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研究生:賴宥兆
研究生(外文):Lai, Yu-Chao
論文名稱:磨課師創新教學模式之學習成效研究:以清華大學跨兩岸課程施行為例
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Learning Effectiveness of the MOOC Innovative Instructional Mode: Using the Cross-strait Course of the Tsing Hua Universities as an Example
指導教授:楊叔卿楊叔卿引用關係
指導教授(外文):Young, Shelley Shwu-Ching
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:學習科學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:綜合社會及行為科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:149
中文關鍵詞:磨課師開放式線上學習投入高等教育華人社會
外文關鍵詞:Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)Open online learningEngagementHigher educationChinese society
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隨著線上教育的推展,大規模開放式線上課程,又稱磨課師(Massive Open Online Courses, MOOCs)不僅改變線上遠距學習的風貌,而且也激發著高等教育的變革。正當主要的磨課師供應平台(如Coursera、edX)持續與頂尖大學(如史丹佛、哈佛)夥伴合作並發展多樣的商業模式的同時,愈來愈多高等教育單位已經體認到如何善用磨課師所帶來機會的重要。不同的磨課師興新實例正欣欣向榮的發展,藉以增進校園中的教與學、擴大學校的國際聲譽、亦或是開拓高等教育的潛在市場。然而,很少磨課師實徵研究關注於非西方的文化情境,而且對於學習者於磨課師上是如何學習的更是很少被清楚認識。

本研究聚焦於一個開創性的跨海峽兩岸磨課師教學模式,以期將一門磨課師課程擴展於華人社會。此磨課師教學模式首創透過台灣與中國間兩所清華大學的跨平台關係,以及在台灣基於小型私人線上課程(Small Private Online Course, SPOC)理念的跨校關係,藉此來推廣一門被共享的跨兩岸磨課師課程。為了催化此模式能永續維繫於未來高等教育,本研究目的在於調查此磨課師課程學習者的學習成效以及植基於如此特殊的華人社會情境中的整體學習經驗。透過問卷調查法的方式,本研究體現以三角檢證量化與質化資料的混合研究為取徑來進行調查。於本研究中,完成磨課師課程的431位受試者包含三組:台灣線上學習者(OLT group)、中國線上學習者(OLC group)以及基於台灣校院學習者(ILT group)。除了統計分析學習者的表現,本研究系統化的探索學習者對於此磨課師課程的投入程度、評估其感知與滿意程度,並且從學習者建議回饋的基礎上,進一步發展出此磨課師課程的課程設計方針。

資料分析指出當以小型私人線上課程之理念於高等教育推展磨課師時,需要更多教學法的思考來促進學習者在課程上的表現、投入與正向感知。而且本研究建議於磨課師課程中,學習者的認知投入需要透過融入策略性學習引導的課程設計來加以增強。整體而言本研究結果顯示,此磨課師教學模式成功有效推進一門跨兩岸課程被傳播於華人社會中,並透過支持的跨平台與跨校夥伴關係進而提供更多令人滿意的學習經驗。最後此研究對於增進本磨課師課程於影片、練習題、小考、討論區方面,分別總結出I.S.A.F.E.、3E、3A、O.R.I.G.I.N等課程設計方針。本研究對磨課師實務者與研究者在未來高等教育皆提供了具實用性與價值性的參考。

With the advancement of online education, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have not just transformed the landscape of online distance learning, but they have also stimulated higher education reforms. Established MOOC providers (e.g. Coursera, edX) have partnered with the elite universities (e.g. Stanford, Harvard) and developed various revenue models; and increasingly, higher education institutions (HEIs) have begun to acknowledge the significance of how to take advantage of the opportunities from MOOCs. Many emerging MOOC practices have been evolving to enhance on-campus learning and teaching, to enlarge universities’ worldwide reputation, and to broaden the potential market of HEIs. However, little empirical MOOC research focuses on the non-Western contexts, and there is little to be explicitly known about that how learners are learning on MOOCs.

The present study focused on a pioneering MOOC instructional mode across the Taiwan Straits which was anticipated to extend the reach of the MOOC in Chinese societies. The MOOC instructional mode had taken the initiative of promoting a cross-strait MOOC to be shared via cross-platforms relationship of the two Tsing-Hua universities in Taiwan and China, as well as cross-universities relationship using the SPOC (Small Private Online Course) approach in Taiwan. In order to catalyze the mode to be sustainable for future higher education, the present study aimed at investigating the learners’ learning effectiveness and overall experiences embedded within the unique context of Chinese societies.

This study, which incorporated a mixed-methods approach to triangulate both quantitative and qualitative data, was conducted through the use of questionnaire survey. In this study, 431 participants who completed the MOOC comprised three groups: online learners in Taiwan (OLT group), online learners in China (OLC group), and institution-based learners in Taiwan (ILT group). In addition to statistical analysis of learners’ performance, this study systematically explored learners’ engagement, assessed their perceptions and satisfaction regarding the MOOC, and further developed the MOOC courseware guidelines based on learners’ suggestions.

An analysis of the data indicated that learners’ performance, engagement, and perceptions all needed more pedagogical considerations when promoting the MOOC-by-SPOC approach in higher education. Moreover, the results of this study suggested that the integration of learning strategic guidance into courseware design reinforces learners’ cognitive engagement within the MOOC. As a whole, the findings have revealed that the MOOC instructional mode succeeded in leveraging a cross-strait course to create more satisfying learning experiences through underpinned cross-platforms and cross-universities partnerships in Chinese societies. Ultimately, the present study recommends the I.S.A.F.E., 3E, 3A, and O.R.I.G.I.N. guidelines for improving MOOC courseware design on video, exercise, quiz, and discussion forum respectively. Going forward, this study serves as a practical and valuable reference for MOOC practitioners and researchers in higher education.

Chinese Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………………………………I
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… II
Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………………………………………III
Table of Contents ……………………………………………………………………………………………… IV
List of Figures ……………………………………………………………………………………………………VII
List of Tables ………………………………………………………………………………………………… VIII

Chapter 1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………1
1.1 Research Background ……………………………………………………………………………1
1.2 Research Motivation ……………………………………………………………………………3
1.3 Purposes of the Study and Research Questions……………5
1.4 Significance of the Study………………………………………………………………7
1.5 Limitations of the Study…………………………………………………………………8
1.6 Definitions of Terminology……………………………………………………………9

Chapter 2 Literature Review………………………………………………………………………10
2.1 Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)…………………………………10
2.1.1 The Origin and Evolution of MOOCs…………………………………10
2.1.2 The Conception, Classification and Characteristics of MOOCs…………………………………………………………………………………13
2.1.3 Research Issues and Challenges for MOOCs………………16
2.2 Emerging MOOC Experiments Worldwide…………………………………20
2.2.1 MOOC Experiments in America…………………………………………………20
2.2.2 MOOC Experiments in Europe……………………………………………………22
2.2.3 MOOC Experiments in Asia…………………………………………………………24
2.2.4 Room for Enhancing the Research on MOOC Experiments……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………26
2.3 Leaners’ Engagement……………………………………………………………………………30
2.3.1 Significance of Engagement……………………………………………………30
2.3.2 Notion of Engagement: Behavioral, Emotional, and Cognitive…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………31
2.3.3 Measuring Engagement in Technology-enhanced Learning Environments…………………………………………………………………………………………33
2.4 Instructional Video for Learning…………………………………………35
2.4.1 Importance of Instructional Video in Online Learning……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………35
2.4.2 Various Instructional Video Styles for Learning……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………36
2.4.3 Exploring Instructional Video Styles for MOOC Learners……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………39

Chapter 3 Methodology…………………………………………………………………………………………42
3.1 Research Context……………………………………………………………………………………42
3.1.1 MOOC Instructional Mode across the Taiwan Straits………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………43
3.1.2 Learning Ecosystem in the MOOC Instructional Mode………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………48
3.1.3 About the Course………………………………………………………………………………49
3.2 Participants………………………………………………………………………………………………58
3.2.1 Completion and Response Rates……………………………………………59
3.2.2 Demographic Data………………………………………………………………………………60
3.3 Research Method………………………………………………………………………………………62
3.3.1 Research Procedure…………………………………………………………………………62
3.3.2 Research Duration……………………………………………………………………………63
3.3.3 Research Framework…………………………………………………………………………64
3.3.4 Data Collection and Analysis………………………………………………66
3.4 Research Instruments…………………………………………………………………………67
3.4.1 Online Survey………………………………………………………………………………………67
3.4.2 Learning Performance Data………………………………………………………70
3.4.3 Reliability of the Instruments…………………………………………71

Chapter 4 Data Analysis and Presentation……………………………………72
4.1 Results of Learners’ Engagement……………………………………………72
4.1.1 Overall Engagement…………………………………………………………………………73
4.1.2 Behavioral Engagement…………………………………………………………………76
4.1.3 Emotional Engagement……………………………………………………………………79
4.1.4 Cognitive Engagement……………………………………………………………………83
4.2 Results of Learners’ Performance…………………………………………86
4.2.1 Weekly Quiz Performance……………………………………………………………86
4.2.2 Final Exam Performance………………………………………………………………87
4.2.3 Discussion Forum Learning Frequencies………………………88
4.2.4 Course Total Score…………………………………………………………………………90
4.3 Results of Learners’ Perceptions of MOOC Environment……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………91
4.3.1 Learners’ Perceptions of Instructional Videos …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………91
4.3.2 Learners’ Perceptions of Exercises……………………………100
4.3.3 Learners’ Perceptions of Quizzes…………………………………103
4.3.4 Learners’ Perceptions of Discussion Forum…………105
4.4 Learners’ Satisfaction and Suggestions………………………108
4.4.1 Learners’ Satisfaction……………………………………………………………108
4.4.2 Learners’ Suggestions of the MOOC Courseware ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………109
4.5 Discussion…………………………………………………………………………………………………118

Chapter 5 Conclusions and Future Work…………………………………………127
5.1 Conclusions………………………………………………………………………………………………128
5.1.1 Learners’ Engagement within the MOOC Instructional Mode………………………………………………………………………………………………128
5.1.2 Learners’ Performance within the MOOC Instructional Mode………………………………………………………………………………………………129
5.1.3 Learners’ Perceptions of MOOC Learning Environment…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………130
5.1.4 Learners’ Satisfaction and Suggested Guidelines for the MOOC………………………………………………………………………………………………………………131
5.2 Future Work………………………………………………………………………………………………132
References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………134
Appendix…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………144


English

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Chinese

Lee, Y. Y. (2015). 国内慕课 (MOOC) 研究现状述评: 热点与趋势——基于 2009—2014 年 CNKI 所刊文献关键词的共词可视化分析 [A Commentary on the MOOC research in China - based on co-word visualization analysis of CNKI literature key-words from 2009-2014]. e-Education Research, 7, 009.

Lu, D. M. (2015). 慕课对中国高等教育影响的研究 [The study of MOOC impact on Chinese Higher Education]. Instructors’ Vision: Science Research, (6), 8-11.

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