訪客IP:34.204.191.31
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
本論文永久網址: 
line
研究生:羅紹齊
研究生(外文):Shao-Chi Lo
論文名稱:餐飲業細懸浮微粒排放與化學成份分析
論文名稱(外文):Emissions and chemical composition analysis of fine particulate emitted from restaurants.
指導教授:楊錫賢楊錫賢引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsi-Hsien Yang
口試委員:楊禮豪張簡水紋
口試委員(外文):Li-Hao YangShui-Wen Chang Chien
口試日期:2014-07-21
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與管理系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:PM2.5餐飲業細懸浮微粒排放管道採樣排放係數指紋圖譜
外文關鍵詞:Fine particulaterestaurantstack samplingemission factorsource profile
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:1477
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:3
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
本研究針對臺灣地區之餐飲業細懸浮微粒進行採樣,參照環境保護署公告之「排放管道中細懸浮微粒(PM2.5)檢測方法(NIEA A212.10B)」與US EPA Method 201A採樣方法,於2012年12月至2013年12月解析不同烹調類型之餐飲業PM2.5排放特性。將採集之樣品進行金屬成份、陰陽離子、碳成份及PAHs元素分析,並建立臺灣地區餐飲業PM2.5排放係數與指紋資料。採樣對象分別為燒烤業、速食業、中式餐廳與其它類別(無明顯烹調特性),共計8個測點,各測點排放管道排氣溫度介於26~29℃。本研究PM2.5微粒係利用採樣管前端加裝PM2.5旋風分徑器來收集排放管道中之PM2.5微粒,並參照USEPA Method 201A方法將已完成採樣之PM2.5濾紙收集分析。
本研究結果顯示,各類型之餐飲業管道排放中,中式餐廳測得之懸浮微粒質量濃度高於其他類別,各測點之PM2.5濃度介於1.28~13.9 mg/Nm3,不同行業別因烹調方式與防制設備不同,使排放濃度有所差異。各採樣點化學組成方面,金屬成份所佔比例平均為1.38%;陰陽離子所佔比例平均為3.81%;碳成份所佔比例平均為81.1%;PAHs所佔比例平均為0.19%。各類別之PM2.5、金屬成份、陰陽離子、碳成份與PAHs元素之平均排放係數分別以用餐人數與用油量進行計算,其中用餐人數之平均排放係數,燒烤業分別為513、4.00、14.4、217與0.98 mg/client;速食業分別為165、2.10、4.68、68.5與0.25 mg/client;中式餐廳分別為356、3.91、13.6、147與0.30 mg/client;其它類別分別為72、1.93、3.94、29.8與0.13 mg/client。
In this study, fine particulate emitted from restaurants were collected by Taiwan EPA NIEA A212.10B and USEPA Method 201A to realize the emission characteristics for different types of cooking from December 2012 to December 2013. Eight samples from various restaurants including barbecue, fast food, Chinese restaurant and the others were collected in this study. Each sample was analyzed for metals, ions, carbon composition and PAHs. The stack temperatures are between 26~29℃ for the stacks. PM2.5 cyclone is installed in front of the sampling line to separate particulate larger than 2.5 μm.
The results of this study show that PM2.5 emission concentration is highest. The concentrations are between 1.28 and 13.9 mg/Nm3. PM2.5 emission concentrations varied highly for different types of reataurant because of different cooking type and different control devices. Metal elements, ions, carbons and PAHs account for 1.38%, 3.81%, 81.1% and 0.19% of PM2.5, respectively. Emission factors of PM2.5, metal elements, ions, carbons and PAHs based on number of client and fuel consumption were calculated. Emission factors of PM2.5, metal elements, ions, carbons and PAHs for barbecue restaurant is 513, 4.00, 14.4, 217 and 0.98 mg/client; fast food restaurant is 165, 2.10, 4.68, 68.5 and 0.25 mg/client; Chinese restaurant is 356, 3.91, 13.6, 147 and 0.30 mg/client; others are 72, 1.93 , 3.94, 29.8 and 0.13 mg/client.
總目錄
摘要 I
Abstract III
總目錄 IV
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 X
第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究動機 1
1-2 研究內容與目標 2
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1 懸浮微粒 4
2-1-1 懸浮微粒之定義 4
2-1-2 懸浮微粒對人體的危害 5
2-1-3 懸浮微粒之來源 9
2-3 大氣懸浮微粒化學組成 12
2-3-1金屬成份來源與特性 12
2-3-2 水溶性離子成份來源與特性 16
2-3-3 碳成份來源與特性 18
2-3-4 PAHs來源與特性 20
2.5 油煙的成份與危害 24
2-6 油煙管制現況 28
第三章 實驗設備與方法 31
3-1 採樣點規劃與選定 31
3-2 餐飲業排放管道PM2.5採樣設備 32
3-2-1 吸引嘴(Nozzle) 34
3-2-2 PM2.5旋風分離器 35
3-2-3 濾紙支撐器 37
3-2-4皮托管 37
3-2-5 不鏽鋼採樣管 38
3-2-6採樣器主機 38
3-2-7乾式衝擊瓶 39
3-3 餐飲業排放管道PM2.5採樣方法 39
3-3-1 測定位置 40
3-3-2 排氣組成測定 41
3-3-3 排氣含水量的測定 41
3-3-4 排氣溫度的測定 42
3-3-5 排氣流速、流量的測定 42
3-3-6 等速吸引計算 43
3-3-7 採樣濾紙前處理與秤重 44
3-3-8微粒濃度計算 44
3-4 餐飲業PM2.5微粒樣品成份分析 45
3-4-1 陰陽離子分析 46
3-4-2 金屬分析 47
3-4-3 碳成份分析 48
3-4-4 PAHs分析 50
3-5 排放係數建立 53
3-6 排放源指紋資料建立 53
第四章 結果與討論 55
4-1 各測點排氣組成與含水量 55
4-2餐飲業排放之PM2.5濃度 57
4-3 PM2.5微粒成份組成份析 59
4-3-1 金屬成份組成份析 59
4-3-2 離子成份組成份析 62
4-3-3 碳成份組成份析 65
4-3-4 PAHs成份組成份析 68
4-3-4-1 PAHs成份濃度 68
4-3-4-2 各環數PAHs分佈百分比 76
4-4 排放係數 79
4-4-1 PM2.5排放係數 79
4-4-2 金屬排放係數 80
4-4-3 離子排放係數 82
4-4-4 碳成份排放係數 84
4-4-5 PAHs排放係數 86
4-4-6 每克PM2.5微粒之PAHs含量 88
4-5 排放源指紋資料建置 92
第五章 結論 98
參考文獻 100
附錄 品質保證與品質控制 111
附錄I 濾紙秤重品質管制 111
附錄II 金屬分析品保品管 114
附錄III 離子分析品保品管 125
附件Ⅳ 碳成份分析之品保與品管 132
表目錄
表3-1 餐飲業採樣對象規劃 32
表3-2 本研究餐飲業採樣資訊 32
表3-3 吸氣嘴規格(高排放管道流速) 34
表3-4 吸氣嘴規格(低排放管道流速) 35
表3-5 旋風分徑器Ⅳ(2.5 μm)設計尺寸 36
表3-7 十六種PAHs之分子量、結構式及物理特性 54
表4-1 文獻PM2.5之金屬成份濃度 62
表4-2 文獻PM2.5之離子成份濃度 65
表4-3 文獻PM2.5之碳成份濃度 67
表4-4 文獻PM2.5之PAHs成份濃度 (Particle) 74
表4-5 文獻PM2.5之PAHs成份濃度 (Particle + Gas) 75
表4-6 文獻PM2.5之PAHs環數分布百分比(Particle) 78
表4-7 文獻PM2.5之PAHs環數分布百分比(Particle + gas) 79
表4-8 文獻PM2.5之PAHs成份濃度(μg/g) 91
表4-9 各行業別餐飲業PM2.5指紋資料(%) 93
表4-10 各行業別餐飲業PM2.5指紋資料(%) 94
表4-11 各行業別餐飲業PM2.5指紋資料(%) 95
表4-12 各行業別餐飲業PM2.5指紋資料(%) 96
表4-13 USEPA SPECIATE餐飲油煙PM2.5指紋資料(%) 97
附表1 金屬元素之偵測極限 124
附表2 陰陽離子之偵測極限 131
圖目錄
圖2-1 大氣中粒狀污染物粒徑分布圖(Whitby and Sverdrup, 1980) 5
圖2-2 懸浮微粒吸入呼吸器官示意圖 6
圖2-3 標準狀態下等速吸引流速情形(Hemeon et al., 1972) 11
圖2-4 不同等速吸引流速採樣誤差情形(Hemeon et al., 1972) 11
圖3-1 排放管道PM2.5採樣系統 33
圖3-2 XC-5000 Automated Isokinetic Sampling Console採樣器外觀 33
圖3-3 PM2.5旋風分徑器適用吸氣嘴(高排放管道流速) 34
圖3-4 PM2.5旋風分徑器適用吸氣嘴(低排放管道流速) 35
圖3-5 旋風分徑器Ⅳ(2.5 μm)設計尺寸 36
圖3-6 PM2.5旋風分離器示意圖 36
圖3-7 排放管道氣流因採樣頭與皮托管造成之阻擋 38
圖3-8 排放管道粒狀物採樣流程 39
圖3-10 排氣組成測定(Orsat)裝置 41
圖4-1 各測點之排氣組成 55
圖4-2 各測點之排氣溫度 56
圖4-3 各測點之含水量 57
圖4-4 各採樣點之PM2.5微粒濃度 58
圖4-5 各測點之金屬濃度檢測結果 60
圖4-6 各餐飲類型之金屬濃度檢測結果 61
圖4-7 各測點之離子濃度檢測結果 64
圖4-8 各餐飲類型之離子濃度檢測結果 64
圖4-9 各測點之碳濃度檢測結果 67
圖4-10 各餐飲類型之碳濃度檢測結果 68
圖4-11 各測點之PAHs濃度檢測結果 71
圖4-12 各餐飲類型之PAHs濃度檢測結果 71
圖4-13 各餐飲類型之PM2.5排放係數(μg/人) 80
圖4-14 各餐飲類型之金屬排放係數(μg/人) 82
圖4-15 各餐飲類型之金屬排放係數(mg/L) 82
圖4-16 各餐飲類型之離子排放係數(μg/人) 83
圖4-17 各餐飲類型之離子排放係數(mg/L) 84
圖4-18 各餐飲類型之碳成份排放係數(μg/人) 86
圖4-19 各餐飲類型之碳成份排放係數(mg/L) 86
圖4-20 各餐飲類型之PAHs排放係數(μg/人) 88
圖4-21 各餐飲類型之PAHs排放係數(mg/L) 88
圖4-22 各餐飲類型每克微粒中總PAHs含量(μg/g) 89
附圖1 金屬分析QA/QC管制流程圖 116
附圖2 Al、Ca、Cr、Cd、Cu、Fe、K之檢量線 117
附圖3 Mg、Mn、Na、Ni、Pb、Zn之檢量線 118
附圖4 離子分析QA/QC管制流程圖 126
附圖5 K+、Na+、NH4+、Mg2+、Ca2+、SO42-、NO2-、NO3-、Cl-之檢量線 127
附圖6 石英濾紙處理流程圖 134
Almeida, S. M., Pio, C. A., Freitas, M. C., Reis, M. A., Trancoso, M. A., 2005. Source Apportionment of Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter in a Sub-urban Area at The Western European Coast. Atmospheric Environment 39, 3127-3138.
Barfknecht, T.R., 1983. Toxicology of Soot. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 9, 199-237.
Berg, I., Overvik, E., Gustafsson, J. A., 1990. Effect of Cooking Time on Mutagen Formation in Smoke, Crust and Pan Residue from Pan-broiled Pork. Food Chem. Topxicol 28, 421-426.
Bjørseth, A., and Ramahl, T., 1985. Source and Emission of PAHs, Handbook of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Vol. 1, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York and Basel.
Brauer, M. and Mannetje, A., 1998. Restaurant Smoking Restrictions and Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure. American Journal of Public Health 88, 1834-1836.
Buonarati, M. H. and Felton, J. S., 1990. Activation of 2-amino-1-methyl- 6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) to Mutagenic Metabolites. Carcinog. 11(7), 1133-1138.
Buonarati, M.H., Turteltaub K.W., Shen, N.H. Felton J.S. (1990). Role of Sulfation and Acetylation in the Activation of 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] Pyridine to Intermediates which Bind DNA. Mutation Research 245(3), 185-190.
Burnett, R. T., Smith-Doiron, M., Stieb, D., Cakmak, S., Brook, J. R., 1999. Effects of Aprticulate and Gaseous Air Pollution on Cardiorespiratory Hospitalizations. Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health 54, 130-139.
Cao, J. J., Lee, S. C., Ho, K. F., Zhang, X. Y., Zou, S. C., Fung, K., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., 2003. Characteristics Carbonaceous Aerosol in Pearl River Delta Region, China during 2001 winter period. Atmospheric Environment 37, 1451-1460.
Carmichael, G. R., Zhang, Y., Chen, L. L., Hong, M. S., Ueda, H., 1996. Seasonal Variation of Aerosol Composition at Cheju Island, Korea, Atmospheric Environment 30, 2407-2416.
Cass, G. R., 1998. Organic Molecular Tracers for Particulate Air Pollution Aources. Trends in Analytical Chemistry 17, 356-366.
Cheng, Y., He, K. B., Duan, F. K., Zheng, M., Du, Z. Y., Ma, Y. L., Tan, J. H., 2011. Ambient Organic Carbon to Elemental Carbon Ratios: Influences of the Measurement Methods and Implications. Atmospheric Environment 45, 2060-2066.
Chen, J. W., Wang, S. L., Hsieh, D. P. H., Yang, H. H., Lee, H. L., 2012. Carcinogenic Potencies of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons for Back-door Neighbors of Restaurants with Cooking Emissions. Science of the Total Environment 417-418, 68-75
Chiang, T. A., Wu, P. F., Ying, L. S., Wang, L. F. Ko, Y. C., 1999. Mutagenicity and Aromatic Amine Content of Fumes from Heated Cooking Oils Produced in Taiwan. Food and Chemical Toxicology 37, 125-134.
Chou, H. C., Lang, N. P., Kadlubar, F. F., 1995. Metabolic Activation of N-hydroxy Arylamines and N-hydroxy Heterocyclic Amines by Human Sulfotransferase. Cancer Research 55, 525-529.
Chow, J. C., 1995. Measurement Methods to Determine Compliance with Ambient Air Quality Standard for Suspended Particles. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 45, 320-382.
Dipple, A., Pigott, M. A., Agarwal, S. K., Yagi, H., Sayer, J. M. Jerina, D. M. 1987. Optically Active Benzo[c]phenanthrene Diol Epoxides Bind Extensively to Adenine in DNA. Nature 327, 535-536.
Donaldson, K., Mills, N., MacNee, W., Robinson, S., Newby, D., 2005. Role of Inflammation in Cardiopulmonary Health Effects of PM. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 207, 483-488.
Eldered, R. A., Cahill, T. A., Flochini, R. G., 1997. Composition of PM2.5 and PM10 Aerosols in the IMPROVE Network. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 47, 194-203.
Eisenbrand, G., Tang, W., 1993. Food-borne Heterocyclic Amines Chemistry, Formation, Occurrence and Biological Activities. A literature review. Toxicol 84, 1-82.
Felton, J. S., and Knize, M. G., 1994. Heterocyclic-amine Mutagens / Carcinogens in Foods. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology 94, 471-502.
Fu, P. P., Qui, F. Y., Jung, H., Von Tungeln, L. S., Zhan, D. J., Lee, M. J., Wu, Y. S. Heflich, R. H., 1997. Metabolism of Isomeric Nitrobenzo[a]pyrenes Leading to DNA Adducts and Mutagenesis. Mutation Research 376, 43-51.
Ghoshal, A., Davis, C. D., Schut, H. A. J. Snyderwine, E. G., 1995. Possible Mechanisms for PhIP-DNA Adduct Formation in the Mammary Gland of Female Sprague-Dawley Rats. Carcinogenesis 16, 11, 2725-2731.
Godleski, J. J., Verrier, R. L., Koutrakis, P., Catalano, P., Coull, B., Reinishch, U., Lovett, E.G., Lawrence, J., Murthy, G.G., Wolfson, J.M., Clarke, R.W., Nearing, B.D., Killingsworth C., 2000. Mechanisms of Morbidity and Mortality from Exposure to Ambient Particles. Research Report Health Effects Institute 91, 5-88.
Gooderham, N. J., Murray, S. Lynch, A. M., Yadollahi-Farsani, M., Zhao, K., Boobis A. R., Davies, D. S., 2001. Food-derived Heterocyclic Amine Mutagens: Variable Metabolism and Significance to Humans. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 29, 529-534.
Gu, J., Bai, Z., Liu, A., Wu, L., Xie Y., Li, W., Dong, H., 2010. Characterization of Atmospheric Organic Carbon and Element Carbon of PM2.5 and PM10 at Tianjin, China. Aerosol and Air Quality Research 10, 167-176.
Hallstrom, B. and Skjoldebrand, C., 1983. Heat and Mass Transport in Solid Foods. In Development in Food Preservation, S. Thorne. Applied Science Publishers 2, 61-94.
Harrison, R. M., Smith, D. J. T., Luhana, L., 1996. Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Collected from an Urban Location in Birmingham, UK. Environment Science and Technology 30, 825-832.
Hemeon, W. C. L., Black, A. W., 1972. Stack Dust Sampling: In-stack Filter or EPA Train. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 22, 516-520.
He, L. Y., Hu, M., Huang, X. F., Yu, B. D., Zhang Y. H., Liu, D. Q., 2004. Measurement of Emissions of Fine Particulate Organic Matter from Chinese Cooking. Atmospheric Environment 38, 6557-6564.
Hu, M., He, L. Y., Zhang, Y. H., Wang, M., Kim, Y. P., Moon, K. C., 2002. Seasonal Variation of Ionic in Fine Particles at Qingdao, China. Atmospheric Environment 36, 5853-5839.
Hildemann, L. M., Markowski, G. R., Cass, G. R., 1991. Chemical Composition of Emissions from Urban Sources of Fine Organic Aerosol. Environmental Science and Technology 25, 744-759.

James, P. S., Raveendra, V. I., Timothy, E., 1995. Multivariate Statistical Examination of Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Heavy Metal Contamination in New Bedford Harbor Marine Sediments. Environmental Science 29, 1781-1788.
Kaderlik, K. R., Minchin, R. F., Mulder, G. J., Ilett, K. F., Daugaard-Jenson M., Teitel, C. H., Kadlubar, F. F., 1994. Metabolic Activation Pathway for the Formation of DNA Adducts of the Carcinogen2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in Rat Extrahepatic Tissues. Carcinog 15, 1703-1709.
Kataoka, H., 1997. Methods for the Determination of Mutagenic Heterocyclic Amines and Their Applications in Environmental Analysis. Journal of Chromatography A 774, 121-142.
Kim, Y. P., Lee, J. H., Baik, N. J., Kim, J. Y., Shim, S. G., Kang, C. H., 1998. Summertime Characteristics of Aerosol Composition at Cheju Island, Korea. Atmospheric Environment 32, 2751-5758.
Kumar, R., Srivastava, P. K., Srivastava, S. P., 1994. Leaching of Heavy Metals (Cr, Fe, and Ni) from Stainless Steel Utensils in Food Simulants and Food Materials. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 53, 259-266.
Lewin, C. I., 1990. The Effect of Cigarette Cigarette Construction Parameters on Smoke Generation and Yield. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry Tob. Sci.
Liao, D., Creason, J., Shy, C., Williams, R., Watts, R., Zweidinger, R., 1999. Daily Variation of Particulate Air Pollution and Poor Cardiac Autonomic Control in the Elderly. Environmental Health Perspectives 107, 521-525.
Li, S., Pan, D., Wang G., 1994. Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cooking Oil Fumes. Archive of Environmental Health 49, 119-122.
Li, C. T., Lee, W. J., Wu, C. H., Wang, Y. T., 1995a. PAH Emission from Waste Ion-exchange Resin Incineration. Sci. Total Environ 155, 253-266
Li, C. T., Lee, W. J., Mi, H. H., Su, C. C., 1995b. PAH Emission from the Incineration of Waste Oily Sludge and PE Plastic Mixtures. Sci. Total Environ 170, 171-183.


Lopez, J. M., Callen, M. S., Murillo, R., Garcia, T., Navarro, M. V., de la Cruz, M. T., Mastral, A. M., 2005. Levels of Selected Metals in Ambient Air PM10 in an Urban Site of Zaragoza (Spain). Environmental Research 99, 58-67.
Lofroth, G., Stensman, C., Brandhorst-Satzkorn, M., 1991. Indoor Sources of Mutagenic Aerosol Part: Culate Matter: Smoking, Cooking and Incense Buring. Mutation Research 264, 21-28.
Masclet, P., Mouvier, G., Nikolaou, K., 1986. Relative Decay Index and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Atmospheric Environment 20, 439–446.
Miller, F. J., 1999. Dosimetry of Particles: Critical Factors Having Risk Assessment Implications. Inhalation Toxicology 12, 389–395.
Minchin, R. F., Reeves, P. T., Teitel, C. H., McManus, M. E., Mojarrabi, B., Ilett, K. F. Kadlubar, F. F., 1992. N-and O-acetylation of Aromatic and Heterocyclic Amine Carcinogens by Human Monomorphic and Polymorphic Acetyltransferases Expressed in COS-1 Cells. Biochem. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 185, 839-844.
Nicole, A. H. J., Dimphe, F. M., Katinka, V. D. J., Hendrik, H., Gerard, H., 1988. Mass Concentration and Elemental Composition of Airborne Particulate Matter at Street and Background Locations. Atmospheric Environment 31, 1185-1193.
Nriagu, J. O., Pacyna, J. M., 1988. Quantitative Assessment of Worldwide Contamination of Air, Water and Solid by Trace Metals. National Water Research Institute 333, 134-139.
Nriagu, J. O., 1989. A Global Assessment of Natural Source of Atmospheric Trace Metals. National Water Research Institute 338, 47-49.
Oeder, S., Dietrich, S., Weichenmeier, I., Schober, W., Pusch, G., Jörres, R. A., Schierl, R., Nowak, D., Fromme, H., Behrendt, H., Buters, J. T., 2012. Toxicity and Elemental Composition of Particulate Matter from Outdoor and Indoor Air of Elementary Schools in Munich, Germany. Indoor Air 22, 148-158.
Oliveira, C., Pio, C., Caseiro, A., Santos, P., Nunes, T., Mao, H., Luahana, L., Sokhi, R., 2010. Road Traffic Impact on Urban Atmospheric Aerosol Loading at Oporto, Portugal. Atmospheric Environment 44, 3147-3158.
Pacyna, J. M., 1986. Atmospheric Trace Elements from Natural and Anthropogenic Sources, in Nriagu, in Nriagu, J.O., Davidson, C.I. (Eds.): Toxic metals in the atmosphere. Wiley, New York (1986).
Peters, A., Vonklot, S., Heier, M., Trentinaglia, I., Hormann, A., Wichmann, H. E., Lowel, H., 2004. Exposure to Traffic and the Onset of Myocardial Infarction. New England Journal of Medicine, 351, 1721-1730.
Pope III, C. A., Burnett, R. T., Thun, M. J., Calle, E. E., Krewski, D., Ito, K., Thurstion, G. D., 2002. Lung Cancer, Cardiopulmonary Mortality, and Long-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution. Journal of the American Medical Association 287, 1132-1141.
Pope III, C. A., Burnett, R. T., Thurston, G. D., thun, M. J., Calle, E. E., krewski, D., Godleski, J. J., 2004. Cardiovascular Mortality and Long-term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution: Epidemiological Evidence of General Pathophysiological Pathways of Disease. Circulation 109, 71-77.
Polichetti, G., Cocco, S., Spinali, A., Trimarco, V., Nunziata, A., 2009. Effects of Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1.0) on the Cardiovascular System. Toxicology 261, 1-8.
PUB (Public Utilities Board) Home Page, 2007. Available from: http://www.pub.gov.sg/general/pages/watertreatment.aspx (accessed June 2007).
Querol, X., and Alastuey, A., 2000. Levels and Chemistry of Atmospheric Particulates Induced by a Spill of Heavy Metal Mining Wastes in the Donana Area, Southwest Spain. Atmospheric Environment 34, 239-253.
Riediker, M., Cascio, W. E., Griggs, T. R., Herbst, M. C., Bromberg, P. A., Neas, L., Williams, R. W., Devlin, R. B., 2004 Particulate Matter Exposure in Cars is Associated with Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Young Men. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 169, 934-940.
Rodriguez, S., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Viana, M. M., Alarcon, M., Mantilla, E., Ruiz, C. R., 2004. Comparative PM10-PM2.5 Source Contribution Study at Rural, Urban and Industrial Sites During PM Episodes in Eastern Spain. Science of the Total Environment 328, 95-113.

Rogge, W. F., Hildemann, L. M., Mazurek, M. A., Cass, G. R., Simonelt, B. R. T., 1991. Sources of Fine Organic Aerosol. 1. Charbroilers and Meat Cooking Operations. Environmental Science and Technology 25, 1112-1125.
Rogge, W. F., Hildemann, L. M., Mazurek, M. A., Cas, G. R., 1993. Sources of Fine Organic Aerosol, 3, Road Dust, Tire Debris, and Organometallic Brake Lining Dust: Roads as Sources and Sinks. Environmental Science & Technology, 27, 1892-1904.
Samet, J. M., Dominici, F., Curriero, F. C., Coursac, I., Zeger, S. L., 2000. Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Mortality in 20 US Cities. 1987-1994. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 343, 1742-1749.
Schauer, J. J., Kleeman, M. J., Cass, G. R., Simoneit, B. R. T., 1999a. Measurement of Emissions from Air Pollution Sources. 1. C1 through C29 Organic Compounds from Meat Charbroiling. Environmental Science & Technology 33, 1566-1577.
Schauer, J. J., Kleeman, M. J., Cass, G. R., Simoneit, B. R. T., 2002. Measurement of Emissions from Air Pollution Sources. 4. C1-C27 Organic Compounds from Cooking with Seed Oils. Environmental Science & Technology 36, 567-575.
Seaton, A., Macnee, W., Donaldson, W., Godden, D., 1995. Particulate Air Pollution and Acute Health Effects. The Lancet 345, 176-178.
See, W. S., Bajasubrsmanian, R., 2008. Chemical Characteristics of Fine Particles Emitted from Different Gas Cooking Methods. Atmospheric Environment 42, 8852-8862.
Sflomos, C., Rapadopoulou, R. Athanasiou, K., 1989. Temperature and Time Effects on Mutagen Production in Cooked Lamb Meat. Mutagenesis 4, 228-229.
Sheu, H. L., Lee, W. J., Tsai, J. H., Fan, Y. C., Su, C. C., Chao, H. R., 1996. Particle Size Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Ambient Air of a Traffic Intersection. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, 1293-1316.
Shwartz, J., Dockery, D. W., Neas, L. M., 1996. Is Daily Mortlity Associated Specifically with Fine Particles. Air and Waste Management Association 46, 927-939.
Silvestre, B. T., Roy, B. E., 1986. Fluorescence Detection and Identification of Nitro Derviatives of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons by on Column Catalytic Reduction to Aromatic Amines. Anal. Chemistry 58, 1827-1834.
Sisovic, A., and Fugas, M., 1997. Smoke Concentration an Indicator of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Levels in the Air. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 45, 201-229
Stone, E. A., Yoon S. C., Schauer, J. J., 2011. Chemical Characterization of Fine and Coarse Particles in Gosan, Korea During Springtime Dust Events. Taiwan Association for Aerosl Research, 11, 31-43.
Sun, Y., Zhuang, G., Wang, Y., Han, L., Guo, J., Dan, M., Zhang, W., Wang, Z., Hao, Z., 2004. The Air-borne Particulate Pollution in Beijing - Concentration, Composition, Distribution and Sources. Atmospheric Environment 38, 99. 5991-6004.
TEDS7.1 (Taiwan Emission Data System) Home Page, 2014. Available from: http://ivy2.epa.gov.tw/air-ei/Default.asp.
Trenholm, A. R., and Beck, L. L., 1978. Assessment of Hazardous Organic Emission from Slot-type Coke Oven Batteries. Internal EPA Report, Durham, N. C.
Tuominen, J., Salomaa, S., Pyysalo, H., Skytta, E., Tikkanen, L., Nurmela, T., Sorsa, M., Pohjola, V., Pohjola, M., Sauri, M., Himberg, K., 1988. Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds and Genotoxicity in Particulate and Vapor Phases of Ambient Air : Effect of Eraffic, Season, and Meteorological Conditions. Environmental Science & Technology 22, 1228-1234.
Turpin, B. J., Huntzicker, J. J., Adam, K. M., 1990. Intercomparison of Photoacoustic and Thermal-optical Methods for the Measurement of Atmospheric Elemental Carbon. Atmospheric Environment 25, 1831-1835.
Vainiotalo, S., Matveinen, K., 1993. Cooking Fumes as a Hygienic Problem in the Food and Catering Industries. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 54, 376-382.
Vanloon, J. C., 1985. Selected Methods of Trace Metal Analysis: Biological and Environmental Samples. John Wiely and Sons, Inc.
Var, F., Narita, Y., Tanaka, S., 2000. The Concentration, Trend and Seasonalvariation of Metals in the Atmosphere in 16 Japanese cities Shown by Theresults of National Air Surveillance Network (NASN) from 1974 to 1996. Atmospheric Environment 34, 2755-2770.
Viana, M., Amato, F., Alastuey, A., Querol, X., Moreno, T., Garcia, S., Herce, M. D., Fernandez-Patier, R., 2009. Chemical Tracers of Particulate Emissions from Commercial Shipping. Environmental Science and Technology 43, 7472-7477.
Wang, Y. F., Huang, K. L., Li, C. T., Mi, H. H., Luo, J. H., Tsai, P. J., 2003. Emissions of Fuel Metal Content from a Diesel Vehicles Engine. Atmospheric Environment 37, 4637-4643.
Wey, M. Y., Shi, J. L., 1997. Effect of Pressure Fluctuations on PAHs Emission and Combustion Efficiency during Incineration. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry 61, 83-98
Whitby, K. T., Sverdrup, G. M., 1980. California aerosols: Their Physical and Chemical Characteristics. Adv. Environmental Science & Technology 8, 477-525.
Wicken, A. J., Buck, S. F., 1964. Report on Study of Environmental Factors Associated with Lung Cancer and Bronchitis Mortality in Areas of North East England. Tobacco Research Council.
Wu, P. F., Chiang, T. A., Ko, Y. C. Lee, H., 1999. Genotoxicity of Fumes from Heated Cooking Oils Produced in Taiwan. Environmental Research 80, 122-126.
Wu, S. C., Yen, G. C., 2004. Effects of Cooking Oil Fumes on the Genotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Human Lung Carcinoma (A-549) cells. Toxicology in Vitro 18, 571-580.
Yao, X., Chan, C. K., Fang, M., Cadle, S., Chan, T., Mulawa, P., He, K., Ye, B., 2002. The Water-soluble Ionic Composition of PM2.5 in Shanghai and Beijing, China. Atmospheric Environment 36, 4223-4234.
Yoo, J. J., Kim, K. H., Jang, H. N., Seo, Y. C., Seok, K. S., Hong, J. H., Jang, M., 2002. Emission Characteristics of Particulate Matter and Heavy Metals from Small Incinerators and Boilers. Atmospheric Environment 36, 5057-5066.
Zanobetti, A., Canner, M. J., Stone, P. H., Schwartz, J., sher, D., Eagan-Bengstion, E., Gates, K. A., Hartley, L. H., Such, H., Gold, D. R., 2004. Ambient Pollution and Blood Pressure in Cardiac Rehabilitation patients. Circulation 110, 2184-2189.
Zhao, Y., Hu, M., Slanina, S., Zhang, Y., 2007a. Chemical Compositions of Fine Particulate Organic Matter Emitted from Chinese Cooking. Environmental Science & Technology 41, 99-105.
Zhao, Y., Hu, M., Slanina, S., Zhang, Y., 2007b. The Molecular Distribution of Fine Particulate Organic Matter Emitted from Western-style Fast Food Cooking. Atmospheric Environment 41, 8163-8171.
Zhao, P., Yu, K. P., Lin, C. C., 2011. Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Taiwanese Workers at Night Markets. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 84, 231-237.
羅鴻偉,2007。餐廳廚房油煙中trans,trans-2,4-decadienal排放特徵研究,碩士論文,朝陽科技大學環境工程與管理系,臺中。
盧智芬,2001。油煙氣膠粒徑分佈與吸濕現象之研究,碩士論文,國立臺灣大學環境工程學系,臺北。
李俊德、尤鴻昌、李文智,1997。鍋爐煙道廢棄重金屬之排放特徵,1997氣膠研討會專輯,第152-161頁,臺南。
林嬪嬪,1999。探討食用油煙霧於人類肺細胞株之毒性與基因表現之訊息傳遞途徑,行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫,NSC88-2314-B040-013。
林錫聰,2001。應用螢光菌於大氣中硝基多環芳香烴化合物的毒性鑑定,國立成功大學環境工程系碩士論文,臺南。
林志忠,2007。交通源大氣奈米、超細、細及粗微粒組成特性之研究,博士論文,國立屏東科技大學環境工程與科學系,屏東。
林淵淙,2000。餐廳廚房排放廢氣及周圍大氣中多環芳香烴化合物之特徵,碩士論文,國立成功大學環境工程學系,臺南。
行政院於九十七年執行「臺灣地區攤販經營概況調查」
行政院主計處「一百年工商及服務業普查」
陳順宇,2000。多變量分析,華泰文化出版,台北。
鄭曼婷、邱嘉斌、楊宏隆、陳紀綸,1998。沿海地區大氣懸浮微粒污染來源分析,第十五屆空氣污染控制技術研討會論文專輯,第733-740頁,桃園。
蔡瀛逸、米孝萱、陳健民、邱嘉斌、陳建隆,2011。100年臺南市細懸浮微粒管制對策及健康風險評估計畫,嘉南藥理科技大學,臺南。
曾國書,2006。屏東都會區出細懸浮微粒特性之研究,碩士論文,國立屏東科技大學環境工程與科學系,屏東。
楊錫賢,1998。大氣環境中多環芳香烴化合物與金屬元素之特徵。博士論文,國立成功大學環境工程學系,臺南。
楊奇儒,1994。積塵再捲揚作用對地面附近大氣粒狀物濃度之影響,碩士論文,國立成功大學環境工程學系,臺南。
王雅玢,1994。交通污染源大氣中多環芳香烴化合物特徵之探討。碩士論文,國立成功大學環境工程學系,臺南。
吳啟文,1996。臺灣中部都會區氣懸微粒粒徑分布之污染物特性分析,碩士論文,國立中央大學環境工程研究所,桃園。
吳琳、馮銀廠、葉文媛、朱坦、劉雙喜,2010。大氣顆粒物中碳組分測定結果比較:元素分析和熱光反射方法。
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔