:Illness, suffering and healing precess in Bogota
指導教授:王梅霞王梅霞引用關係
指導教授(外文):Mei Hsia Wang
口試委員:張淑英林開世
口試委員(外文):Luisa Shu-Ying ChangKai-Shih Lin
口試日期:2013-07-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:人類學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:人類學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:294
中文關鍵詞:Yagé哥倫比亞疾病醫療人類學亞馬遜
外文關鍵詞:YagéColombiaDiseasesMedical AnthropologyAmazon
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八○年代以來,原盛行於哥倫比亞Putumayo省及亞馬遜流域的原住民傳統療法yagé開始慢慢進入都市,在都市的白領階級及知識分子裡吹起一股風潮。城市裡麥仕蒂索人(mestizo)的高級知識分子、藝人、藝術家、醫生和外國人,開始自鄉村或叢林請來諳熟傳統療法的taita/chaman(巫師),在位於城北,中產階級和菁英聚集的高級公寓裡,或鄉間的私人別墅中舉行儀式,甚至組團到亞馬遜流域的鄉間做「靈療之旅」。  

  Yagé會在都市中捲起一股風潮,吸引不同文化的都市白領階級及知識分子,必須放在當代哥倫比亞的社會脈絡以及暴力歷史中來理解。yagé儀式經歷了當代原住民運動的洗禮,成為了代表原住民的一個象徵符碼,這個過程不僅將原來叢林脈絡中原住民充滿著緊張、衝突與危險的「精靈自然」,代換為和諧、平衡、具繁衍力及療癒力的,浪漫主義式的「生態自然」,呼應了與原住民運動相和的自然保育議題,在醫療體系的層面上,也加強了「照護身心靈」以及「整體醫療」的概念,作為對於傳統西方醫療哲學及殖民文化的反動,yageceros (做yagé治療的人)除了強調身心交互作用之外,更強調精靈/靈魂(spirits)在疾病裡所扮演的角色,並將「疾病」的定義自狹義的生理失調擴大到社會功能的失調。這種對於疾病的定義使哥倫比亞人在面對新自由主義經濟和後殖民的情境裡,能以yagé治病的過程作為對於外在結構的抵抗,並建構在面對複雜社會中種種不確定時所需要的個人主體性。若以疾病作為社會失調的隱喻,種種當代社會問題諸如離婚、家庭不和、吸毒、暴力等等,都成為可以被治癒的病癥,而都市yagé儀式中所強調的個人性以及患者在療癒過程中的主體性,提供了患者對於「疾病」與「療癒」更大的詮釋空間,並藉由儀式中感官的體驗,來形塑對於「疾病」的詮釋以及感知,從而走上自我療癒之路,在「探索內心」、並「與萬物連結」之後,重新在社會和家庭中找到自己的角色和位置。此外,在進入都市的過程裡,yagé儀式背後的原住民文化相關知識諸如宇宙觀、及神話等等,也成為波哥大白領階級與知識分子對抗新自由主義經濟、形塑哥倫比亞認同及拉丁美洲認同的新形式,他們藉由強調與自然和諧相處、眾生平等,以愛及祥和來建造新的社會,來回應哥倫比亞長達兩百年的暴力歷史以及外交和經濟關係下的被剝削角色,儼然成了一股正在發展的新宗教運動。

  而以情緒的轉換來看,yagé儀式提供了一個情緒轉換的儀式空間。這個儀式場域是激烈、感官並充滿身體感的,自一開始的領yagé以及祝福時的平和,到後來yagé藥效發作時的暴力、情緒宣洩以及抗爭,最後回歸和平、和解以及愛。這樣的情緒轉換邏輯也頻密的出現在哥倫比亞的日常生活場域之中,並成為他們對於自身文化的解讀,更成為他們對於國家歷史進程的想像與期盼。


Since 80’s, the Amazonian traditional folk medicine “Yagé” has spread to Colombia’s mega city as Bogotá and Medellín, and has become a special medical treatment for the citizens. The citizens, mainly Mestizo high-educated people, artist, socialist, doctor and the so-called “white-collar” working class, embrace yagé not only as a medication, but also a spiritual remedy, which is able to lighten their difficulties of life, solve their social obstacles, cure their mental disorders and suffering memories.
In this thesis, I interviewed more than 20 yageceros (people who take yagé) and wrote down 9 of their healing process and life histories, to analyze what is “diseases” and “healthy” in Bogotá yagecero’s context. I argue that this trend of “new shamanism” should be exanimated in the Colombia’s social context and violent history, in this context, new yagé define “diseases” as a spiritual-physical-social product, disease could be discomfort of the body, but also could be divorce, social unadapting, drug abuse, and conflicts with the others, in the other hand, “healthy” means to live with love and peace, back to the nature. To cure themselves, the patient have to take yagé and go into a magical spiritual world with yagé spirit, and have a ”journey” in the spiritual world, after the taita (shaman) “clean” his spirit, he will come back as a new person and start a new life. The hallucinogenic vision plays a very important role in the healing process, it gives the patient a whole new idea of life, sensation, consciousness and morality. From their body experience and hallucinogenic signs, yageceros redefine their meaning of life, reconstruct their social position, and try to build a new world with their yagé dream, to against the social and mental problems in capitalized and globalized Latin America.

目錄
詞彙表 - 6 -
第一章 前言 - 22 -
1.1 研究主題及問題意識 - 22 -
1.2. 田野地介紹:哥倫比亞 - 24 -
1.2.1 概述及歷史 - 25 -
1.2.2 社會問題與受苦困境 - 29 -
1.2.3 波哥大一瞥(Bogotá) - 36 -
1.3 文獻回顧 - 39 -
1.3.1 疾病、健康與療癒 - 39 -
1.3.2 Yagé研究 - 46 -
1.3.3. 情緒研究 - 50 -
1.3.4 身體作為抵抗場域 - 57 -
1.4 研究方法 - 59 -
1.5 章節安排 - 61 -
1.6. 研究限制 - 62 -
第二章 Yagé背景介紹 - 64 -
2.1  魔藥Yagé - 64 -
2.2  Yagé的製作 - 69 -
2.3. Yagé的精靈世界 - 73 -
2.4 亞馬遜的疾病脈絡 - 77 -
2.4.1 與精靈的衝突 - 77 -
2.4.2 惡意與惡行 - 78 -
2.4.3 社群與「惡行」 - 83 -
2.4.4 巫術 - 84 -
2.5 當代的叢林yagé:白巫醫與yagé旅行 - 86 -
第三章 城市裡的精靈 - 93 -
兩個comunidad - 93 -
3.2 Taita Orlando和他的社群 - 94 -
3.2.1. Taita Orlando - 94 -
3.2.2 Taita Orlando的社群(O社群) - 96 -
3.2.3 社群組織網路 - 97 -
3.2.4 儀式地點 - 99 -
3.2.5 儀式過程 - 105 -
3.2.6 儀式中的醫病關係 - 114 -
3.2.7 星期三聚會(說話儀式) - 116 -
3.2.8 Fundación Carare - 118 -
3.2.9 診所 Maya Pijá - 119 -
3.2.10 藥房 - 122 -
3.2.11 出版品 - 123 -
3.3 taita Ediliberto和他的社群 - 125 -
3.3.1 Taita Ediliberto - 125 -
3.3.2 巫醫助手Omar - 127 -
3.3.3 儀式地點 - 128 -
3.3.4 儀式過程 - 132 -
3.3.5 儀式中的醫病關係 - 136 -
3.3.6 天主教的位置 - 137 -
3.3.7 成員的組成 - 138 -
3.4 O社群與E社群的比較 - 139 -
第四章 個案生命史 - 143 -
4.1 個案一 William - 144 -
4.2 個案二 Kris - 148 -
4.3 個案三 Alexandra - 151 -
4.4 個案四 Pacho - 172 -
4.5 個案五 Paula - 177 -
4.6 個案六 Marino - 179 -
4.7 個案七 Daniel - 186 -
4.8 個案八 Fredy - 189 -
4.9 個案九 Marina - 195 -
第五章 病者觀點:疾病與療癒 - 206 -
5.1 疾病(la enfermedad)與健康(la sanación) - 207 -
5.1.1 生命故事的文本分析 - 207 -
5.1.2 「健康」的定義 - 212 -
5.1.3 疾病的隱喻模型 - 214 -
5.2. Pinta作為轉化中介:yagecero的常民視角(lay perspectives) - 221 -
5.2.1 Alexandra 的pinta - 222 -
5.2.2 Pacho的pinta - 223 -
5.2.3 Paula的pinta - 224 -
5.2.4 Marino的pinta - 225 -
5.2.5 Daniel的pinta - 226 -
5.2.6 Fredy的pinta - 226 -
5.2.7 Marina的pinta - 227 -
5.2.8 pinta的療癒機制 - 228 -
5.3. 視野(la visión):改變的眶視 - 235 -
第六章 療癒儀式裡的情緒轉化邏輯 - 243 -
6.1 恐懼(miedo)、憤怒(la rabia)、暴力(violencia)與其他受苦經驗 - 244 -
6.2 美感經驗:平靜與平和(la tranquilidad y la paz)愛(el amor)、快樂(la felicidad)、美(bonito) - 252 -
6.2.1 平靜與平和(la tranquilidad y la paz) - 253 -
6.2.2 愛(el amor) - 254 -
6.2.3 快樂(la felicidad) - 257 -
6.2.4 美(Bonito) - 260 -
6.3 幸福生活〈好的狀態〉(bienestar) - 264 -
6.4 小結 - 271 -
第七章 結論 - 273 -
參考文獻 - 280 -




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----. 1974 Dramas, fields, and metaphors : symbolic action in human society, Ithaca [N.Y.] : Cornell University Press

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----. 2002 El yajé como sistema emergente: discuciones y controversias, in Decumentos Ceso, No.33. Centro de Estudios Socioculturares e Internacionales, Universidad de los Andes.

----. 1999 Narración, mito y enfermedad mental:hacia una psiquiatría cultural . En: Colombia Revista Colombiana De Psiquiatría ed: Editorial Kimpres Ltda v.28 fasc.3 p.219 - 238

Vélez Cárdenas, Andrea & Augusto Pérez Gómez
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Vélez, G.
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Vieda Skultans
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Wellin, Edward
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網路參考資料

DRAE皇家西班牙語字典
http://lema.rae.es/dpd/

教育部重編國語辭典修訂本
http://dict.revised.moe.edu.tw/




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