跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.215.79.68) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/07/04 04:46
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:賴巧憶
研究生(外文):Chiao-Yi Lai
論文名稱:椴木栽培牛樟芝子實體中三萜類活性成分 Antcin K藉由誘導人類肝癌細胞粒線體及內質網壓力調節之細胞凋亡達到抑癌效果
論文名稱(外文):Antcin K, an Active Triterpenoid from the Fruiting Bodies of Basswood Cultivated Antrodia Cinnamomea, Induces Mitochondria and ER Stress-mediated Apoptosis in Human Hepatoma Cells
指導教授:沈立言沈立言引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lee-Yan Sheen
口試委員:鍾景光李宗貴謝淑貞
口試委員(外文):Jing-Gung ChungChong-Kuei LiiShwu-Jane Shieh
口試日期:2013-07-02
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:食品科技研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:137
中文關鍵詞:antcin K牛樟芝肝癌內質網壓力粒線體細胞凋亡
外文關鍵詞:liver cancerAntrodia cinnamomeaantcin KapoptosisER stressmitochondria
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:8
  • 點閱點閱:1091
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
根據中華民國101年行政院衛生署十大癌症死因統計,肝癌佔癌症主要死因第二位,更高居全世界排名第四位,所以在臺灣如何維護肝臟健康是值得重視的議題。近年研究發現,臺灣特有之牛樟芝具有護肝、抗發炎、抗B型肝炎病毒、抗癌等生理活性,其主要活性成分為多醣體、苯類、三萜類、固醇類等,又因三萜類通常具有良好的抗癌效果而備受矚目。因此,本研究欲探討由椴木栽培之牛樟芝子實體中純化出含量最多之麥角甾烷型三萜類─antcin K對人類肝癌Hep 3B細胞株之抗癌活性及其分子機制。結果指出,antcin K能有效抑制Hep 3B細胞存活率及促使Hep 3B細胞膜之磷脂醯絲胺酸外翻、染色質濃縮、DNA損傷,但不會明顯地增加細胞中自噬體生成或導致細胞膨脹而破損,故antcin K誘導Hep 3B細胞死亡之主要模式為細胞凋亡,而不是自體吞噬或細胞壞死。深入探討其分子機制後發現,antcin K首先可促進Hep 3B細胞中ROS生成與降低ATP水平而導致內質網壓力產生,內質網壓力伴隨著不完全摺疊反應相關蛋白CHOP表現量上升,進而抑制抗凋亡蛋白Bcl-xL表現量,導致內質網與粒線體膜上之Bax、Bak通道被活化,造成鈣離子由內質網中釋出並部分進入粒線體,最後改變粒線體膜通透性,而釋出促凋亡因子,包括HtrA2/Omi、AIF、Endo-G及cytochrome c,其中cytochrome c進一步活化caspase-9、caspase-3,並切割下游蛋白PARP,最終導致細胞凋亡。綜合以上結果顯示,antcin K可藉由誘導人類肝癌細胞粒腺體及內質網壓力調節之細胞凋亡達到抑癌效果,具有輔助抗癌治療之潛力。

Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in Taiwan as per the 2012 statistics, and ranks the fourth in cancer related mortality in the world. Hence there is a need to focus more on hepato protective foods maintain a healthy liver is a big issue in Taiwan. Recent researches have shown that Antrodia cinnamomea, a Taiwan-specific medicinal mushroom, can manipulate biological activities, include hepatoprotection, anti-inflammation, anti-HBV activity, anticancer activity, etc. The active constituents include polysaccharides, triterpenoids, steroids, etc., and among these, m whose triterpenoids are the most prominent because of their potent anticancer effects. In this study, the anti-liver cancer activity and molecular mechanisms of antcin K, the most abundant ergostsne triterpenoid from the fruiting bodies of basswood cultivated Antrodia cinnamomea was investigated using the human hepatoma Hep 3B cells. The results show that antcin K effectively reduced Hep 3B cell viability within 48 hours. In addition, antcin K induced phosphatidylserine exposure, chromatin condensation, DNA damage, but not significantly increasing autophagosome content or causing cell expansion and cell lysis. So the principal mode of Hep 3B cell death induced by antcin K was apoptosis, rather than autophagy or necrosis. In depth investigation for the molecular mechanisms, revealed that antcin K firstly promoted ROS generation and ATP depletion, lead to ER stress, followed by CHOP expression, down-regulated Bcl-xL and activated Bax/Bak channel to promote intra-cellular calcium ion release from the endoplasmic reticulum then uptake into the mitochondria, resulting in mitochondrial membrane permeability changes. After losing of mitochondrial membrane potential, the apoptosis related factors were released, including HtrA2/Omi, AIF, Endo-G and cytochrome c, the cytochrome c activated the caspase-9, caspase-3, and cut downstream protein PARP, ultimately leading to cell apoptosis. These results suggested that antcin K induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human hepatoma cells. Coupled with these findings, antcin K has the potential to be complementary agent in liver cancer therapy.

致謝 i
中文摘要 ii
ABSTRACT iii
縮寫對照表 v
圖次 xiii
表次 xvi
第一章 文獻回顧 1
第一節 肝癌 1
一、 肝臟生理功能 1
二、 肝癌流行病學 4
三、 肝癌臨床病理 6
第二節 細胞死亡模式 7
一、 細胞凋亡 8
二、 自體吞噬 18
三、 細胞壞死 20
第三節 內質網鈣離子釋出引發粒線體膜調節之細胞凋亡 21
一、 內質網及粒線體之關聯 21
二、 鈣離子於粒線體之傳送機制 21
三、 內質網壓力連結粒線體調節之細胞凋亡機制 22
第四節 牛樟芝 25
一、 牛樟芝型態與命名 25
二、 牛樟芝人工栽培方法 27
三、 牛樟芝活性成分 28
四、 牛樟芝生理功效 35
第二章 假說與目的 38
第一節 實驗假說 38
第二節 實驗目的 39
第三章 研究架構 40
第四章 實驗材料 42
第一節 藥品與儀器 42
一、 藥品 42
二、 儀器 44
第二節 樣品與細胞株 46
一、 樣品 46
二、 細胞株 46
第五章 方法 47
第一節 樣品製備與分析 47
一、 牛樟芝子實體之乙酸乙酯萃取及管柱層析 47
二、 高效能液相層析分析 47
第二節 抗增殖活性分析 48
一、 細胞之培養與保存 48
二、 細胞存活率分析 49
第三節 細胞死亡模式分析 50
一、 細胞型態觀察 50
二、 細胞大小及顆粒性分析 50
三、 細胞破損程度分析 51
四、 自噬體生成量分析 52
五、 Annexin V/PI分析 53
六、 利用DAPI染色觀察細胞核之型態 54
七、 單細胞膠體電泳法 55
第四節 內質網壓力調節之自體吞噬機制探討 56
一、 活性氧物質生成分析 56
二、 三磷酸腺苷水平分析 57
三、 鈣離子移位分析 58
四、 粒線體鈣離子分布之觀察 59
五、 粒線體膜電位變化之測定 59
六、 蛋白質表現分析 60
第五節 資料統計 63


第六章 結果與討論 64
第一節 抗增殖活性評估 64
一、 Antcin K對 Hep 3B細胞存活率之影響 64
二、 本節討論 65
第二節 細胞死亡模式分析 65
一、 Antcin K對Hep 3B細胞形態之影響 65
二、 Antcin K對Hep 3B細胞破損程度之影響 66
三、 Antcin K對Hep 3B細胞自噬體形成之影響 66
四、 Antcin K對Hep 3B細胞膜中Phosphatidylserine(PS)外翻程度之影響 67
五、 Antcin K對Hep 3B細胞中染色質濃縮程度之影響 68
六、 Antcin K對Hep 3B細胞中DNA損傷程度之影響 68
七、 本節討論 69
第三節 、粒腺體及內質網壓力調節之細胞凋亡機制探討 70
一、 Antcin K對Hep 3B細胞活性氧物質生成及三磷酸腺苷水平之影響70
二、 Antcin K對Hep 3B細胞鈣離子訊號之影響 71
三、 Antcin K對Hep 3B粒線體鈣離子分布之影響 71
四、 Antcin K對Hep 3B細胞粒線體膜電位之影響 71
五、 Antcin K對Hep 3B細胞凋亡相關蛋白質表現量之影響 72
六、 本節討論 74
第四節 綜合討論 75
一、 牛樟芝中三萜類純化物抗癌功效與其分子結構之關係 75
二、 牛樟芝中三萜類純化物抗癌機制比較 76
三、 Antcin K與牛樟芝子實體萃取物之抗肝癌機制比較 78
第五節 未來研究 79
一、 Antcin K之後續抗肝癌研究 79
二、 牛樟芝子實體中麥角甾烷型三萜類之後續研究 80
第七章 結論 81
第八章 實驗圖表 83
第九章 參考文獻 101
第十章 附錄 112


陳啟祥。2011。我國生技產業發展政策、市場與牛樟菇產品開發策略佈局。牛樟菇產品加值研發與應用研討會。
李順來。2011。培植於不同樹種與不同生長年份的牛樟芝子實體功能性比較與牛樟芝配伍研究。牛樟菇產品加值研發與應用研討會。
林敬斌。2005。肝癌在臺灣。第五屆臺灣肝癌研討會。
野村喜重郎。2007。肝病。世茂出版社。3-32頁。
Ao, Z. H., Xu, Z. H., Lu, Z. M., Xu, H. Y., Zhang, X. M., Dou, W. F. Niuchangchih (Antrodia camphorata) and its potential in treating liver diseases. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009, 121, 194-212.
Ao, Z. H., Xu, Z. H., Lu, Z. M., Xu, H. Y., Zhang, X. M., Dou, W. F. Niuchangchih (Antrodia camphorata) and its potential in treating liver diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 2009, 121, 194-212.
Beasley, R. P. Rocks Along the Road to the Control of HBV and HCC. Annals of Epidemiology 2009, 19, 231-234.
Bishayee, A., Politis, T., Darvesh, A. S. Resveratrol in the chemoprevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Treatment Reviews 2010, 36, 43-53.
Bogner, C., Leber, B., Andrews, D. W. Apoptosis: embedded in membranes. Curr Opin Cell Biol 2010, 22, 845-851.
Bouwens, L. Proliferation and phenotypic expression of non-parenchymal liver cells. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl. 1988, 151, 46-51.
Bradford, M. M. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 1976, 72, 248-254.
Brisac, C., Teoule, F., Autret, A., Pelletier, I., Colbere-Garapin, F., Brenner, C., Lemaire, C., Blondel, B. Calcium Flux between the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondrion Contributes to Poliovirus-Induced Apoptosis. Journal of Virology 2010, 84, 12226-12235.
Chang, J. M., Lee, Y. R., Hung, L. M., Liu, S. Y., Kuo, M. T., Wen, W. C., Chen, P. N. An Extract of Antrodia camphorata Mycelia Attenuates the Progression of Nephritis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Prone NZB/W F1Mice. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011, 1-7.
Chang, M. Hepatitis B virus and cancer prevention. Ejc Supplements 2010, 8, 2-3.
Chang, M. H., Chen, D. S. Prospects for hepatitis B virus eradication and control of hepatocellular carcinoma. Best Practice & Research in Clinical Gastroenterology 1999, 13, 511-517.
Chang, T. T., Chou, W. W. Antrodia cinnamomea sp. nov. on Cinnamomum kanehirai in Taiwan. Mycol. Res. 1995, 99, 756-758.
Chen, C. C., Chyau, C. C., Hseu, T. H. Production of a COX-2 inhibitor, 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, with submerged cultured Antrodia camphorata. Letters in Applied Microbiology 2007, 44, 387-392.
Chen, C. C., Shiao, Y. J., Lin, R. D., Shao, Y. Y., Lai, M. N., Lin, C. C., Ng, L. T., Kuo, Y. H. Neuroprotective diterpenes from the fruiting body of Antrodia camphorata. Journal of Natural Products 2006, 69, 689-691.
Chen, C. H., Yang, S. W., Shen, Y. C. New steroid acids from Antrodia cinnamomea, a fungal parasite of Cinnamomum micranthum. Journal of Natural Products 1995, 58, 1655-1661.
Chen, J. C., Lin, W. H., Chen, C. N., Sheu, S. J., Huang, S. J., Chen, Y. L. Development of Antrodia camphorata mycelium with submerged culture. Fung. Sci. 2001, 16, 7-22.
Chen, J. J., Lin, W. J., Liao, C. H., Shieh, P. C. Anti-inflammatory benzenoids from Antrodia camphorata. Journal of Natural Products 2007, 70, 989-992.
Chen, Y. J., Cheng, P. C., Lin, C. N., Liao, H. F., Chen, Y. Y., Chen, C. C., Lee, K. M. Polysaccharides from Antrodia camphorata mycelia extracts possess immunomodulatory activity and inhibits infection of Schistosoma mansoni. International Immunopharmacology 2008, 8, 458-467.
Chien, S. C., Chen, M. L., Kuo, H. T., Tsai, Y. C., Lin, B. F., Kuo, Y. H. Anti-inflammatory activities of new succinic and maleic derivatives from the fruiting body of Antrodia camphorata. J Agric Food Chem 2008, 56, 7017-7022.
Chiu, H. H. Phylogenetic analysis of Antrodia species and Antrodia camphorata inferred from internal transcribed spacer region. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology 2007, 91, 267-276.
Chung, T. Y., Li, F. Y., Chang, C. I., Jinn, T. R., Tzen, J. T. Inhibition of Na(+)/K(+) -ATPase by antcins, unique steroid-like compounds in Antrodia camphorate. Am J Chin Med 2012, 40, 953-965.
Colombo, M., Donato, M. F. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma. Semin. Liver Dis. 2005, 25, 155-161.
Crouch, S. P., Kozlowski, R., Slater, K. J., Fletcher, J. The use of ATP bioluminescence as a measure of cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. J. Immunol. Methods 1993, 160, 81-88.
Decker, T., Lohmann-Matthes, M. L. A quick and simple method for the quantitation of lactate dehydrogenase release in measurements of cellular cytotoxicity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity. J. Immunol. Methods 1988, 15, 61-69.
Deng, J. Y., Chen, S. J., Jow, G. M., Hsueh, C. W., Jeng, C. J. Dehydroeburicoic acid induces calcium- and calpain-dependent necrosis in human U87MG glioblastomas. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2009, 22, 1817-1826.
Duchen, M. R., Szabadkai, G. Roles of mitochondria in human disease. Essays in Biochemistry: Mitochondrial Function 2010, 47, 115-137.
Edinger, A. L., Thompson, C. B. Death by design: apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 2004, 16, 663-669.
El-Serag, H. B. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Recent trends in the United States. Gastroenterology 2004, 127, S27-S34.
El-Serag, H. B., Lenhard Rudolph, K. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and molecular carcinogenesis. Gastroenterology 2007, 132, 2557-2576.
Enzan, H., Himeno, H., Hiroi, M., Kiyoku, H., Saibara, T., Onishi, S. Development of hepatic sinusoidal structure with special reference to the Ito cells. Microsc. Res. Tech. 1997, 39, 336-349.
Farazi, P. A., DePinho, R. A. Hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis: from genes to environment. Nat Rev Cancer 2006, 6, 674-687.
Fesik, S. W. Promoting apoptosis as a strategy for cancer drug discovery. Nat. Rev. Cancer 2005, 5, 876-885.
Friedman, S. L. Molecular regulation of hepatic fibrosis, an integrated cellular response to issue injury. J. Biol. Chem. 2000, 275, 2247-2250.
Ganem, D. Hepatitis B virus infection - Natural history and clinical consequences (vol 350, pg 1118, 2004). New England Journal of Medicine 2004, 351, 1268-1268.
Geethangili, M., Tzeng, Y. M. Review of Pharmacological Effects of Antrodia camphorata and Its Bioactive Compounds. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011, 2011, 212641.
Gottlieb, E., Vander Heiden, M. G., Thompson, C. B. Bcl-xL prevents the initial decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and subsequent reactive oxygen species production during tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis. Mol. Cell Biol. 2000, 20, 5680-5689.
Gupta, S. Molecular signaling in death receptor and mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis (Review). International Journal of Oncology 2003, 22, 15-20.
Gupta, S., Agrawal, A., Agrawal, S., Su, H., Gollapudi, S. A paradox of immunodeficiency and inflammation in human aging: lessons learned from apoptosis. Immun. Aging 2006, 3, 5.
Hajnoczky, G., Csordas, G., Das, S., Garcia-Perez, C., Saotome, M., Sinha Roy, S., Yi, M. Mitochondrial calcium signalling and cell death: approaches for assessing the role of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in apoptosis. Cell Calcium 2006, 40, 553-560.
Harmeet Malhi, G. J. G. (2008). Apoptosis: Mechanisms and Relevance in Liver Diseases. In.
Hasper, H. J., Weghorst, R. M., Richel, D. J., Meerwaldt, J. H., Olthuis, F. M. F. G., Schenkeveld, C. E. I. A new four-color flow cytometric assay to detect apoptosis in lymphocyte subsets of cultured peripheral blood cells. Cytometry 2000, 40, 167-171.
Hetz, C., Bernasconi, P., Fisher, J., Lee, A. H., Bassik, M. C., Antonsson, B., Brandt, G. S., Iwakoshi, N. N., Schinzel, A., Glimcher, L. H., Korsmeyer, S. J. Proapoptotic BAX and BAK modulate the unfolded protein response by a direct interaction with IRE1alpha. Science 2006, 312, 572-576.
Hsu, Y. L., Kuo, P. L., Cho, C. Y., Ni, W. C., Tzeng, T. F., Ng, L. T., Kuo, Y. H., Lin, C. C. Antrodia cinnamomea fruiting bodies extract suppresses the invasive potential of human liver cancer cell line PLC/PRF/5 through inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B pathway. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2007, 45, 1249-1257.
Hsu, Y. L., Kuo, Y. C., Kuo, P. L., Ng, L. T., Kuo, Y. H., Lin, C. C. Apoptotic effects of extract from Antrodia camphorata fruiting bodies in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Cancer Lett 2005, 221, 77-89.
Huang, Ray-Ling, Huang, Q., Chen, Chieh-Fu, chang, Tun-Tschu, chou, Cheng-Jen. (2003). Anti-viral effects of active compounds from Antrodia camphorata on wild-type and lamivudine-resistant mutant HBV (Vol. 55). Taipei, Taiwan, Province De Chine: Pharmaceutical Society of Republic of China.
Huang, Y. H., Chen, C. H., Chang, T. T., Chen, S. C., Wang, S. Y., Lee, P. C., Lee, H. S., Lin, P. W., Huang, G. T., Sheu, J. C., Tsai, H. M., Chau, G. Y., Chiang, J. H., Lui, W. Y., Lee, S. D., Wu, J. C. The role of transcatheter arterial embolization in patients with resectable hepatocellular carcinoma: a nation-wide, multicenter study. Liver Int. 2004, 24, 419-424.
Hussain, S. P., Schwank, J., Staib, F., Wang, X. W., Harris, C. C. TP53 mutations and hepatocellular carcinoma: insights into the etiology and pathogenesis of liver cancer. Oncogene 2007, 26, 2166-2176.
Ip, S. W., Chu, Y. L., Yu, C. S., Chen, P. Y., Ho, H. C., Yang, J. S., Huang, H. Y., Chueh, F. S., Lai, T. Y., Chung, J. G. Bee venom induces apoptosis through intracellular Ca2+-modulated intrinsic death pathway in human bladder cancer cells. International Journal of Urology 2012, 19, 61-70.
Jesenberger, V., Jentsch, S. Deadly encounter: ubiquitin meets apoptosis. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Bio. 2002, 3, 112-121.
Kaminskyy, V., Abdi, A., Zhivotovsky, B. A quantitative assay for the monitoring of autophagosome accumulation in different phases of the cell cycle. Autophagy 2011, 7, 83-90.
Kaufman, R. J. The cellular response to accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Faseb J. 2002, 16, A891.
Kawamori, D., Kajimoto, Y., Kaneto, H., Umayahara, Y., Fujitani, Y., Miyatsuka, T., Watada, H., Leibiger, I. B., Yamasaki, Y., Hori, M. Oxidative stress induces nucleo-cytoplasmic translocation of pancreatic transcription factor PDX-1 through activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Diabetes 2003, 52, 2896-2904.
Kerr, J. F., Wyllie, A. H., Currie, A. R. Apoptosis: a basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in tissue kinetics. Br. J. Cancer 1972, 26, 239-257.
Knecht, E., Aguado, C., Carcel, J., Esteban, I., Esteve, J. M., Ghislat, G., Moruno, J. F., Vidal, J. M., Saez, R. Intracellular protein degradation in mammalian cells: recent developments. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 2009, 66, 2427-2443.
Kornmann, B., Currie, E., Collins, S. R., Schuldiner, M., Nunnari, J., Weissman, J. S., Walter, P. An ER-Mitochondria Tethering Complex Revealed by a Synthetic Biology Screen. Science 2009, 325, 477-481.
Kroemer, G., Reed, J. C. Mitochondrial control of cell death. Nat. Med. 2000, 6, 513-519.
Krysko, D. V., Vanden Berghe, T., D''Herde, K., Vandenabeele, P. Apoptosis and necrosis: detection, discrimination and phagocytosis. Methods 2008, 44, 205-221.
Kuo, P. L., Hsu, Y. L., Cho, C. Y., Ng, L. T., Kuo, Y. H., Lin, C. C. Apoptotic effects of Antrodia cinnamomea fruiting bodies extract are mediated through calcium and calpain-dependent pathways in Hep 3B cells. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2006, 44, 1316-1326.
Kuo, Y. H., Lin, B. F. Compounds from Antrodia camphorata. Official gazette of the United States patent and trademark office patents 2011.
Laszczyk, M. N. Pentacyclic triterpenes of the lupane, oleanane and ursane group as tools in cancer therapy. Planta Med. 2009, 75, 1549-1560.
Lavanchy, D. Hepatitis B virus epidemiology, disease burden, treatment, and current and emerging prevention and control measures. J Viral Hepat 2004, 11, 97-107.
Lee, T. H., Lee, C. K., Tsou, W. L., Liu, S. Y., Kuo, M. T., Wen, W. C. A new cytotoxic agent from solid-state fermented mycelium of Antrodia camphorata. Planta Medica 2007, 73, 1412-1415.
Leon, F., Quintana, J., Rivera, A., Estevez, F., Bermejo, J. Lanostanoid triterpenes from Laetiporus sulphureus and apoptosis induction on HL-60 human myeloid leukemia cells. Journal of Natural Products 2004, 67, 2008-2011.
Li, F. L., Xu, R., Zeng, Q. C., Li, X., Chen, J., Wang, Y. F., Fan, B., Geng, L., Li, B. Tanshinone IIA Inhibits Growth of Keratinocytes through Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis: Underlying Treatment Mechanism of Psoriasis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012.
Li, L. Y., Luo, L., Wang, X. D. Endonuclease G is an apoptotic DNase when released from mitochondria. Nature 2001, 412, 95-99.
Lien, H. M., Lin, H. W., Wang, Y. J., Chen, L. C., Yang, D. Y., Lai, Y. Y., Ho, Y. S. Inhibition of Anchorage-Independent Proliferation and G0/G1 Cell-Cycle Regulation in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells by 4,7-Dimethoxy-5-Methyl-l,3-Benzodioxole Isolated from the Fruiting Body of Antrodia camphorate. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011, 1-10.
Lu, M. K., Cheng, J. J., Lai, W. L., Lin, Y. R., Huang, N. K. Adenosine as an active component of Antrodia cinnamomea that prevents rat PC12 cells from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis through the activation of adenosine A(2A) receptors. Life Sciences 2006, 79, 252-258.
Maiuri, M. C., Zalckvar, E., Kimchi, A., Kroemer, G. Self-eating and self-killing: crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 2007, 8, 741-752.
Male, K. B., Rao, Y. K., Tzeng, Y. M., Montes, J., Kamen, A., Luong, J. H. T. Probing Inhibitory Effects of Antrodia camphorata Isolates Using Insect Cell-Based Impedance Spectroscopy: Inhibition vs Chemical Structure. Chem Res Toxicol 2008, 21, 2127-2133.
Malhotra, J. D., Kaufman, R. J. ER stress and its functional link to mitochondria: role in cell survival and death. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2011, 3, a004424.
Marchetti, C., Obert, G., Deffosez, A., Formstecher, P., Marchetti, P. Study of mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species, DNA fragmentation and cell viability by flow cytometry in human sperm. Hum Reprod 2002, 17, 1257-1265.
Masud, A., Mohapatra, A., Lakhani, S. A., Ferrandino, A., Hakem, R., Flavell, R. A. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced death of mouse embryonic fibroblasts requires the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. J. Biol. Chem. 2007, 282, 14132-14139.
Maxfield, F. R., Wustner, D. Intracellular cholesterol transport. J. Clin. Invest. 2002, 110, 891-898.
McCullough, K. D., Martindale, J. L., Klotz, L. O., Aw, T. Y., Holbrook, N. J. Gadd153 sensitizes cells to endoplasmic reticulum stress by down-regulating Bc12 and perturbing the cellular redox state. Molecular and Cellular Biology 2001, 21, 1249-1259.
Meier, P., Finch, A., Evan, G. Apoptosis in development. Nature 2000, 407, 796-801.
Mijaljica, D., Rosado, C. J., Devenish, R. J., Prescott, M. (2011). Biosensors for Monitoring Autophagy.
Mizushima, N., Levine, B., Cuervo, A. M., Klionsky, D. J. Autophagy fights disease through cellular self-digestion. Nature 2008, 451, 1069-1075.
Mosmann, T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J. Immunol. Methods 1983a, 65, 55-63.
Mosmann, T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. . J. Immunol. Methods 1983b, 65, 55-63.
Newton, H. B. Neurologic complications of systemic cancer. Am. Fam. Physician 1999, 59, 878-886.
Okada, H., Mak, T. W. Pathways of apoptotic and non-apoptotic death in tumor cells. Nat. Rev. Cancer 2004, 4, 592-603.
Ou, C. C., Ko, J. L., Lin, M. Y. Antioxidative effects of intracellular extracts of yogurt bacteria on lipid peroxidation and intestine 407 cells. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 2006, 14, 304-310.
Pahl, H. L. Signal transduction from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell nucleus. Physiol Rev 1999, 79, 683-701.
Parkin, D. M., Bray, F., Ferlay, J., Pisani, P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. Ca-a Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2005, 55, 74-108.
Paschen, W., Frandsen, A. Endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction--a common denominator for cell injury in acute and degenerative diseases of the brain? J Neurochem 2001, 79, 719-725.
Patel, T. Cholangiocarcinoma. Nat. Clin. Pract. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2006, 3, 33-42.
Pencer, J., Nieh, M. P., Harroun, T. A., Krueger, S., Adams, C., Katsaras, J. Bilayer thickness and thermal response of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles containing cholesterol, ergosterol and lanosterol: a small-angle neutron scattering study. B.B.A.-Biomembranes 2005, 1720, 84-91.
Rao, R. V., Ellerby, H. M., Bredesen, D. E. Coupling endoplasmic reticulum stress to the cell death program. Cell Death Differ 2004, 11, 372-380.
Rasheva, V. I., Domingos, P. M. Cellular responses to endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis. Apoptosis 2009, 14, 996-1007.
Riedl, S. J., Shi, Y. Molecular mechanisms of caspase regulation during apoptosis. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2004, 5, 897-907.
Roy-Chowdhury, N., Roy-Chowdhury, J. Sleisenger and Fordtran''s gastrointestinal and liver disease, 9th ed. Elsevier Science Health Science div 2010, 1207-1225.
Scull, C. M., Tabas, I. Mechanisms of ER stress-induced apoptosis in atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2011, 31, 2792-2797.
Shapiro IIa, Shabrov, A. V., Karev, V. E., Leenman, E. E., Kvetnoi, I. M., Tsinzerling, V. A., Sologub, T. V. Clinical and molecular correlation between chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma induced by hepatitis B virus. Arkh. Patol. 2005, 67, 6-10.
Shen, Y. C., Wang, Y. H., Chou, Y. C., Chen, C. F., Lin, L. C., Chang, T. T., Tien, J. H., Chou, C. J. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of zhankuic acids isolated from the fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorata. Planta Medica 2004, 70, 310-314.
Shimizu, I. Sho-saiko-to: Japanese herbal medicine for protection against hepatic fibrosis and carcinoma. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2000, 15, D84-D90.
Souei, M. M., Graiess, T. K., Yacoubi, M. T. Biliary cystadenocarcinoma: a case report disease. J. Radiol. 2005, 86, 1035-1037.
Su, Y. C., Liu, C. T., Chu, Y. L., Raghu, R., Kuo, Y. H., Sheen, L. Y. Eburicoic Acid, an Active Triterpenoid from the Fruiting Bodies of Basswood Cultivated Antrodia cinnamomea , Induces ER Stress-Mediated Autophagy in Human Hepatoma Cells. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 2012, 2, 312-322.
Svegliati-Baroni, G., Di Sario, A., Casini, A., Ferretti, G., D''Ambrosio, L., Ridolfi, F., Bolognini, L., Salzano, R., Orlandi, F., Benedetti, A. The Na+/H+ exchanger modulates the fibrogenic effect of oxidative stress in rat hepatic stellate cells. J. Hepatol. 1999, 30, 868-875.
Tarnowski, B. I., Spinale, F. G., Nicholson, J. H. Dapi as a Useful Stain for Nuclear Quantitation. Biotechnic & Histochemistry 1991, 66, 296-302.
Taylor, R. C., Cullen, S. P., Martin, S. J. Apoptosis: controlled demolition at the cellular level. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Bio. 2008, 9, 231-241.
Thuerauf, D. J., Marcinko, M., Gude, N., Rubio, M., Sussman, M. A., Glembotski, C. C. Activation of the unfolded protein response in infarcted mouse heart and hypoxic cultured cardiac myocytes. Circ. Res. 2006, 99, 275-282.
Tominaga, S. Major avoidable risk factors of cancer. Cancer Lett. 1999, 143, S19-S23.
Tortora, G., Grabowski, S. Principles of anatomy and physiology. John Wiley & Sons Inc. 1996, 777-782.
Towbin, H., Staehelin, T., Gordon, J. Electrophoretic Transfer of Proteins from Polyacrylamide Gels to Nitrocellulose Sheets - Procedure and Some Applications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1979, 76, 4350-4354.
Toyoshima, C., Nakasako, M., Nomura, H., Ogawa, H. Crystal structure of the calcium pump of sarcoplasmic reticulum at 2.6 A resolution. Nature 2000, 405, 647-655.
Tsai, Z. T., Liaw, S. L. The use and the effect of Ganoderma. San Yun Press 1985, 116-117.
van der Vlies, D., Makkinje, M., Jansens, A., Braakman, I., Verkleij, A. J., Wirtz, K. W., Post, J. A. Oxidation of ER resident proteins upon oxidative stress: effects of altering cellular redox/antioxidant status and implications for protein maturation. Antioxid. Redox Sign. 2003, 5, 381-387.
Vance, J. E. Phospholipid-Synthesis in a Membrane-Fraction Associated with Mitochondria. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1990, 265, 7248-7256.
Verfaillie, T., Salazar, M., Velasco, G., Agostinis, P. Linking ER stress to autophagy: potential implications for cancer therapy. Int. J. Cell Biol. 2010, 2010, 930509.
Wang, W. M., Wu, R. Y., Ko, W. H. Variation and segregation following nuclear transplantation in Antrodia cinnamomea. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sinica. 2005, 46, 217-222.
Welch, C., Santra, M. K., El-Assaad, W., Zhu, X. C., Huber, W. E., Keys, R. A., Teodoro, J. G., Green, M. R. Identification of a Protein, G0S2, That Lacks Bcl-2 Homology Domains and Interacts with and Antagonizes Bcl-2. Cancer Research 2009, 69, 6782-6789.
Weng, C. J., Wu, C. F., Huang, H. W., Ho, C. T., Yen, G. C. Anti-invasion effects of 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol, two active components in ginger, on human hepatocarcinoma cells. Mol Nutr Food Res 2010, 54, 1618-1627.
Wild, C. P., Montesano, R. A model of interaction: Aflatoxins and hepatitis viruses in liver cancer aetiology and prevention. Cancer Lett 2009, 286, 22-28.
Wu, D. P., Chiang, H. C. Constituents of Antrodia-Cinnamomea. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society 1995, 42, 797-800.
Wu, M. D., Cheng, M. J., Wang, B. C., Yech, Y. J., Lai, J. T., Kuo, Y. H., Yuan, G. F., Chen, I. S. Maleimide and maleic anhydride derivatives from the mycelia of Antrodia cinnamomea and their nitric oxide inhibitory activities in macrophages. Journal of Natural Products 2008, 71, 1258-1261.
Wu, S. H., Ryvarden, L., Chang, T. T. Antrodia camphorata ("niu-chang-chih"), new combination of a medicinal fungus in Taiwan. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sinica. 1997, 38, 273-275.
Wu, S. H., Yu, Z. H., Dai, Y. C., Chen, C. T., Su, C. H., Chen, L. C., Hsu, W. C., Hwang, G. Y. Taiwanofungus, a polypore new genus. Fung. Sci. 2004, 19, 109-116.
Yang, J., Liu, X. S., Bhalla, K., Kim, C. N., Ibrado, A. M., Cai, J. Y., Peng, T. I., Jones, D. P., Wang, X. D. Prevention of apoptosis by Bcl-2: Release of cytochrome c from mitochondria blocked. Science 1997, 275, 1129-1132.
Yang, S. S., Wang, G. J., Wang, S. Y., Lin, Y. Y., Kuo, Y. H., Lee, T. H. New Constituents with iNOS Inhibitory Activity from Mycelium of Antrodia camphorata. Planta Medica 2009, 75, 512-516.
Yeh, C. T., Rao, Y. K., Yao, C. J., Yeh, C. F., Li, C. H., Chuang, S. E., Luong, J. H. T., Lai, G. M., Tzeng, Y. M. Cytotoxic triterpenes from Antrodia camphorata and their mode of action in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Cancer Lett 2009, 285, 73-79.
Yoshida, H., Matsui, T., Yamamoto, A., Okada, T., Mori, K. XBP1 mRNA is induced by ATF6 and spliced by IRE1 in response to ER stress to produce a highly active transcription factor. Cell 2001, 107, 881-891.
Zachwieja, J., Zaniew, M., Bobkowski, W., Stefaniak, E., Warzywoda, A., Ostalska-Nowicka, D., Dobrowolska-Zachwieja, A., Lewandowska-Stachowiak, M., Siwinska, A. Beneficial in vitro effect of N-acetyl-cysteine on oxidative stress and apoptosis. Pediatric Nephrology 2005, 20, 725-731.
Zhang, K., Kaufman, R. J. Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum and the unfolded protein response. Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. 2006, 69-91.
Zhang, M., Su, Q. Ganoderma comphoratum, a new taxon in genus Ganoderma from Taiwan, China. Acta Bot. Yunnanica 1990, 12, 395-396.
Zhou, F., Yang, Y., Xing, D. Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL play important roles in the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis. FEBS J. 2011, 278, 403-413.


QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top