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研究生:陳美惠
研究生(外文):Mei-Huei Chen
論文名稱:胎兒全氟碳化物暴露與兒童成長及發展
論文名稱(外文):In-utero Exposure to Perfluorinated Compounds on Child Growth and Development
指導教授:陳保中陳保中引用關係
指導教授(外文):Pau-Chung Chen
口試委員:吳美環鄭素芳郭育良陳家揚
口試日期:2013-10-25
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:職業醫學與工業衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:115
中文關鍵詞:出生體重兒童生長神經行為發展全氟碳化合物全氟辛酸全氟辛烷磺酸
外文關鍵詞:birth weightchild growthneurodevelopmentperfluorinated compoundsperfluorooctanoic acidperfluorooctyl sulfonatepreterm birth
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背景及目的: 全氟碳化合物是環境中廣泛存在的持續性有機汙染物。動物研究顯示胎兒時期全氟碳化合物的暴露可能導致不良的出生結果、生長和神經行為發展。但這些健康效應在有限的人類研究結果尚不清楚。本研究的目的為探討產前全氟碳化合物的暴露對嬰幼兒成長與發展的影響。
方法:本研究對象為2004年4月至2005年1月參與台灣出生長期追蹤研究之486對母嬰配對。我們在產前以結構式的問卷訪視母親、生產時收集臍帶血,並於病歷擷取出生結果之記錄。當孩童兩歲時,由專業人員使用嬰幼兒綜合發展測驗評估其發展,孩童的生長資料則依據兒童健康手冊之記錄收集至7歲半。臍帶血中的全氟碳化合物濃度是使用超高效液相層析串聯質譜法分析,定量極限在4種高偵測率的物質分別為: 全氟辛酸, 1.58 ng/mL; 全氟辛烷磺酸,0.22 ng/mL; 全氟壬酸,0.84 ng/mL; 全氟癸酸,3.1 ng/mL。
結果: 研究的第一部分發現,臍帶血中全氟辛烷磺酸的濃度和新生兒妊娠週數、出生體重、頭圍、早產及體重低於妊娠週數呈負相關。當新生兒依據其全氟辛烷磺酸暴露濃度分為四組時,也可觀察到顯著的劑量效應。但研究結果沒有發現出生結果與其它全氟碳化合物暴露之相關性。第二部分的研究發現,臍帶血中全氟辛烷磺酸的濃度和兒童2歲的發展商數有明顯的負相關,包括發展商數總分、粗動作、細動作和自理能力都有影響,尤其對粗動作發展呈現顯著的劑量效應。第三部分的研究顯示胎兒時期全氟辛烷磺酸的暴露,與出生體重和身高有負向相關,但影響效應會隨著年齡增長而下降。當幼兒成長大於6個月時,產前全氟辛烷磺酸的暴露對身高的影響,呈現正向趨勢。
結論: 我們的研究指出產前全氟辛烷磺酸的暴露和胎兒生長有負向相關,包括縮短妊娠週數和降低出生體重。胎兒時期有較高全氟辛烷磺酸暴露的孩童,成長至兩歲時粗動作的發展則表現較差。而產前全氟辛烷磺酸暴露對新生兒體重和身高的負面影響,會隨著年齡增長而消失。

Background and Objectives: Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are persistent organic pollutants and wildly distributed in the environment. Previous animal studies have shown that in-utero PFCs exposure have adverse impacts on birth outcomes, growth and neurodevelopment. However, these health effects in humans are still unclear. The aim of the study was to explore the impact of prenatal exposure to PFCs on child growth and development.
Methods: The study population was 486 mother-infant pairs who gave births in Taiwan between April 2004 and January 2005 from Taiwan Birth Panel Study. We interviewed them by a structured questionnaire before delivery, collected umbilical cord blood at birth and extracted birth outcomes from medical records. The children were followed by using the Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT) at two years of age. Growth data were collected from records in Child Healthcare Handbooks until 7.5 years of age. PFCs in umbilical cord blood were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The limits of quantitation for four commonly detectable PFCs, namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctyl sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA) were 1.58, 0.22, 0.84, and 3.1 ng/mL, respectively.
Results: The first part had shown that PFOS levels in cord blood plasma are negatively associated with gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, preterm birth, and small for gestational age. A dose-response relation was observed while classifying the PFOS levels into quartiles. However, we did not find a convincing association between birth outcomes and prenatal exposure to PFOA, PFNA or PFUA. The second part had shown that PFOS levels in cord blood plasma were adversely associated with developmental quotients (DQs) of the whole test, gross-motor, fine-motor, and self-help domains of the CDIIT at two years of age. The impact was most apparent for the gross-motor subdomain, and demonstrated a dose-dependent relationship. The third part had shown that higher prenatal PFOS exposure was associated with lower body weight and length at birth, the effect diminished as children grow up.
Conclusions: Our study had shown that prenatal PFOS exposures are associated with adverse fetal growth, including shortened gestational age and lower birth weight. Those children with higher prenatal PFOS exposure had poorer performance on their gross motor developments at 2 years of age. The adverse effect of in utero PFOS exposure on weight decreased as children grow up.

中文摘要 I
Abstract III
Abbreviations V
Table of Contents VI
List of Tables VIII
List of Figures X
Chapter 1. General Introduction 1
1.1 Perfluorinated compounds 1
1.2 Mechanisms 2
1.3 Birth outcomes 3
1.4 Developmental and neurobehavioral problems 4
1.5 Postnatal growth 5
1.6 Research Design 6
1.7 Perfluorinated compounds analysis 7
1.8 Aims 8
1.9 References 10
Chapter 2. Perfluorinated Compounds in Umbilical Cord Blood and Adverse Birth Outcomes 17
2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 Material and Methods 20
2.3 Results 25
2.4 Discussion 28
2.5 References 35
Chapter 3. Perfluorinated Compound Levels in Cord Blood and Neurodevelopment at 2 Years of Age 50
3.1 Introduction 50
3.2 Material and Methods 53
3.3 Results 59
3.4 Discussion 62
3.5 References 68
Chapter 4. Perfluorinated Compound Levels in Cord Blood and child growth 86
4.1 Introduction 86
4.2 Materials and Methods 88
4.3 Results 92
4.4 Discussion 95
4.5 References 98
Bibliography 113
Appendix 115

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2.3M Company. Environmental and health assessment of perfluorooctanesulfonate and its salts. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2003 U.S. EPA docket AR-226-1486.
3.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2010/2015 PFOA Stewardship Program. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/pfoa/stewardship/ via the Internet. Accessed April 2012.
4.Government of Canada. Perfluorooctane sulfonate and its salts and certain other compounds regulations. Canada Gazette Part I 2006;140:4265-4284.
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8.Lin AY, Panchangam SC, Ciou PS. High levels of perfluorochemicals in Taiwan’s wastewater treatment plants and downstream rivers pose great risk to local aquatic ecosystems. Chemosphere 2010;80(10):1167-1174.
9.Chang YC, Chen WL, Bai FY, Chen PC, Wang GS, et al. Determination of perfluorinated chemicals in food and drinking water using high-flow solid-phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 2012;402:1315-1325.
10.Fromme H, Tittlemier SA, Volkel W, Wihelm M, Twardella D. Perfluorinated compounds-exposure assessment for the general population in Western countries. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2009;212(3):239-270.
11.Huag LS, Tomsen C, Brantsaeter AL, Kvalem HE, Haugen M, Becher G, et al. Diet and particularly seafood are major sources of perfluorinated compounds in humans. Environ Int 2010;36(7):772-778.
12.Olsen GW, Burris JM, Ehresman DJ, Froehlich JW, Seacat AM, et al. Half-life of serum elimination of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in retired fluorochemical production workers. Environ Health Perspect 2007;115(9):1298-1305.
13.Baetell SM, Calafat AM, Kato K, Ryan PB, Steenland K. Rate of decline in serum PFOA concentrations after granular activated carbon filtration at two public water systems in Ohio and West Virginia. Environ Health Perspect 2010;118(2):222-228.
14.Fei C, McLaughlin JK, Tarone RE, Olsen J. Perfluorinated chemicals and fetal growth: A study within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Environ Health Perspect 2007;115(11):1677-1682.
15.Wolf CJ, Zher RD, Schmid JE, Lau C, Abbott BD. Developmental effects of perfluorononanoic acid in the mouse are dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha. PPAR Res 2010: pii:282896.
16.Abbott BD, Wolf CJ, Das KP, Zehr RD, Schmid JE, et al. Developmental toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate(PFOS) is not dependent on expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) in mouse. Reprod Toxicol 2009;27(3-4):258-265.
17.Wolf CJ, Takacs ML, Schmid JE, Lau C, Abbott BD. Activation of mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha by perfluoroalkyl acids of different functional groups and chain lengths. Reprod Toxicol 2008;106(1):162-171.
18.Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Rogers JM, Grey BE, et al. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. II. Postnatal evaluation. Toxicol Sci 2003;74(2):382-392.
19.Liao CY, Li XY, Wu B, et al. Acute enhancement of synaptic transmission and chronic inhibition of synaptogenesis induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate through medication of voltage-dependent calcium channel. Environ Sci Technol 2008;42(14):5335-5341.
20.Slotkin TA, MacKillop EA, Melnick RL. Developmental neurotoxicity of perfluorinated chemicals modeled in vitro. Environ Health Perspect 2008;116(6):716-722.
21.Johansson N, Eriksson FP, Viberg H. Neonatal exposure to PFOS and PFOA in mice results in changes in proteins which are important for neuronal growth and synaptogenesis in the developing brain. Toxicol Sci 2009;108(2):412-418.
22.Liu X, LiuW, Jin Y, et al. Effects of subchronic perfluorooctane sulfonate exposure of rats on calcium-dependent signaling molecules in the brain tissue. Arch Toxicol 2010;84(6):471-479.
23.Zeng HC, Zhang L, Li YY, et al. Inflammation-like glial response in rat brain induced by prenatal PFOS exposure. Neurotoxicology 2011;32(1):130-139.
24.Leubker DJ, York RG, Hansen KJ, Bass NM, Butenhoff JL. Neonatal mortility from in utero exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in Sprague-Dawley rats: dose-response, and biochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters. Toxicology 2005;215(1-2):149-169.
25.Alpelberg BJ, Witter FR, Herbstman JB, Calafat AM, Halden RU, et al. Cord serum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in relation to weight and size at birth. Environ Health Perspect 2007;115 (11):1670-1676.
26.Fei C, McLaughlin JK, Tarone RE, Olsen J. Fetal growth indicators and perfluorinated chemicals: a study in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Am J Epidemiol 2008;168(1):66-72.
27.Washino N, Saijo Y, Sasaki S, Kato S, Ban S, et al. Correlations between prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals and reduced fetal growth. Environ Health Perspect 2009;117(4):660-667.
28.Inoue K, Okada F, Ito R, Kato S, Sasaki S, et al. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and related perfluorinated compounds in human maternal and cord blood samples: assessment of PFOS exposure in a susceptible population during pregnancy. Environ Helath Perspect 2004;112(11):1204-1207.
29.Monroy R, Morrison K, Teo K, Atkinson S, Kubwabo C, et al. Serum levels of perfluoroalkyl compounds in human maternal and umbilical cord blood samples. Environ Res 2008;108(1):56-62.
30.Hamm MP, Cherry NM, Chan E, Martin JW, Burstyn I. Maternal exposure to perfluorinated acids and fetal growth. J Expo Sci Enviorn Epidemiol 2010;20(7):589-597.
31.Whitworth KW, Haug LS, Baird DD, Becher G, Hoppin JA, et al. Perfluorinated compounds in relation to birth weight in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study. A J Epidemiol 2012;175(12):1209-1216.
32.Olsen GW, Burlew MM, Marshall JC, Burris JM, Mandel JH. Analysis of episodes of care in a perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride production. J Occup Environ Med 2004;46(8):837-846.
33.Grice MM, Alexander BH, Hoffbeck R, Kampa DM. Self-reported medical conditions in perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride manufacturing workers. J Occup Environ Med 2007;49(7):722-729.
34.Nolan LA, Nolan JM, Shofer FS, Rodway NV, Emmett EA. The relationship between birth weight, gestational age and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) – contaminated public drinking water. Reprod Toxicol 2009;27(3-4):231-238.
35.Stein CR, Savitz DA, Dougan M. Serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and pregnancy outcome. Am J Epidemiol 2009;170(7):837-846.
36.Butenhoff JL, Ehresman DJ, Chang SC, et al. Gestational and lactational exposure to potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate (K+PFOS) in rats: developmental neurotoxicity. Reprod Toxicol 2009;27(3-4):319-330.
37.Sato I, Kawamoto K, Nishikawa Y, et al. Neurotoxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in rats and mice after single oral exposure. J Toxicol Sci 2009;34(5):569-574.
38.Fei C, McLaughlin JK, lipworth L, et al. Prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and maternally reported developmental milestones in infancy. Environ Health Perspect 2008;116(10):1391-1395.
39.Fei C and Olsen J. Prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals and behavioral or coordination problems at age 7 years. Environ Health Perspect 2011;119(4):573-578.
40.Hoffman K, Webster TF, Weisskopf MG, et al. Exposure to polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in U.S children aged 12-15 years. Environ Health Perspect 2010;118(12):1762-1767.
41.Gump BB, Wu Q, Dumas AK, et al. Perfluorochemical(PFC) exposure in children: association with impaired response inhibition. Environ Sci Technol 2011;45(19):8151-8159.
42.Stein CR and Savitz D. Serum perfluorinated compound concentration and attention deficit/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children 5-18 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 2011;119(10):1466-1471.
43.Betts KS. Perfluoroalkyl acids: what is the evidence telling us? Environ Health Perspect 2007;115(5):A250-256.
44.Hines EP, White SS, Stanko JP, Gibbs-Flouronoy EA, Lau C, Fenton SE. Phenotypic dichotomy following developmental exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in female CD-1 mice: Low doses induce elevated serum leptin and insulin, and overweight in mid-life. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2009;304:97-105.
45.Andersen CS, Fei C, Gamborg M, Nohr EA, Sorensen TIA, Olsen J. Prenatal exposures to perfluorinated chemicals and anthropometric measures in infancy. Am J Epidemiol 2010;172(11):1230-1237.
46.Andersen CS, Fei C, Gamborg M, Sorensen TIA, Olsen J. Prenatal exposures to perfluorinated chemicals and anthropometry at 7 years of age. Am J Epidemiol 2013;178(6):921-927.
47.Halldorsson TI, Rytter D, Haug LS, Bech BH, Danielsen I, Becher G, et al. Prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanoate and risk of overweight at 20 years of age: a prospective cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 2012;120(5):668-673.
48.Lien GW, Wen TW, Hsieh WS, Wu KY, Chen CY, et al. Analysis of perfluorinated chemicals in umbilical cord blood by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2011; 879(9-10):641-646.
2.5 References
1.3M Company. Environmental and health assessment of perfluorooctanesulfonate and its salts. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. U.S. 2003 EPA docket AR-226-1486.
2.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2010/2015 PFOA Stewardship Program. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/pfoa/stewardship/ via the Internet. Accessed April 2011.
3.Lau C, Anitole K, Hodes C, Lai D, Pfahles-Hutchens A, et al. Perfluoroalkyl acids: A review of monitoring and toxicological findings. Toxicol Sci 2007;99:366-394.
4.Kudo N, Suzuki-Nakajima E, Mitsumoto A, Kawashima Y. Responses of the liver to perfluorinated fatty acids with different carbon chain length in male and female mice: in relation to induction of hepatomegaly, peroxisomal β-oxidation and microsomal 1-acylglycerophosphocholine acyltransferase. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29:1952-1957.
5.Wolf CJ, Schmid JE, Lau C, Abbott BD. Activation of mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha(PPARα) by perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAAs): further investigation of C4-C12 compounds. Reprod Toxicol 2012;33(4):546-551.
6.Lau C, Thibodeaux JR, Hanson RG, Rogers JM, Grey BE, et al. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. II. Postnatal evaluation. Toxicol Sci 2003;74(2):382-392
7.Luebker DJ, York RG, Hansen KJ, Bass NM, Butenhoff JL. Neonatal mortility from in utero exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in Sprague-Dawley rats: dose-response, and biochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters. Toxicology 2005;215(1-2):149-169.
8.Wolf CJ, Zher RD, Schmid JE, Lau C, Abbott BD. Developmental effects of perfluorononanoic acid in the mouse are dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha. PPAR Res 2010;doi: pii:282896.
9.Inoue K, Okada F, Ito R, Kato S, Sasaki S, et al. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS and related perfluorinated compounds in human maternal and cord blood samples: assessment of PFOS exposure in a susceptible population during pregnancy. Environ Helath Perspect 2004;112(11):1204-1207.
10.Alpelberg BJ, Witter FR, Herbstman JB, Calafat AM, Halden RU, et al. Cord serum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in relation to weight and size at birth. Environ Health Perspect 2007;115(11):1670-1676.
11.Fei C, McLaughlin JK, Tarone RE, Olsen J. Perfluorinated chemicals and fetal growth: A study within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Environ Health Perspect 2007;115(11):1677-1682.
12.Fei C, McLaughlin JK, Tarone RE, Olsen J. Fetal growth indicators and perfluorinated chemicals: a study in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Am J Epidemiol 2008;168(1):66-72.
13.Monroy R, Morrison K, Teo K, Atkinson S, Kubwabo C, et al. Serum levels of perfluoroalkyl compounds in human maternal and umbilical cord blood samples. Environ Res 2008;108(1):56-62.
14.Washino N, Saijo Y, Sasaki S, Kato S, Ban S, et al. Correlations between prenatal exposure to perfluorinated chemicals and reduced fetal growth. Environ Health Perspect 2009;117(4):660-667.
15.Hamm MP, Cherry NM, Chan E, Martin JW, Burstyn I. Maternal exposure to perfluorinated acids and fetal growth. J Expo Sci Enviorn Epidemiol 2010;20(7):589-597.
16.Whitworth KW, Haug LS, Baird DD, Becher G, Hoppin JA, et al. Perfluorinated compounds in relation to birth weight in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study. A J Epidemiol 2012;175(12):1209-1216.
17.Olsen GW, Burlew MM, Marshall JC, Burris JM, Mandel JH. Analysis of episodes of care in a perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride production. J Occup Environ Med 2004;46(8):837-846.
18.Grice MM, Alexander BH, Hoffbeck R, Kampa DM. Self-reported medical conditions in perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride manufacturing workers. J Occup Environ Med 2007;49(7):722-729.
19.Nolan LA, Nolan JM, Shofer FS, Rodway NV, Emmett EA. The relationship between birth weight, gestational age and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-contaminated public drinking water. Reprod Toxicol 2009;27(3-4):231-238.
20.Stein CR, Savitz DA, Dougan M. Serum levels of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and pregnancy outcome. Am J Epidemiol 2009;170(7):837-846.
21.Barker DJ, Osmond C. Infant mortality, childhood nutrition, and ischemic heart disease in England and Wales. Lancet 1986;1(8489):1077-1081.
22.Olsen GW, Burris JM, Ehresman DJ, Froehlich JW, Seacat AM, et al. Half-life of serum elimination of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in retired fluorochemical production workers. Environ Health Perspect 2007;115(9):1298-1305.
23.Bartell SM, Calafat AM, Kato K, Ryan PB, Steenland K. Rate of decline in serum PFOA concentrations after granular activated carbon filtration at two public water systems in Ohio and West Virginia. Environ Health Perspect 2010;118(2):222-228.
24.Lien GW, Wen TW, Hsieh WS, Wu KY, Chen CY, et al. Analysis of perfluorinated chemicals in umbilical cord blood by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2011;879(9-10):641-646.
25.Hsieh WS, Wu HC, Jeng SF, Liao HF, Su YN, et al. Nationwide singleton birth weight percentiles by gestational age in Taiwan, 1998-2002. Acta Paediatr Taiwan 2006;47(1):25-33.
26.Grasty RC, Wolf DC, Grey BE, Lau CS, Rogers JM. Prenatal window of susceptibility to perfluorooctane sulfonate-induced neonatal mortality in the Sprague Dawley rat. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 2003;68:465-471.
27.Abbott BD, Wolf CJ, Das KP, Zehr RD, Schmid JE, et al. Developmental toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate(PFOS) is not dependent on expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) in mouse. Reprod Toxicol 2009;27(3-4):258-265.
28.Wolf CJ, Takacs ML, Schmid JE, Lau C, Abbott BD. Activation of mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha by perfluoroalkyl acids of different functional groups and chain lengths. Reprod Toxicol 2008;106(1):162-171.
29.Olsen GW, Butenhoff JL, Zobel LR. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and human fetal development: an epidemiologic review with clinical and toxicological perspectives. Reprod Toxicol 2009;27(3-4):212-230.
30.Alpelberg BJ, Goldman LR, Calafat AM, Herbstman JB, Kuklenyik Z, et al. Determinants of fetal exposure to polyfluoroalkyl compounds in Baltimore, Maryland. Environ Sci Technol 2007;41(11):3891-3897.
31.Lin AY, Panchangam SC, Ciou PS. High levels of perfluorochemicals in Taiwan’s wastewater treatment plants and downstream rivers pose great risk to local aquatic ecosystems. Chemosphere 2010;80(10):1167-1174.
32.Begley TH, White K, Honigfort P, Twaroski ML, Neches R, et al. Perfluorochemicals: potential sources of and migration from food packaging. Food Add Contam 2005;22(10):1023-1031.
33.Sinclair E, Kim SK, Akinleye HB, Kannan K. Quantitation of gas-phase perfluoroalkyl surfactants and fluorotelomer alcohols released from nonstick cookware and microwave popcorn bags. Environ Sci Technol 2007;41(4):1180-1185.
34.Chang YC, Chen WL, Bai FY, Chen PC, Wang GS, et al. Determination of perfluorinated chemicals in food and drinking water using high-flow solid-phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 2012;402:1315-1325.
35.Salmasi G, Grady R, Jones, J, McDonald SD; Knowledge Synthesis Group. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and perinatal outcomes: a systemic review and meta-analyses. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2010;89(4):423-441.
3.5 References
1.Lau C, Anitole K, Hodes C, et al. Perfluoroalkyl acids: A review of monitoring and toxicological findings. Toxicol Sci 2007;99(2):366-394.
2.3M Company. Environmental and health assessment of perfluorooctanesulfonate and its salts. U.S. EPA docket AR-226-1486. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; 2003.
3.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2010/2015 PFOA Stewardship Program. 2006. http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/pfoa/pubs/stewardship/index.html Accessed Dec 10, 2012.
4.Fromme H, Tittlemier SA, Volkel W, et al. Perfluorinated compounds-exposure assessment for the general population in Western countries. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2009;212(3):239-270.
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6.Fei C, McLaughlin JK, Tarone RE, et al. Perfluorinated chemicals and fetal growth: A study within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Environ Health Perspect 2007;115(11):1677-1682.
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5.Haug LS, Tomsen C, Brantsaeter AL, et al. Diet and particularly seafood are major sources of perfluorinated compounds in humans. Environ Int 2010;36(7):772-778.
6.Olsen GW, Burris JM, Ehresman DJ, et al. Half-life of serum elimination of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in retired fluorochemical production workers. Environ Health Perspect 2007;115(9):1298-1305.
7.Bartell SM, Calafat AM, Kato K, Ryan PB, Steenland K. Rate of decline in serum PFOA concentrations after granular activated carbon filtration at two public water systems in Ohio and West Virginia. Environ Health Perspect 2010;118(2):222-228.
8.Fei C, McLaughlin JK, Tarone RE, et al. Perfluorinated chemicals and fetal growth: A study within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Environ Health Perspect 2007;115(11):1677-1682.
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