訪客IP:54.92.201.232          離開系統
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
本論文永久網址: 
研究生:廖顯竣
研究生(外文):Liao, Hsien-Chun
論文名稱:結梯形網的裂腹蛛 (Herennia multipuncta) 體色功能之探討
論文名稱(外文):The Function of Body Colouration of the Ladder-Web Spider Herennia multipuncta
指導教授:卓逸民卓逸民引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tso, I-Min
口試委員:焦傳金楊恩誠
口試委員(外文):Chiao, Chuan-ChinYang, En-cheng
口試日期:2014-01-16
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:生命科學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:57
中文關鍵詞:誘引訊號共域分佈次級防禦策略
外文關鍵詞:attracting signalsympatric distributionsecondary defense mechanism
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:412
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:9
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
在動物界中,鮮豔的體色代表了生物個體的獨特訊號,而這類的訊號具有非常多樣化的功能,也能反映出個體的生理狀態;為了能在被掠食者發現時轉移注意力並有機會脫離,次級防禦策略也常常存在於許多動物的構造或行為。像是身體有著大而鮮豔的色斑以及形態或行為突然改變,這些能使掠食者產生遲疑或錯愕的防禦機制往往會讓掠食者另尋目標。許多日行性及夜行性結圓網的蜘蛛,身體腹面具有鮮豔的色斑,可用來吸引飛行性昆蟲。不同於在開放空間結圓網及利用腹面色斑吸引獵物的結網蜘蛛,裂腹蛛(Herennia multipuncta)則是棲息在樹幹表面,其頭胸部的背面帶有橘色環狀色斑,腹部的背面為灰褐色,且間雜黑褐色的點狀斑紋;腹部的腹面則為鮮艷的橙紅色。平時蜘蛛會棲息在梯形網上半部一個由絲所織成的凹陷圓盤中,將其鮮豔腹面平貼在樹幹表皮。我認為裂腹蛛其頭胸部橘色環狀色斑的背面帶具有誘引獵物的功能,而其橙紅色腹面之功能可能是用來進行威嚇行為使掠食者產生錯愕而得以逃脫。為了測試這兩種假說,首先我先挑選與裂腹蛛體色相近的色紙並製作成蜘蛛模型,在野外利用攝影機觀察蜘蛛模型與獵物及捕食者的互動事件。為了測試捕食者防禦假說,我選擇斯文豪氏攀蜥作為掠食者的角色,利用攝影機拍攝裂腹蛛與攀蜥之互動狀況,藉由黑色塗料操控其腹面體色而探討其是否有提昇威嚇天敵之效果。結果顯示,有無橘色環狀色斑對於蜘蛛誘引獵物的功能在白天及晚上有顯著的影響,背部有無灰色區塊則在晚上對於誘引獵物有顯著的影響。而測試捕食者防禦之實驗結果顯示,蜥蜴會花較長之時間注視腹面紅斑未被塗黑之個體,也會在等待較長的時間後再次接近蜘蛛。這些結果說明了裂腹蛛的腹面與背面體色同時具有不同的功能,分別用於誘引獵物及防禦自身提昇存活率。
In the animal kingdom, conspicuous colouration may serve as a unique signal, exhibit diverse functions and is condition dependence. In order to escape with little or no damage, many animals have colors and behaviors that can divert a predator′s attention. The aforementioned adaptations are classified as secondary defense mechanism and they may cause a predator to search for a less challenging meal. Comparing to other diurnal and nocturnal web spiders building aerial orb webs and attracting prey visually with conspicuous body colors, Herennia spiders place the ladder web against the tree trunk with dorsum exposed and conspicuous ventrum concealed. The dorsal side of Herennia is dark gray with black spots and orange circular bands, while the ventral side is brightly orange. I hypothesize that the dorsal orange circular bands of Herennia spiders may function to visually attract prey, and the ventrum orange spot may function to startle or intimidate predators. I used digital video cameras to record responses of prey to Herennia multipuncta dummies with or without orange bands day and night. In addition, I manipulated the colors of this spider’s conspicuous ventrum to evaluate if such body color functioned to startle the predators. Results showed that the orange circular bands in dorsum could enhance the prey attraction rate during diurnal and nocturnal periods significantly, while the gray patch on the dorsum only enhanced the prey attraction rate during nocturnal period significantly. I also found that lizards would spend more time watching Herennia multipuncta with an orange ventrum and exhibit higher latency to approach or attack such spiders. Results of my studies thus show for the first time that an organism enhances foraging success and survival by color signals of different body parts expressed in different circumstnces.
中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
Introduciotn 1
Materials and methods 6
Introduction of Herennia multipuncta 6
Field census 6
Field experiment assessing prey luring function of dorsum colour 7
Caged experiment assessing anti-predator function of ventrum colour 8
Quantifying spider body colouration 10
Quantifying how Herennia and dummy colouration are viewed by diurnal hymenopteran 11
Quantifying how Herennia and dummy colouration are viewed by nocturnal lepidopteran 14
Statistical analyses 16
Results 18
Diurnal and nocturnal prey composition (census data) 18
Reflectance spectra and colour contrasts 18
Field manipulative experiments using dummy spiders 20
Testing anti-predator function of ventral colouration 22
Discussion 24
References 32
List of Tables 39
List of Figures 40
Tables 42
Figures 43

Blamires, S. J., Lai, C.-H., Cheng, R.-C., Liao, C.-P., Shen, P.-S., & Tso, I.-M. (2011). Body spot coloration of a nocturnal sit-and-wait predator visually lures prey. Behavioral Ecology, 23, 69–74.
Chuang, C.-Y., Yang, E.-C., & Tso, I.-M. (2008). Deceptive color signaling in the night: a nocturnal predator attracts prey with visual lures. Behavioral Ecology, 19, 237–244.
Conover, M. (1994). Stimuli eliciting distress calls in adult passerines and response of predators and birds to their broadcast. Behaviour, 131, 19–37.
Cooper Jr, W. E., Burns, N., & Cooper, W. (1987). Social significance of ventrolateral coloration in the fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus. Animal Behaviour, 35, 526–532.
Dyer, A. G. (2005). Discrimination of flower colours in natural settings by the bumblebee species bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Entomologia Generalis, 28, 257–268.
Dyer, A. G. & Chittka, L. (2004). Biological significance of distinguishing between similar colours in spectrally variable illumination: bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) as a case study. Journal of comparative physiology A, 190, 105–114.
Dyer, A. G., Boyd-Gerny, S., McLoughlin, S., Rosa, M. G. P., Simonov, V., & Wong, B. B. M. (2012). Parallel evolution of angiosperm colour signals: common evolutionary pressures linked to hymenopteran vision. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 279, 3606–3615.
Eberhard, W. G. (1975). The “inverted ladder”orb web of Scoloderus sp. and the intermediate orb of Eustala sp. Araneae: Araneidae. Journal of Natural History, 9, 93–106.
Fellows, H. L., Fenner, A. L., & Bull, C. M. (2009). Spiders provide important resources for an endangered lizard. Journal of Zoology, 279, 156–163.
Garcia‐navas, V., Ferrer, E. S., & Sanz, J. J. (2012). Plumage yellowness predicts foraging ability in the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 106, 418–429.
Godin, J.-G. J., & McDonough, H. E. (2003). Predator preference for brightly colored males in the guppy: a viability cost for a sexually selected trait. Behavioral Ecology, 14, 194–200.
Goodenough, J., McGuire, B., & Jakob, E. (2009). Perspectives on Animal Behavior, 3rd edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Harmer, A. (2009). Elongated orb-webs of Australian ladder-web spiders (Araneidae: Telaprocera) and the significance of orb-web elongation. Journal of Ethology, 27, 453–460.
Harmer, A. & Herberstein, M. E. (2009). Taking it to extremes: what drives extreme web elongation in Australian ladder web spiders (Araneidae: Telaprocera maudae)? Animal Behaviour, 78, 499–504.
Harmer, A., & Herberstein, M. E. (2010). Functional diversity of ladder-webs: moth specialization or optimal area use? Journal of Arachnology, 38, 119–122.
Kuntner, M. (2005). A revision of Herennia (Araneae: Nephilidae: Nephilinae), the Australasian “coin spiders.” Invertebrate Systematics, 19, 391-436.
Kuntner, M., Coddington, J. A., & Hormiga, G. (2008). Phylogeny of extant nephilid orb-weaving spiders (Araneae, Nephilidae): testing morphological and ethological homologies. Cladistics, 24, 147–217.
Kuntner, M., Kralj-Fiser, S. & Gregoric, M. (2010). Ladder webs in orb-web spiders: ontogenetic and evolutionary patterns in Nephilidae. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 99, 849–866.
Kuntner, M., Haddad, C. R., Aljancic, G. & Blejec, A. (2008). Ecology and web allometry of Clitaetra irenae, an arboricolous African orb-weaving spider. Journal of Arachnology, 36, 583–594.
Kuntner, M., Arnedo, M. A., Trontelj, P., Lokovšek, T., & Agnarsson, I. (2013). A molecular phylogeny of nephilid spiders: evolutionary history of a model lineage. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 69, 961–979.
Langkilde, T, & Boronow, K. E. (2010). Color as a signal: the relationship between coloration and morphology in male eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus. Journal of Herpetology, 44, 261–271.
Langkilde, T. & Boronow, K. E. (2012). Hot boys are blue: temperature-dependent color change in male eastern fence lizards. Journal of Herpetology, 46, 461–465.
Langridge, K. V. (2009). Cuttlefish use startle displays, but not against large predators. Animal Behaviour, 77, 847–856. Lind, J. & Cresswell, W. (2005). Determining the fitness consequences of antipredation behavior. Behavioral Ecology, 16, 945–956.
McElroy, E. J., McBrayer, L. D., Williams, S. C., Anderson, R. A. & Reilly, S. M. (2011). Sequential analyses of foraging behavior and attack speed in ambush and widely foraging lizards. Adaptive Behavior, 20, 16–31.
Molnár, O., Bajer, K., Török, J. & Herczeg, G. (2012). Individual quality and nuptial throat colour in male European green lizards. Journal of Zoology, 287, 233–239.
Olofsson, M., Eriksson, S., Jakobsson, S. & Wiklund, C. (2012). Deimatic display in the european swallowtail butterfly as a secondary defence against attacks from great tits. PloS One, 7, e47092.
Pegram, K., Nahm, A. & Rutowski, R. (2013). Warning color changes in response to food deprivation in the pipevine swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor. Journal of Insect Science, 13. 1-16
Pérez i de Lanuza, G., Font, E. & Monterde, J. L. (2013). Using visual modelling to study the evolution of lizard coloration: sexual selection drives the evolution of sexual dichromatism in lacertids. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 26, 1826–1835.
Robinson, M. H. & Lubin, Y. D. (1979). Specialists and generalists: the ecology and behavior of some web-building spiders from Papua New Guinea I. Herennia ornatissima , Argiope ocyaloides and Arachnura melanura ( Araneae : Araneidae ). Pacific Insects, 21, 97–132.
Robinson, M. H. & Robinson, B. (1972). The structure, possible function and origin of the remarkable ladder-web built by a New Guinea orb-web spider (Araneae: Araneidae). Journal of Natural History, 6, 687–694.
Ruxton, G. D., Sherratt, T. N. & Speed, M. P. (2004). Avoiding Attack: The Evolutionary Ecology of Crypsis, Warning Signals and Mimicry. Oxford University Press
Smith, L. C, Henry B, J.-A., Smith, L. C., & John-Alder, H. B. (1999). Seasonal specificity of hormonal, behavioral, and coloration responses to within-and between-sex encounters in male lizards (Sceloporus undulatus). Hormones and Behavior, 36, 39–52.
Stuart‐Fox, D. M. (2006). Camouflage and colour change: antipredator responses to bird and snake predators across multiple populations in a dwarf chameleon. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 88, 437–446.
Stuart-Fox, D. M. & Ord, T. J. (2004). Sexual selection, natural selection and the evolution of dimorphic coloration and ornamentation in agamid lizards. Proceedings of the Royal Society : Biological Sciences, 271, 2249–2255.
Tso, I. M., Lin, C. W., & Yang, E. C. (2004). Colourful orb-weaving spiders, Nephila pilipes, through a bee’s eyes. Journal of Experimental Biology, 207, 2631–2637.
Warrant, E. J., & Nilsson, D.-E. (1998). Absorption of white light in photoreceptors. Vision Research, 38, 195–207.
Wise, D. H. (1993). Spiders in Ecological Webs. Cambridge University Press.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔