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研究生:游宗瀚
研究生(外文):Yu, Tzung-Han
論文名稱:苦瓜採後保鮮技術之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on postharvest techniques of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)
指導教授:梁佑慎
指導教授(外文):Liang, Yu-Shen
口試委員:柯立祥戴順發
口試委員(外文):Ke, Lih-ShangTai, Shun-Fa
口試日期:2016-06-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:農園生產系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:預冷溫度成熟度聚乙烯1-甲基環丙烯
外文關鍵詞:precooling temperaturematuritypolyethylene1-methylcyclopropene
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  • 下載下載:24
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本研究以‘月華’苦瓜與‘碧華’苦瓜為材料,透過不同預冷溫度與成熟度的貯藏,以及包裝方式與1-甲基環丙烯處理調查苦瓜於貯藏期間的物理化學變化,觀察其貯藏壽命與櫥架壽命變化,進一步作為外銷貯運最適合的貯運條件,以供農民及外銷業者在採收及外銷貯運上之參考。
‘月華’和‘碧華’苦瓜在5℃貯藏條件下可以有效抑制呼吸速率及乙烯生成量,7分熟的果實雖然硬度與脆度下降幅度較6分熟大,但有較長的櫥架壽命與較低的離子滲漏率,而在總可溶性固形物、可滴定酸和貯藏壽命都沒有顯著性差異,因此,7分熟為較佳的採收成熟度。7℃預冷後普遍品質與10℃預冷沒有顯著差異,但7℃預冷有較高的抗壞血酸含量及較長的貯藏壽命。搭配聚乙烯袋包裝5℃下貯藏,可以有效延長苦瓜之貯藏壽命及櫥架壽命,並減輕寒害徵狀,延緩抗壞血酸下降,提高過氧化酵素、超氧化物歧化酶及過氧化氫酶酵素活性,抑制多酚氧化酵素活性提高,提高其抗氧化能力。1-MCP處理過後,雖然在硬度、脆度、可溶性固形物含量和離子滲漏率上並沒有顯著性的差異,但在貯藏中期可以較有效的維持抗壞血酸含量,且有有較長的貯藏壽命及櫥架壽命,因此,使用1-MCP處理為有效的採後處理技術。櫥架溫度方面,苦瓜在4℃回溫,櫥架壽命受寒害影響而極短,而在10℃下回溫,可以有效延長櫥架壽命,因此選擇在10℃做回溫櫥架,可以有效提升商品價值。

This is a study based on the comparison of using two different types of bitter gourd(Momordica charantia L.) 'Yua Hua' and 'Bi Hua' as the study material to observer the chemical and physical changes in different precooling temperature, maturity, packaging and 1-methylcyclopropene(1-MCP) treatment during the process of storage. By observing its storage life and shelf life changes, we can now choose the most appropriate storage conditions for transportation.

'Yua Hua' and 'Bi Hua' bitter gourd has significantly inhibiting of respiratory rate and ethylene production at 5℃. Not only light green fruit’s firmness and crispness will decrease rapidly than dark green, but also has longer shelf life and lower electrolyte leakage(EL), in contrast of total soluble solid(TSS), titratable acidity(TA) content and storage life has no significantly differences, therefore, we can reach to an conclusion that light green was better maturity. Quality has no significantly differences between 7 and 10℃ precooling temperature, but had higher ascorbic acid ascorbic acid at 7℃ precooling temperature. To reach to the goals of reducing chilling injury, decrease ascorbic acid, increasing of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, bitter gourd has significantly extended storage life and shelf life by inhibiting of polyphenol oxidase activity and enhance the antioxidant capacity using packing polyethylene at 5℃. In spite of firmness, crispness, TSS content and EL has no significantly distinction, but could maintain the ascorbic acid content effectively, even has longer storage life and shelf life after 1-MCP treatment. When the bitter gourd return to 4℃, it has very short shelf life. But when the bitter gourd return to 10℃, it could extend the shelf life effectively. Therefore, we choice 10℃ for the return temperature, it could promoting commodity value effectively.

中文摘要 I
英文摘要 III
謝誌 V
目錄 VI
圖表目錄 VI
壹、 前言 1
貳、 前人研究 3
一、 苦瓜 3
二、 苦瓜果實生長發育特性 3
(一) 氣候土壤 3
(二) 果實發育 4
(三) 果實形態 5
三、 苦瓜果實採收生理特性與保鮮技術 5
(一) 苦瓜果實呼吸速率與乙烯生成量 5
(二) 苦瓜果實低溫貯藏 6
(三) 苦瓜果實寒害 7
(四) 苦瓜果實預冷處理 8
(五) 苦瓜果實包裝處理 9
(六) 苦瓜果實1-甲基環丙烯處理 10
參、 試驗材料與方法 12
一、 成熟度對苦瓜貯運特性影響 12
(一) 不同成熟度之‘月華’及‘碧華’品種苦瓜果實之理化特性比較 13
1. 果實品質測定方法 13
(二) 不同成熟度對貯運特性影響 15
1. 寒害指數判定 15
2. 貯藏壽命判定 15
3. 櫥架壽命判定 15
4. 果實品質測定 15
二、 貯藏溫度對苦瓜貯運特性之影響 16
(一) 預冷溫度對苦瓜貯運特性之影響 16
1. 寒害指數判定 16
2. 貯藏壽命判定 16
3. 櫥架壽命判定 16
4. 果實品質測定 16
(二) 貯藏溫度對苦瓜採後生理之影響 17
1. 呼吸速率與乙烯生成量 17
2. 寒害指數判定 17
3. 貯藏壽命判定 17
(三) 不同貯藏溫度與包裝對苦瓜採後生理之影響 17
1. 寒害指數判定 18
2. 貯藏壽命判定 18
3. 櫥架壽命判定 18
4. 果實品質測定 18
5. 多酚氧化酵素與過氧化酵素之測定 18
6. 超氧化物歧化酶活性測定 19
7. 過氧化氫酶活性測定 19
三、 1-MCP對苦瓜貯運特性之影響 20
1. 寒害指數判定 20
2. 貯藏壽命判定 20
3. 櫥架壽命判定 21
4. 果實品質測定 21
四、 數據統計分析與圖表繪製 21
肆、 結果 22
一、 成熟度對苦瓜貯運特性影響 22
(一) 不同成熟度之‘月華’及‘碧華’品種苦瓜果實之理化特性比較 22
(二) 不同成熟度對貯運特性影響 25
1. 貯藏壽命及櫥架壽命 25
2. 硬度、脆度及總可溶性固形物變化 27
3. 抗壞血酸、可滴定酸及離子滲漏率變化 29
4. 果實色澤變化 31
二、 貯藏溫度對苦瓜貯運特性之影響 33
(一) 預冷溫度對苦瓜貯運特性之影響 33
1. 貯藏壽命及櫥架壽命 33
2. 硬度、脆度及總可溶性固形物變化 35
3. 抗壞血酸、可滴定酸及離子滲漏率變化 37
4. 果實色澤變化 39
(二) 貯藏溫度對苦瓜採後生理之影響 41
1. 對呼吸率及乙烯生成量之影響 41
2. 寒害徵狀及寒害指數 44
3. 貯藏壽命 47
(三) 不同貯藏溫度與包裝對苦瓜採後生理之影響 48
1. 貯藏壽命與櫥架壽命變化 48
2. 硬度、脆度及總可溶性固形物變化 51
3. 抗壞血酸、可滴定酸及離子滲漏率變化 53
4. 果實色澤變化 55
5. 果實多酚氧化酵素、過氧化酵素、超氧化物歧化酶及過氧化氫酶活性變化 57
三、 1-MCP對苦瓜貯運特性之影響 61
1. 貯藏壽命與櫥架壽命變化 61
2. 硬度、脆度及總可溶性固形物變化 63
3. 抗壞血酸、可滴定酸及離子滲漏率變化 65
4. 果實色澤變化 67
伍、 討論 ..69
一、 成熟度對苦瓜貯運特性之影響 ..69
二、 貯藏溫度對苦瓜貯運特性之影響 ..71
1. 預冷溫度對苦瓜貯運特性之影響 ..71
2. 不同貯藏溫度與包裝方式對苦瓜貯運特性之影響 ..72
三、 1-MCP對苦瓜貯運特性之影響 ..75
陸、 結論 ..77
參考文獻 ..79
作者簡介 ..90
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