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研究生:張詒翔
研究生(外文):Yi-HsiangChang
論文名稱:電子化全球衛星即時動態定位系統應用於車載移動製圖平台定位表現之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Feasibility Study of Using e-GPS for Mobile Mapping System
指導教授:楊名楊名引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:測量及空間資訊學系
學門:工程學門
學類:測量工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:移動式車載製圖系統即時處理後處理e-GPS
外文關鍵詞:Mobile Mapping SystemPost-processingReal-time processinge-GPS
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移動式車載製圖系統(MMS)已經發展得相當成熟。其製圖系統配有定位定向系統,包含多種的感測器。其中所搭載全球衛星定位系統( Global Position System, GPS )具有高精度、快速、方便等多種優點。現今MMS搭載的GPS儀器多為後處理用,此方式雖然能保有高精度,但獲得成果的時間較長。現今內政部國土測繪中心建置了一套電子化全球衛星即時動態定位系統(e-GPS)。e-GPS系統可以實現即時動態定位,且突破單一參考站RTK的有效範圍限制,帶來更快速、更方便的定位成果。本研究嘗試將e-GPS應用於MMS上。

但e-GPS應用於MMS上的定位精度以及可用性還不明確,因此本研究嘗試以現行MMS常使用的動態後處理與即時處理進行比較。由於環境條件將顯著影響GPS的定位精度,因此本研究在三種不同類型的環境條件下進行測試MMS。這三種區域分別為郊區、市區和高速公路區。在郊區區域結果顯示,即時處理的結果和後處理的結果非常相似,兩者的兩個處理得到良好的結果。在城市地區,因為MMS的觀測量品質並不好,因此兩種處理的定位成果都不佳。在高速公路方面,結果顯示兩種定位成果還是不好,定位成果都一樣不佳,但後處理成功定位的點位數較多。研究結果顯示,如果移動站的GPS觀測量品質不錯時,即時處理和後處理的結果將是非常相似的。而最後也發現,即時處理在郊區時,成果幾乎與後處理一樣好,但是在衛星訊號遮蔽嚴重的區域時,則發現即時處理定位明顯的變差。

Mobile Mapping System (MMS) has been developed quite maturely. MMS is equipped with positioning and orientation systems, including a variety of sensors. One of the sensors is Global Position System (GPS). It has many advantages, such as high precision, fast and convenient positioning. Most of GPS data processing for MMS is post-processing. Post-processing can maintain high accuracy, but it cannot position in real-time. National Land Surveying and Mapping Center has constructed a network real-time kinematic (RTK) system named e-GPS. The e-GPS brings faster and more convenient positioning results. This research aims at using e-GPS for MMS, but the feasibility of e-GPS for MMS is still unclear, so we attempt to compare post-processing and real-time processing. Because environment condition will significantly affect the position accuracy of GPS, we tested MMS in three different types of environment conditions. The results show that real-time processing uses more strict standards for producing virtual reference station (VRS) observations. In the suburbs area, the results of real-time processing and post processing is very similar. In the urban, part of satellites single usually were masked. In this situation, the result of post processing is better than the result of real-time processing. But, because of the observation of satellite were not enough to calculate, two methods were both getting bad result.
摘要…………………………………………………………………………………………I
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………II
致謝…………………………………………………………………………………………VI
目錄.……………………………………………………………………………………VII
表目錄……………………………………………………………………………………X
圖目錄……………………………………………………………………………………XI
第1章 緒論 1
§1-1 前言 1
§1-2 文獻回顧 2
§1-3 論文架構 4
第2章 車載移動式製圖系統 6
§2-1 背景分析 6
§2-2 載體結構 11
§2-2-1 車身外觀 11
§2-2-2 影像感測器 12
§2-2-3 定位定向感測器 14
§2-3 坐標系統與框架 16
§2-4 直接地理定位 21
第3章 GPS定位原理 26
§3-1-1 GPS基本定位原理 26
§3-2 GPS觀測量 26
§3-2-1 電碼觀測量 27
§3-2-2 載波相位觀測量 28
§3-3 GPS定位誤差來源 30
§3-3-1 電離層誤差 30
§3-3-2 對流層誤差 31
§3-3-3 衛星軌道誤差 31
§3-3-4 衛星時錶差與接收儀時錶差 32
§3-3-5 環境因素 33
§3-3-6 動態定位GPS附加誤差來源 34
§3-4 相對定位 35
§3-5 雙頻載波相位觀測量線性組合 37
§3-5-1 無電離層線性組合 37
§3-5-2 寬巷線性組合 38
§3-6 整數週波未定值求解 39
§3-6-1 比率測試 39
第4章 GPS多參考站動態定位 41
§4-1 多參考站後處理動態定位 41
§4-2 多參考站即時處理動態定位 43
§4-2-1 電子化全球衛星即時動態定位系統 44
§4-2-2 e-GPS組成架構 45
§4-2-3 VRS-RTK原理 49
§4-2-4 VRS的產生 51
§4-2-5 e-GPS坐標系統 53
第5章 實驗與成果 54
§5-1 實驗資料 54
§5-2 實驗方法設計與工具 57
§5-3 實驗分析方法 60
§5-4 實驗成果與分析 62
§5-4-1 解算種類分析 65
§5-4-2 衛星數量分析 66
§5-4-3 後處理與即時處理坐標成果差異分析 70
第6章 結論與建議 74
參考文獻 75

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