跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.222.218.145) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/03/04 17:52
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:江涵
研究生(外文):Han Jiang
論文名稱:高雄地區大氣懸浮微粒上多環芳香烴濃度之時空變化
論文名稱(外文):Temporal and spatial variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the atmospheric particles in Kaohsiung
指導教授:李宗霖李宗霖引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chon-Lin Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋環境及工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:174
中文關鍵詞:BaPBaPeq地區變化PM2.5主成分分析
外文關鍵詞:PM2.5BaPeqBaPspatial variationsprincipal component analysis
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:10
  • 點閱點閱:215
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究於2012年12月至2013年11月期間,分別於高雄市內四個區域:南高雄(小港區:SG)、北高雄(左營區:FS)、高雄市市區(三民區:AG),高雄海岸地區(鼓山區:NSYSU) 採集大氣懸浮微粒(PM2.5和PM2.5~10)與多環芳香烴化合物(Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs)並量化其濃度,以探討高雄不同區域之大氣懸浮微粒與多環芳香烴污染物之時空變化,和可能之污染來源,進而了解高雄地區的污染情形。
本研究結果顯示SG、AG、FS以及NSYSU大氣中PM2.5的年平均濃度依序分別為65.1、62.8、68.6和60.9 μg m-3,而PM2.5~10的年平均濃度則分別為21.9、24.4、23.3和21.5 μg m-3,整體而言,PM2.5濃度以FS最高,其次為SG,濃度最低為NSYSU,本研究之PM2.5樣品大多數皆超過我國「空氣品質標準」之24小時標準值 (35 μg m-3),而PM10大部分皆符合我國之空氣品質標準 (125 μg m-3)。大氣中SG、AG、FS以及NSYSU多環芳香烴濃度(氣相加顆粒相)依序為15.0、14.2、12.8、7.32 ng m-3,整體而言,以SG濃度最高,其次為AG,NSYSU濃度最低。
除了SG於11月第二次採樣之外,其餘BaP顆粒相濃度數據皆符合UK的標準制定值(0.25 ng m-3)。本研究使用毒性當量因子(toxic equivalent factors, TEF)將測得之多環芳香烴濃度轉換成BaP equivalents (BaPeq),本研究之顆粒相平均BaPeq為0.20 ng m-3 (SG)、0.18 ng m-3 (AG)、0.18 ng m-3 (FS)以及0.11 ng m-3 (NSYSU)。
化學指紋特徵比、主成分分析以及群集分析判斷出不同區域可能之污染來源,本研究之氣相多環芳香烴來源以石油性以及石油性燃燒兩者為主。PM2.5多環芳香烴來源則是SG及NSYSU為汽油引擎排放及石油性燃燒之混和性來源,AG以汽油引擎排放為主,FS大多數為交通排放來源;PM2.5~10多環芳香烴來源SG則是大多數偏向以柴油引擎燃燒排放為主,AG以汽油引擎燃燒為主,FS大多數為交通排放來源;NSYSU大多數以柴油引擎燃燒為主。
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were collected in PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 samples for four regions in Kaohsiung from December 2012 to November 2013. The sampling sites included southern Kaohsiung (Siaogang District, SG), northern Kaohsiung (Zuoying District, FS), the downtown (Sanmin District, AG), and coastal area (Gushan District, NSYSU). Particulate matters, the gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed to explore the temporal and spatial variations of atmospheric pollution in Kaohsiung. Moreover, the potential sources of PAHs were identified as well.
The annual mean concentrations of atmospheric PM2.5 (PM2.5~10) at SG, AG, FS, and NSYSU were 65.1 (21.9), 62.8 (24.4), 68.6 (23.3), and 60.9 (21.5) μg m-3, respectively. The highest concentration of PM2.5 was found at FS, followed by SG, while the lowest one was found at NSYSU. Most samples exceeded the 24-hr air quality standards of PM2.5 (35 μg m-3); while only a few PM10 did not meet the standards (125 μg m-3). Atmospheric concentrations of total PAHs (gas + particulate phase) at SG, AG, FS, and NSYSU were 15.0, 14.2, 12.8, and 7.32 ng m-3, respectively. It was found that SG had the highest concentration of total PAHs, followed by AG, FS, and NSYSU.
In this study, the BaP concentrations in the particulate samples were all below the UK regulation (0.25 ng m-3) except for one sample in November at SG. The average BaP equivalents (BaPeq), used for the carcinogenic risk assessment of PAHs, in the particulate samples were 0.20 ng m-3 (SG), 0.18 ng m-3 (AG), 0.18 ng m-3 (FS), and 0.11 ng m-3 (NSYSU).
The results of diagnostic ratios, HCA and PCA demonstrated that petroleum combustion was the main sources of gaseous PAHs. For PM2.5, the results of HCA and PCA both suggested that sources of PAHs mainly came from the local gasoline engine emissions, with partially contribution of petroleum combustion in SG and NSYSU, gasoline gngine exhausts in AG, and vehicular emissions in FS; while the main source for PM2.5~10 was diesel engine exhausts for SG and NSYSU, gasoline engine exhausts for AG, and vehicular emissions for FS.
摘要 iii
Abstract iv
目錄 vi
表目錄 ix
圖目錄 xi
附表目錄 xiv
第一章 前言 1
1-1研究動機 1
1-2研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1多環芳香烴介紹 3
2-1-1多環芳香烴特性 3
2-1-2多環芳香烴來源 6
2-1-3多環芳香烴毒性 7
2-1-4多環芳香烴化學指紋特徵鑑定 11
2-2-1大氣中懸浮微粒形成及來源 13
2-2-2懸浮微粒對人體之影響 13
第三章 研究方法 15
3-1研究流程 15
3-2材料與儀器 16
3-2-1材料 16
3-2-2試藥及器具前處理。 16
3-3 採樣與保存 18
3-3-1採樣時間與地點 18
3-3-2設備與分析儀器 19
3-3-3採樣方法 20
3-4樣品分析 21
3-4-1 PAHs分析 21
3-5品保及品管(QA/QC) 23
3-5-1擬似標準品回收率 23
3-5-2實驗空白 23
3-5-3方法偵測極限(Method Detection Limit, MDL) 24
3-6主成分分析(Principal Components Analysis, PCA) 25
3-7群集分析(Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA) 25
第四章、結果與討論 26
4-1 大氣中懸浮微粒濃度 26
4-1-1懸浮微粒濃度空間分布 26
4-1-2 懸浮微粒濃度季節性變化 33
4-2 大氣中多環芳香烴濃度 38
4-2-1 多環芳香烴濃度時空變化 38
4-2-2 氣相、顆粒相多環芳香烴濃度分佈 49
4-2-3 懸浮微粒與多環芳香烴之關係 61
4-3 大氣中多環芳香烴之毒性當量因子 62
4-3-1 大氣中BaP濃度時空變化 62
4-3-2 大氣中BaPeq時空變化 67
4-4 來源判斷分析 74
4-4-1 化學指紋特徵(diagnostic ratio) 74
4-4-2 主成分分析(Principal Component Analysis, PCA) 81
4-4-3 階層群集分析(Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA) 97
第五章 結論與建議 121
5-1 結論 121
5-2 建議 123
參考文獻 124
附錄 130
Alsberg, T. and Stenberg, U. (1979) Capillary GC-MS analysis of PAH emissions from combustion of peat and wood in a hot water boiler. Chemosphere 8(7), 487-496.
Bi, X.H., Sheng, G.Y., Peng, P., Chen, Y.J., Zhang, Z.Q. and Fu, J.M. (2003) Distribution of particulate- and vapor-phase n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban atmosphere of Guangzhou, China. Atmos. Environ. 37(2), 289-298.
Bjorseth, A.a.R., T. (1985) Source and Emission of PAH, Handbook of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons,, Marcel Dekkerr, Inc., New York and Basel.
Budzinski, H., Jones, I., Bellocq, J., Pierard, C. and Garrigues, P. (1997) Evaluation of sediment contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Gironde estuary. Mar. Chem. 58(1-2), 85-97.
Chen, K.S., Ho, Y.T., Lai, C.H., Ysai, Y.A. and Chen, S.J. (2004) Trends in concentration of ground-level ozone and meteorological conditions during high ozone episodes in the Kao-Ping airshed, Taiwan. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 54(1), 36-48.
Chiang, T.A., Wu, P.F. and Koi, Y.C. (1999) Identification of carcinogens in cooking oil fumes. Environmental Research 81(1), 18-22.
Chiang, T.A., Wu, P.F., Koi, Y.C. (1999) Identification of carcinogens in cooking oil fumes. Environment. Res. 81, 18-22.
Chio, C.-P., Liao, C.-M., Tsai, Y.-I., Cheng, M.-T. and Chou, W.-C. (2014) Health risk assessment for residents exposed to atmospheric diesel exhaust particles in southern region of Taiwan. Atmos. Environ. 85(0), 64-72.
Cretney, J.R., Lee, H.K., Wright, G.J., Swallow, W.H. and Taylor, M.C. (1985) Analysis of polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons in air particulate matter from a lightly industrialized urban area. Environ. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 397-404.
Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. (2006) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS),.
European Commission (EU) (2008) Air Quality Standards, Directive 2008/50/EC
Fang, G.C., Wu, Y.S., Fu, P.P.C., Yang, I.L. and Chen, M.H. (2004) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of suburban and industrial regions of central Taiwan. Chemosphere 54(4), 443-452.
Galarneau, E. (2008) Source specificity and atmospheric processing of airborne PAHs: Implications for source apportionment. Atmos. Environ. 42(35), 8139-8149.
Gao, B., Yu, J.Z., Li, S.X., Ding, X., He, Q.F. and Wang, X.M. (2011) Roadside and rooftop measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5 in urban Guangzhou: Evaluation of vehicular and regional combustion source contributions. Atmos. Environ. 45(39), 7184-7191.
Gigliotti, C.L., Dachs, J., Nelson, E.D., Brunciak, P.A. and Eisenreich, S.J. (2000) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the New Jersey coastal atmosphere. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34(17), 3547-3554.
Grimmer (1983) Environmental carcinogens: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ. Sci. Technol. 24, 1581-1588.
Guo, H., Lee, S.C., Ho, K.F., Wang, X.M. and Zou, S.C. (2003) Particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air of Hong Kong. Atmos. Environ. 37(38), 5307-5317.
Hannigan, M.P., Cass, G.R., Penman, B.W., Crespi, C.L., Lafleur, A.L., Busby, W.F., Thilly, W.G. and Simoneit, B.R.T. (1998) Bioassay directed chemical analysis of Los Angeles airborne particulate matter using a human cell mutagenicity assay. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32(22), 3502-3514.
Harrison, R.M., Smith, D.J.T. and Luhana, L. (1996) Source apportionment of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons collected from an urban location in Birmingham, UK. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30(3), 825-832.
Hoppel, W.A., Fitzgerald, J.W., Frick, G.M., Larson, R.E. and Mack, E.J. (1990) Aerosol size distributions and optical-properties found in the marine boundary-layer over the atlantic-ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 95(D4), 3659-3686.
ICRP (1994) Human respiratory tract model for radiological protection, Publication 66, Annals of ICRP, Pergamon, London.
Jacob, J. (1996) The significance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as environmental carcinogens. Pure Appl. Chem. 68(2), 301-308.
Jung, K.H., Yan, B., Chillrud, S.N., Perera, F.P., Whyatt, R., Camann, D., Kinney, P.L. and Miller, R.L. (2010) Assessment of Benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity of Residential Indoor versus Outdoor Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposing Young Children in New York City. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7(5), 1889-1900.
Kalberlah F, F.-P.N., Hassauer M (1995) Toxicological criteria for the risk assessment of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in existing chemicals. Part 1: The use of equivalency factors. Altlasten-Spektrum 5, 231-237.
Kameda, Y., Shirai, J., Komai, T., Nakanishi, J. and Masunaga, S. (2005) Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: size distribution, estimation of their risk and their depositions to the human respiratory tract. Science of the Total Environment 340(1-3), 71-80.
Katz, M. and Chan, C. (1980) Comparative distribution of 8 polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons in airborne-particulates collected by conventional high-volume sampling and by size fractionation Environ. Sci. Technol. 14(7), 838-843.
Keller, C.D. and Bidleman, T.F. (1984) Collection of airborne polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons and other organics with a glass-fiber filter polyurethane foam system. Atmos. Environ. 18(4), 837-845.
Khalili, N.R., Scheff, P.A. and Holsen, T.M. (1995a) PAH source fingerprints for coke ovens, diesel and gasoline-engines, highway tunnels, and wood combustion emission. Atmos. Environ. 29(4), 533-542.
Khalili, N.R., Scheff, P.A. and Holsen, T.M. (1995b) PAH source fingprints for coke ovens, diesel and gasoline-engines, highway tunnels, and wood combustion emissions. Atmos. Environ. 29(4), 533-542.
Kim, J.Y., Lee, J.Y., Choi, S.D., Kim, Y.P. and Ghim, Y.S. (2012) Gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at the Gosan background site in East Asia. Atmos. Environ. 49(0), 311-319.
Kong, S., Ding, X., Bai, Z., Han, B., Chen, L., Shi, J. and Li, Z. (2010) A seasonal study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 in five typical cities of Liaoning Province, China. J. Hazard. Mater. 183(1–3), 70-80.
Kulkarni, P. and Venkataraman, C. (2000) Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Mumbai, India. Atmos. Environ. 34(17), 2785-2790.
Kume, K., Ohura, T., Noda, T., Amagai, T. and Fusaya, M. (2007) Seasonal and spatial trends of suspended-particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban Shizuoka, Japan. J. Hazard. Mater. 144(1-2), 513-521.
Lai, I.C., Chang, Y.-C., Lee, C.-L., Chiou, G.-Y. and Huang, H.-C. (2013) Source identification and characterization of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons along the southwestern coastal area of Taiwan – with a GMDH approach. Journal of Environmental Management 115(0), 60-68.
Lai, I.C., Lee, C.-L., Zeng, K.-Y. and Huang, H.-C. (2011) Seasonal variation of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons along the Kaohsiung coast. Journal of Environmental Management 92(8), 2029-2037.
Li, C.K. and Kamens, R.M. (1993) The use of polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons as source signatures in receptor modeling. Atmospheric Environment Part a-General Topics 27(4), 523-532.
Li, J., Zhang, G., Li, X.D., Qi, S.H., Liu, G.Q. and Peng, X.Z. (2006) Source seasonality of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a subtropical city, Guangzhou, South China. Science of The Total Environment 355(1–3), 145-155.
Lim, M.C.H., Ayoko, G.A. and Morawska, L. (2005) Characterization of elemental and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compositions of urban air in Brisbane. Atmos. Environ. 39(3), 463-476.
Lin, L., Fan, Z.-H., Zhu, X., Huang, L.-H. and Bonanno, L.J. (2011) Characterization of Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Mixed-Use Urban Community in Paterson, NJ: Concentrations and Sources. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 61(6), 631-639.
Liu, Y.N., Tao, S., Dou, H., Zhang, T.W., Zhang, X.L. and Dawson, R. (2007) Exposure of traffic police to Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Beijing, China. Chemosphere 66(10), 1922-1928.
Lung, S.C.C., Mao, I.F. and Liu, L.J.S. (2007) Residents'' particle exposures in six different communities in Taiwan. Science of the Total Environment 377(1), 81-92.
Lv, J., Xu, R., Wu, G.P., Zhang, Q.H., Li, Y.M., Wang, P., Liao, C.Y., Liu, J.Y., Jiang, G.B. and Wei, F.S. (2009) Indoor and outdoor air pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11(7), 1368-1374.
Naumova, Y.Y., Offenberg, J.H., Eisenreich, S.J., Meng, Q.Y., Polidori, A., Turpin, B.J., Weisel, C.P., Morandi, M.T., Colome, S.D., Stock, T.H., Winer, A.M., Alimokhtari, S., Kwon, J., Maberti, S., Shendell, D., Jones, J. and Farrar, C. (2003) Gas/particle distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coupled outdoor/indoor atmospheres. Atmos. Environ. 37(5), 703-719.
Nisbet, I.C.T. and Lagoy, P.K. (1992) Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons (PAHs). Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 16(3), 290-300.
Omar, N., Bin Abas, M.R., Ketuly, K.A. and Tahir, N.M. (2002) Concentrations of PAHs in atmospheric particles (PM10) and roadside soil particles collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Atmos. Environ. 36(2), 247-254.
Park, S.S., Kim, Y.J. and Kang, C.H. (2002) Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Seoul, Korea. Atmos. Environ. 36(17), 2917-2924.
Ravindra, K., Sokhi, R. and Van Grieken, R. (2008) Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source attribution, emission factors and regulation. Atmos. Environ. 42(13), 2895-2921.
Sicre, M.A., Marty, J.C., Saliot, A., Aparicio, X., Grimalt, J. and Albaiges, J. (1987) Aliphatic and aromatic-hydrocarbons in different sized aerosols over the mediterranean-sea-occurrence and origin. Atmos. Environ. 21(10), 2247-2259.
Simcik, M.F., Eisenreich, S.J. and Lioy, P.J. (1999) Source apportionment and source/sink relationships of PAHs in the coastal atmosphere of Chicago and Lake Michigan. Atmos. Environ. 33(30), 5071-5079.
Tang, I.N., Munkelwitz, H.R. and Davis, J.G. (1977) Aerosol growth studies—II. Preparation and growth measurements of monodisperse salt aerosols. Journal of Aerosol Science 8(3), 149-159.
Terzi, E. and Samara, C. (2004) Gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban, adjacent coastal, and continental background sites of western Greece. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38(19), 4973-4978.
Tsai, P.J., Shih, T.S., Chen, H.L., Lee, W.J., Lai, C.H. and Liou, S.H. (2004) Assessing and predicting the exposures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their carcinogenic potencies from vehicle engine exhausts to highway toll station workers. Atmos. Environ. 38(2), 333-343.
UNECE (2010) Strategies and policies of parties and signatories to the convention for the abatement of air pollution.
USEPA (2008) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) — EPA fact sheet. National Center for Environmental Assessment, O.o.R.a.D. (ed), USEPA (Environmental Protection Agency), Washington, DC.
Vasilakos, C., Levi, N., Maggos, T., Hatzianestis, J., Michopoulos, J. and Helmis, C. (2007) Gas-particle concentration and characterization of sources of PAHs in the atmosphere of a suburban area in Athens, Greece. J. Hazard. Mater. 140(1-2), 45-51.
Venkataraman, C. and Friedlander, S.K. (1994) Size distributions of polycyclic aromatic-htdrocarbons and elemental carbon.2.ambient measurements and effects of atmospheric processes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 28(4), 563-572.
Venkataraman, C., Lyons, J.M. and Friedlander, S.K. (1994) Sire distrbutions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and elemental carbon .1. sampling, measurement methods, and source characterization. Environ. Sci. Technol. 28(4), 555-562.
Wan, X.L., Chen, J.W., Tian, F.L., Sun, W.J., Yang, F.L. and Saiki, K. (2006) Source apportionment of PAHs in atmospheric particulates of Dalian: Factor analysis with nonnegative constraints and emission inventory analysis. Atmos. Environ. 40(34), 6666-6675.
Wang, H., Chen, K., Lu, J., Peng, Y., Wang, W., Tsai, M. and Lai, C. (2007) Dry deposition of airborne particles and characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Aerosol Air Qual Res 7, 106-120.
Wang, X., Chen, R.J., Chen, B.H. and Kan, H.D. (2013) Application of Statistical Distribution of PM10 Concentration in Air Quality Management in 5 Representative Cities of China. Biomed. Environ. Sci. 26(8), 638-646.
Whitby, K.T., Husar, R. B., Liu, B.Y., (1972) The aerosol size distribution of Los Angeles smog. . Aerosols and Atmospheric Chemistry.
Witt, G. (1995) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediment of the Baltic Sea. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 31(4-12), 237-248.
World Health Organization(WHO) (2005) WHO air quality guidelines for particulate matter,ozone, nitrogen,dioxide and sulfur dioxide: global update 2005. Summary of risk assessment.
Wu, Y., Yang, L., Zheng, X., Zhang, S.J., Song, S.J., Li, J.Q. and Hao, J.M. (2014) Characterization and source apportionment of particulate PAHs in the roadside environment in Beijing. Science of the Total Environment 470, 76-83.
Yunker, M.B., Macdonald, R.W., Vingarzan, R., Mitchell, R.H., Goyette, D. and Sylvestre, S. (2002) PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition. Org. Geochem. 33(4), 489-515.
Zhou, J.B., Wang, T.G., Huang, Y.B., Mao, T. and Zhong, N.N. (2005) Size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban and suburban sites of Beijing, China. Chemosphere 61(6), 792-799.
米孝萱 (1998) 移動性汙染源排放多環芳香烴化合物之特徵, 國立成功大學環境工
程學系博士論文.
林欣儀 (2005) 多環芳香烴和微粒共同暴露對細胞毒性之研究, 國立陽明大學環境
與職業衛生研究所碩士論文
林鉅富 (1999) 高雄地區大氣中懸浮微粒PM2.5特性及來源之探討, 國立中山大
學環境工程研究所碩士論文
呂局校 (2006) 高雄市大氣中多環芳香烴化合物濃度特徵之調查分析, 國立中山大
學環境工程研究所碩士論文
吳贊鐸 (1991) 移動污染源汙染特性分析與其應用之研究, 國立交通大學交通運輸
工程系碩士論文.
張文馨 (2008) 北投焚化爐附近社區空氣中PM2.5、PM10及PAHs濃度研究, 國立
陽明大學環境與職業衛生研究所碩士論文
陳維新、江金龍 (2009) 空氣污染與控制, 高立圖書有限公司.
鄭文瑋 (2013) 高雄地區周界空氣中多環芳香烴之分佈, 國立高雄師範大學化學系碩士論文.
電子全文 電子全文(本篇電子全文限研究生所屬學校校內系統及IP範圍內開放)
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top