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研究生:陳威宇
研究生(外文):CHEN,WEI-YU
論文名稱:貧窮青少年之剝奪經驗、因應策略與社會關係
論文名稱(外文):Poverty Teenagers' Deprived Experience, Coping Strategies and Social Relations
指導教授:呂朝賢呂朝賢引用關係
指導教授(外文):LEU,CHAO-HSIEN
口試委員:王篤強涂瑞德
口試委員(外文):WANG,DUU-CHIANGTWU,RUEY-DER
口試日期:2016-06-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:社會工作學系
學門:社會服務學門
學類:社會工作學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:148
中文關鍵詞:貧窮相對剝奪因應策略社會關係
外文關鍵詞:povertyrelative deprivationadaptive strategysocial relationship
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:7
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  剝奪是貧窮的一環,也可以說是貧窮的後果,它們密切關聯著,也象徵著陷入貧窮者的經驗感受,當我們用剝奪來衡量貧窮時,對於理解貧窮的輪廓是有幫助的。本研究參考近年來外國關於兒少剝奪調查時所建構的指標,將剝奪分成物質面與社會面來思考,欲瞭解台灣貧窮青少年的生活經驗。
  處於貧窮當中的青少年面對著貧窮的困境與壓力,為了滿足自己與家人的需求,孩子們會思考策略採取行動去因應、適應情境。而上述這些生活經驗與因應行為的後果,深深地影響著這些青少年的社會關係,貧窮可能壓縮了青少年的社交資本,難以發展令人滿意的社交關係,友誼的不足可能被排擠,造成孤立,而因應行為獲得的金錢將能幫助青少年融入同儕消費文化。
  本研究為次級資料分析之量化研究,使用「台灣兒童及少年長期追蹤調查計畫」第三波調查的兒少第二版自填問卷收集的資料進行分析,篩選調查對象年齡12至18歲之在學青少年樣本作為研究分析對象。欲回答貧窮帶給青少年那些剝奪的經驗?青少年如何因應這些剝奪經驗?以及這些剝奪的經驗與因應的行為又如何影響青少年的社會關係?
  研究結果如下:
1.貧窮青少年的剝奪經驗:家扶青少年最為普遍的剝奪是金錢剝奪;其次是飲食剝奪;第三普遍的則是教育發展剝奪與居住剝奪,貧窮家庭在預算有限制的狀況下,這些項目都可能不被視為必需品。
2.剝奪與因應策略之關聯:剝奪的經驗會促使青少年採取因應的策略行動,而因應策略也能幫助青少年離開剝奪情境。且不同的因應策略之間有可替代性,青少年可能採取一項策略,而縮減另一項策略的程度。
3.預測社會關係:剝奪的程度越高,維持社會關係的資本就越少,較難建立更深、更豐富的社會關係,而因應策略則能補足這些需求的資本,讓青少年融入社會關係之中。
  研究發現剝奪經驗、因應策略與社會關係之間的關聯,並非單純的線性,不應該單純理解為兒少發生剝奪的經驗後產生因應行為,而是因應策略是與家庭成員互動後才決定行為與策略的方向,並且能影響剝奪的程度,兩者之間可能是交互影響、互相回饋的關係。此外,因應策略與社會關係的關聯性中,因應策略能讓家庭獲得額外的金錢,支付維持友誼所需的支出,且有工作、有收入對這些兒少是正向的經驗,然而當花費時間投入在家務與工作上,將壓縮學校生活的時間,青少年可能因此錯過「童年」生活,變項間矛盾的關係,無法以簡單的線性去思考、去分析。
  將來,建構剝奪項目應從人們所處的社會出發思考,考量在地文化習慣、社經水準,以及年齡與性別,而對於剝奪的情形,思考政府政策與社福機構服務內容是否能滿足這些需求,進而幫助他們融入社會,維持良好社會關係。此外,我們應認識貧窮引發了兒少多樣貌的因應策略,這些因應策略與家庭分工、性別、年齡等有關,然策略對於青少年不一定就是好的影響,應去理解背後產生的原因、發展與影響,透過協助改變策略,或是支持因應行為,與下一代一起努力遠離貧困。
Deprivation is a part of poverty and it could also be the consequence of poverty. There is a strong association between poverty and deprivation. This association also embody the experiences and feelings of the poor. It is helpful to measure poverty by deprivation for us to comprehend the face of poverty. This research uses recent child deprivation indicators from foreign research as a reference and categorizes deprivation into the material aspect and the social aspect to understand the life experiences of Taiwanese teenagers in poverty.
Facing the pressure and obstacles of poverty, teenagers in poverty will think about strategies and use them to get used to the situation to fulfill the needs of their family and themselves. The consequences of theses life experiences and actions above influence the social relationship of these teenagers deeply. Poverty could compress their social capital and further makes it harder to develop satisfied social relationship. They could be isolated because of the lack of friendship.
This research is a secondary data analysis of quantitative research, using
「Taiwan Database of Children and Youth in Poverty」 third wave data of the second version self-administered questionnaire to analysis. The object of study are children from 12 to 18 years old. This research wants to answer three following questions: What kinds of deprivation experience does poverty bring to teenager? How do teenagers deal with deprivation experiences? How these deprivation experiences influence the social relationship of teenagers?
The results of the study are as below:
1.The deprivation experiences of teenagers in poverty: The most common deprivation among teenagers receiving family support is monetary deprivation; the second one is food deprivation and the third is educational and living deprivation. These are possibly not seemed as necessities when the budget is limited in poor families.
2.The association between deprivation and adaptive strategies: The experiences of deprivation would encourage teenagers to act by using strategies and these strategies can help teenagers run away from deprivation. Moreover, different adaptive strategies are replaceable and teenagers might decrease the level of using one strategy because of using another one.
3.Predict social relationship: The higher the level of deprivation is, the fewer are the capitals of maintaining social relationship. It is also harder to build a deeper and richer social relationship. And adaptive strategies can bring up these capitals that help teenagers get into social relationship.
The research found out that the association between deprivation experience, adaptive strategy and social relationship is not linear. It should not be simply comprehended as the action generated after teenagers experience of deprivation. The direction and action of adaptive strategy are decided after family interaction. And adaptive strategy can affect the level of deprivation and they could influence and benefit each other. In addition, in the association between adaptive strategy and social relationship, adaptive strategy could let the family get additional money to support the expense of friendship maintance. And having jobs and incomes are positive experience for teenagers. However, when teenagers spend time on jobs and house works, they will compress their school lives and possibly miss their childhood lives. The contradictory relationship among variables is not able to be analyzed in a simple and linear way.
In the future, we should think about the buildup of deprivation indicators should from the society people living in, taking the culture, socio-economic level, age and gender into account. For the deprivation, think about if government policies and social welfare foundation services are able to fulfill the needs to help them to immerse into the society. Additionally, we should know that poverty triggers the diverse adaptive strategies of children and teenagers. These adaptive strategies are related to family division, gender and age. Strategies are not necessarily positive to teenagers. We should understand the reasons, development and influences behind the strategies and try hard to leave poverty with the next generation through helping to change strategies and supporting adaptive action.
第一章 緒論 1
 第一節 研究動機與背景 1
 第二節 研究問題與目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
 第一節 貧窮與剝奪 5
 第二節 青少年的貧窮剝奪 9
 第三節 青少年對於貧窮的因應策略 15
 第四節 貧窮青少年社會關係 19
 第五節 小結 22
第三章 研究方法 23
 第一節 研究架構圖 23
 第二節 研究資料 25
 第三節 研究分析與統計方法 31
 第四節 研究倫理 33
第四章 研究分析 35
 第一節 因素分析 35
 第二節 信度與效度分析 41
 第三節 樣本特質分析 45
 第四節 差異分析 57
 第五節 相關分析 75
 第六節 多元迴歸分析 81
 第七節 分析結果討論 107
第五章 結論與建議 113
 第一節 研究結論 113
 第二節 研究建議 119
 第三節 研究限制 123
參考文獻 127
附錄 變項操作性定義

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