跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.201.97.0) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/04/16 08:38
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:帕崔克
研究生(外文):Patrick Opiyo Owili
論文名稱:Associations in the continuum of care for maternal, newborn and child health
論文名稱(外文):Associations in the continuum of care for maternal, newborn and child health
指導教授:周穎政周穎政引用關係許怡欣許怡欣引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yiing-Jenq ChouYi-Hsin Elsa Hsu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:國際衛生碩士學位學程
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:336
外文關鍵詞:Continuum of carematernalnewborn and child healthsub-Saharan Africastructural equation modelingantenatal caredelivery carepostnatal carechild immunizationmaternal health care utilization
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:114
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:5
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
Background: Despite the progress in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5, inequity in the utilization of maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) care services still remain high in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Features of the health care delivery system may not be the only expounding factors of adequate utilization of antenatal care (ANC) among women. Other social factors such as the family structure and its environment contribute towards pregnant women’s utilization of ANC. The continuum of care for MNCH that recognizes a tight inter-relationship between maternal, newborn and child health at different time periods and location is key towards reducing inequity in health. An understanding of how women in different family structure types and social groups use basic maternal health services is important towards developing and implementing maternal health care policy in the post-Millennium Development Goal era; especially in the sub-Saharan Africa where maternal mortality still remain high. Moreover, understanding the complex relationships in the continuum of care for maternal health is essential in designing and implementing a system of continuity of care towards better maternal and newborn health outcome. We also explored the distributions in the utilization MNCH services in 12 SSA countries and further investigated the associations in the continuum of care for MNCH.
Methods: Using Demographic and Health Surveys data of 13 countries in SSA, structural equation modeling approach was employed to analyze the complex relationships in continuum of care for MNCH model. The Logistic regression and Full Information Maximum Likelihood estimation procedure, which account for the Missing at Random (MAR) and Missing Completely at Random (MCAR) assumptions, was adopted using Stata 13.0 and LISREL 8.80, respectively. The distribution of MNCH care utilization was presented before the estimated association in the continuum of care for MNCH model.
Results: In Kenya, family structure was associated with utilization of ANC. Also, use of antenatal care in Kenya had a positive relationship with use of delivery care (β = 0.06; OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.02-1.10) but not postnatal care, while delivery care was associated with postnatal care (β = 0.68; OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.75-2.22). Socioeconomic status was significantly related with all the elements in the continuum of care for maternal health, while barriers to delivery care and personal characteristics were only associated with use of delivery care (β = 0.34; OR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.30-1.52) and postnatal care (β = 0.03; OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05), respectively. Furthermore, in SSA, some countries have a consistently low (Mali, Nigeria, DR Congo and Rwanda) or high (Namibia, Senegal, Gambia and Liberia) utilization in at least two levels of MNCH care. The path relationships in the continuum of care for MNCH from ‘adequate antenatal care’ to ‘adequate delivery care’ (β = 0.32) and to ‘adequate child’s immunization’ (β = 0.36); from ‘adequate delivery care’ to ‘adequate postnatal care’ (β = 0.78) and to ‘adequate child’s immunization’ (β = 0.15) were positively associated and statistically significant at p < 0.001. Only the path relationship from ‘adequate postnatal care’ to ‘adequate child’s immunization’ (β = -0.02) was negatively associated and significant at p < 0.001.
Conclusions: In conclusion, utilization of each level of MNCH care is related to the next level of care, that is – antenatal care is associated with delivery care which is then associated with postnatal and subsequently with child’s immunization program. Developing a referral system of continuity of care is critical in the Sustainable Development Goals era. At the national level, identification of communities which are greatly contributing to overall disparity in health and a well laid out follow-up mechanism from pregnancy through to child’s immunization program could serve towards improving maternal and infant health outcomes and equity.
Table of contents
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v
Abstract vi
Table of contents ix
List of tables xviii
List of figures xx
List of equations xxii
List of abbreviations xxiii
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Significance of the study 2
1.3 General objective of the dissertation 4
1.3.1 Specific objectives 5
1.3.1.1 Manuscript one 5
1.3.1.2 Manuscript two 5
1.3.1.3 Manuscript three 5
1.4 Structure of the dissertation 6
Chapter 2: Literature Review 7
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Utilization of maternal, newborn and child health care 8
2.2.1 Utilization of antenatal care 8
2.2.2 Utilization of delivery care 9
2.2.3 Utilization of postnatal care 10
2.2.4 Utilization of child’s immunization program 11
2.3 Continuum of care for MNCH 12
2.4 Conceptual framework 13
Chapter 3: Study Setting and Country’s Profile 15
3.1 Introduction 15
3.2 Country’s geopolitical, economic and health profile 15
3.2.1 Manuscript one and two 15
3.2.1.1 Kenya 15
3.2.2 Manuscript three 18
3.2.2.1 DR Congo 18
3.2.2.2 Gambia 19
3.2.2.3 Liberia 20
3.2.2.4 Mali 22
3.2.2.5 Namibia 23
3.2.2.6 Nigeria 24
3.2.2.7 Rwanda 26
3.2.2.8 Senegal 27
3.2.2.9 Sierra Leone 28
3.2.2.10 Tanzania 29
3.2.2.11 Togo 31
3.2.2.12 Zambia 32
3.3 Summary 33
Chapter 4: Detailed Methods 35
4.1 Introduction 35
4.2 Sampling strategy and sample size 36
4.3 Data collection, instrument and measures 38
4.4 Data analysis 41
4.5 Ethical consideration 42
Chapter 5: Manuscript One 43
5.1 Abstract 44
5.2 Introduction 45
5.3 Methods 48
5.3.1 Study sampling and data 48
5.3.2 Measures 50
5.3.2.1 Outcome variable 50
5.3.2.2 Explanatory variables 50
5.3.3 Data analysis 51
5.4 Results 53
5.4.1 Sample characteristics 53
5.4.2 Adequate utilization of ANC 57
5.4.3 Family structure and adequate utilization of ANC 60
5.4.4 Family structure, maternal age and SES in adequate utilization of ANC 64
5.5 Discussion 67
5.5.1 Conclusion, research and policy implication 70
5.5.2 Limitations 71
Chapter 6: Manuscript Two 72
6.1 Abstract 73
6.2 Introduction 74
6.3 Methodology 77
6.3.1 Sampling strategy 77
6.3.2 Conceptual framework 78
6.3.3 Variable definitions 79
6.3.3.1 Dependent latent variables 79
6.3.3.2 Independent latent variables 81
6.3.4 Analytical procedure 82
6.3.4.1 Handling missing data 82
6.3.4.2 Reliability and validity analysis 83
6.3.4.3 Model specification and estimation 83
6.3.4.4 Model fit criteria 86
6.3.5 Ethical consideration 87
6.4 Results 88
6.4.1 Model evaluation 92
6.4.1.1 Fit statistics 92
6.4.1.2 Measurement variables analyses 94
6.4.1.3 Multivariate structural model analysis 97
6.5 Discussion 101
6.5.1 Conclusion, policy and research implication 103
6.5.2 Limitations 104
Chapter 7: Manuscript Three 106
7.1 Abstract 107
7.2 Background 109
7.3 Methods 111
7.3.1 Study site and sampling 111
7.3.2 Conceptual framework 111
7.3.3 Data and measures 113
7.3.3.1 Outcome variables 113
7.3.3.2 Independent variables 114
7.3.4 Data analysis 115
7.3.5 Structural equations 116
7.3.6 Model evaluation 117
7.3.7 Ethical consideration 118
7.4 Results 119
7.4.1 Geographical profile and inequality in MNCH care utilization 119
7.4.2 Model evaluation 126
7.4.2.1 Determinants of MNCH care utilization measurement indicators 128
7.4.2.2 Continuum of care for MNCH measurement variables 132
7.4.3 Structural model analysis 132
7.4.3.1 Independent latent relationship to the continuum of care 135
7.4.3.2 The continuum of care for MNCH 136
7.5 Discussion 137
7.5.1 Policy and research implication 140
7.5.2 Conclusions 142
Chapter 8: Summary 143
8.1 Significant findings 143
8.1.1 Manuscript one 143
8.1.2 Manuscript two 144
8.1.3 Manuscript three 144
8.2 Policy and future research implication 146
References 148
Appendices 165
Appendix A: LISREL and SIMPLIS syntaxes used in the analysis of the structural equation model of manuscript two 165
Appendix B: Reliability analysis of measurement variables in the five latent constructs of manuscript two (n = 4,082) 167
Appendix C: The correlation and covariance matrices of the latent constructs of manuscript two 169
Appendix D: The covariance and correlation matrices of the latent constructs of manuscript three 170
Appendix E: National Yang-Ming University Ethical approval by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) 171
Appendix F: LISREL output for the relationships in the continuum of care for MHC in Kenya 172
Appendix G: LISREL output for the associations in the continuum of care for MNCH in sub-Saharan Africa 222


List of tables

Table 4 1 Sampled and number of clusters and households sampled in different sub-Saharan Africa countries 37
Table 5 1 Percentages of women aged 15-49 who had successful delivery five years prior to the survey with respect to the four basic indicators of ANC utilization, 2008-09 KDHS 54
Table 5 2 Percentages of women aged 15-49 who had successful delivery five years prior to the survey who utilized ANC adequately, by family structure, maternal age and SES, 2008-09 KDHS 58
Table 5 3 Logistic regression models predicting adequate utilization of ANC of women age 15–49 who had successful delivery five years prior to the survey, 2008-09 KDHS (n = 4,005) 61
Table 5 4 Relationships between family structure type, maternal age and SES in adequate utilization of ANC, 2008-09 KDHS (n = 4,005) 65
Table 6 1 Sample characteristics of women aged 15–49 who had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey, for the most recent birth, 2008/9 KDHS 89
Table 6 2 Multivariate standardized parameter estimates (β) and odds ratios (OR; 95% confidence interval, CI) of the measurement variables in the structural equation model, 2008/9 KDHS (n = 4,082) 95
Table 6 3 Multivariate standardized regression coefficients (β) and odds ratios (OR; confidence interval, CI) of the estimated structural equation model (Equations 3 - 5) 98
Table 7 1 Proportion of women aged 15–49, who had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey, according to maternal and child health care utilization in 12 sub-Saharan Africa countries 122
Table 7 2 Parameter estimates of measurement variables of the continuum of care for maternal and newborn health care of 12 sub Saharan Africa countries (n = 137,505) 129
Table 7 3 Standardized parameter estimates of the structural equation model (Equations 1 to 4) 134


List of figures


Figure 2 1 The conceptual framework of the relationships in the continuum of care 14
Figure 3 1 Graphical representation of the most recent maternal mortality ratio and under-5 mortality rate statistics 34
Figure 5 1 Sample size used in the study of access to maternal care in Kenya 49
Figure 6 1 Conceptual model for evaluating continuum of care for maternal health 78
Figure 6 2 Standardized parameter estimates (β coefficients) of the structural equation model estimating the continuum of care for maternal health (Refer Table 6 2 for the label name). Latent and observed variables are in oval and rectangular shapes, respectively. 93
Figure 6 3 The final structural equation model showing t-values of the significant path relationships of the continuum of care for maternal health among women aged 15–49, 2008/9 KDHS (Values in red are not significant) 100
Figure 7 1 The conceptual model of the continuum of care for maternal, newborn and child health 112
Figure 7 2 The distribution of the proportion of women who adequately utilized maternal, newborn and child health care in the 12 sub-Saharan Africa countries. A) Adequate antenatal care, B) Adequate delivery care, C) Adequate postnatal care, and D) Adequate child’s immunization. 120
Figure 7 3 The standardized parameter estimates of the continuum of care for maternal, newborn and child health care of the 12 sub-Saharan Africa countries. The oval-shaped are latent variables and the rectangle-shaped are the measurements. 127
Figure 7 4 The t-values of the structural path relationships and the correlations of the independent latent variables. The values in red are not significant. 133

List of equations


Equation 4 1 Logistic regression model 41
Equation 6 1 Structural relationship between measurements and latent variable 85
Equation 6 2 Structural relationship between two or more latent variables 85
Equation 6 3 Structural equation model of the utilization of antenatal care in Kenya 86
Equation 6 4 Structural equation model of the utilization of delivery care in Kenya 86
Equation 6 5 Structural equation model of the utilization of postnatal care in Kenya 86
Equation 7 1 Structural equation model of the utilization of antenatal care in 12 sub-Saharan Africa countries 117
Equation 7 2 Structural equation model of the utilization of delivery care in 12 sub-Saharan Africa countries 117
Equation 7 3 Structural equation model of the utilization of postnatal care in 12 sub-Saharan Africa countries 117
Equation 7 4 Structural equation model of the utilization of child’s immunization program 12 sub-Saharan Africa countries 117

Abou-Zahr, C. L., & Wardlaw, T. M. (2001). Maternal mortality at the end of the decade : signs of progress? Bull World Health Organ, 79, 561-568.
Abou-Zahr, C. L., Wardlaw, T. M., & World Health Organization. Dept. of Reproductive Health and Research. (2003). Antenatal care in developing countries : promises, achievements and missed opportunities : an analysis of trends,levels and differentials, 1990-2001. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Achia, T. N., & Mageto, L. E. (2015). Individual and contextual determinants of adequate maternal health care services in kenya. Women Health, 55(2), 203-226. doi:10.1080/03630242.2014.979971
Adetunji, J. A., & Shelton, J. (2011). Ethical issues in the collection, analysis and dissemination of DHS data in sub-Saharan africa. Retrieved from http://uaps2011.princeton.edu/papers/110641
Agence Nationale de la Statistique et de la Démographie (ANSD) [Sénégal], & ICF International. (2015). Sénégal : Enquête Démographique et de Santé Continue (EDS-Continue 2014). Rockville, Maryland, USA: ANSD et ICF International.
Arthur, E. (2012). Wealth and antenatal care use: implications for maternal health care utilisation in Ghana. Health Econ Rev, 2(1), 14. doi:10.1186/2191-1991-2-14
Audo, M. O., Ferguson, A., & Njoroge, P. K. (2005). Quality of health care and its effects in the utilisation of maternal and child health services in Kenya. East Afr Med J, 82(11), 547-553.
Barros, A. J., Ronsmans, C., Axelson, H., Loaiza, E., Bertoldi, A. D., França, G. V., . . . Victora, C. G. (2012). Equity in maternal, newborn, and child health interventions in Countdown to 2015: a retrospective review of survey data from 54 countries. Lancet, 379(9822), 1225-1233. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60113-5
Belayneh, T., Adefris, M., & Andargie, G. (2014). Previous early antenatal service utilization improves timely booking: cross-sectional study at university of Gondar hospital, northwest Ethiopia. J Pregnancy, 2014, 132494. doi:10.1155/2014/132494
Bourbonnais, N. (2013). Implementing free maternal health care in Kenya. Retrieved from http://www.knchr.org/ReportsPublications/ThematicReports/EconomicSocialandCultural.aspx
Bullough, C., Meda, N., Makowiecka, K., Ronsmans, C., Achadi, E. L., & Hussein, J. (2005). Current strategies for the reduction of maternal mortality. BJOG, 112(9), 1180-1188. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2005.00718.x
Bustreo, F., Say, L., Koblinsky, M., Pullum, T. W., Temmerman, M., & Pablos-Méndez, A. (2013). Ending preventable maternal deaths: the time is now. Lancet Glob Health, 1(4), e176-177. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(13)70059-7
Byrne, B. M. (1998). Structural equation modeling with LISREL, PRELIS, and SIMPLIS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Campbell, O. M., Graham, W. J., & Lancet Maternal Survival Series steering, g. (2006). Strategies for reducing maternal mortality: getting on with what works. Lancet, 368(9543), 1284-1299. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69381-1
Carroli, G., Rooney, C., & Villar, J. (2001). How effective is antenatal care in preventing maternal mortality and serious morbidity? an overview of the evidence. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 15(Suppl. 1), 1-42.
Cellule de Planification et de Statistique (CPS/SSDSPF), Institut National de la Statistique (INSTAT/MPATP), INFO-STAT, & ICF International. (2014). Enquête Démographique et de Santé au Mali 2012-2013. Rockville, Maryland, USA: CPS, INSTAT, INFO-STAT et ICF International.
Central Statistical Office (CSO) [Zambia], Ministry of Health (MOH) [Zambia], & International, I. (2014). Zambia Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14. Rockville, Maryland, USA: Central Statistical Office, Ministry of Health, and ICF International.
Chan, M. (2014). Beyond expectations: 40 years of EPI. Lancet, 383(9930), 1697-1698.
Chan, M. (2014). The contribution of immunization: saving millions of lives, and more. Public Health Rep, 129 Suppl 3, 7-8.
Chen, X. K., Wen, S. W., Yang, Q., & Walker, M. C. (2007). Adequacy of prenatal care and neonatal mortality in infants born to mothers with and without antenatal high-risk conditions. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol, 47(2), 122-127. doi:10.1111/j.1479-828X.2007.00697.x
Choi, Y. J., Nam, C. M., & Kwak, M. J. (2004). Multiple imputation technique applied to appropriateness ratings in cataract surgery. Yonsei Med J, 45(5), 829-837.
Collins, L. M., Schafer, J. L., & Kam, C. M. (2001). A comparison of inclusive and restrictive strategies in modern missing data procedures. Psychol Methods, 6(4), 330-351.
Countdown to 2015. (2015). Countdown and the Continuum of Care. Retrieved from http://www.countdown2015mnch.org/about-countdown/continuum-of-care
Dahal, R. K. (2013). Utilization of Antenatal Care Services in Rural Area of Nepal. International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health, 5(2), 120-131.
De Brouwere, V., Tonglet, R., & Van Lerberghe, W. (1998). Strategies for reducing maternal mortality in developing countries: what can we learn from the history of the industrialized West? Trop Med Int Health, 3(10), 771-782.
Demographic Health Survey Program. (2015). The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program. Retrieved from http://www.dhsprogram.com
DHS Program. Publications. Retrieved from https://dhsprogram.com/
DHS Program. (2016). The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program. Retrieved from http://www.dhsprogram.com
Du Toit, S. H. C., Du Toit, M., Mels, G., & Cheng, Y. (2005). Analysis of complex survey data using LISREL. Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International, Inc.
Enders, C. K., & Peugh, J. L. (2004). Using an EM covariance matrix to estimate structural equation models with missing data: Choosing an adjusted sample size to improve the accuracy of inferences. Structural Equation Modeling, 11(1), 1-19.
Favin, M., Steinglass, R., Fields, R., Banerjee, K., & Sawhney, M. (2012). Why children are not vaccinated: a review of the grey literature. International Health, 4(4), 229-238. doi:10.1016/j.inhe.2012.07.004
Garson, G. D. (2015). Structural Equation Modeling. Asheboro, NC: Statistical Associates Publishers.
Glatman-Freedman, A., & Nichols, K. (2012). The effect of social determinants on immunization programs. Hum Vaccin Immunother, 8(3), 293-301. doi:10.4161/hv.19003
Hair, J. F. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hogan, M. C., Foreman, K. J., Naghavi, M., Ahn, S. Y., Wang, M., Makela, S. M., . . . Murray, C. J. (2010). Maternal mortality for 181 countries, 1980-2008: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5. Lancet, 375(9726), 1609-1623. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60518-1
Hollowell, J., Oakley, L., Kurinczuk, J. J., Brocklehurst, P., & Gray, R. (2011). The effectiveness of antenatal care programmes to reduce infant mortality and preterm birth in socially disadvantaged and vulnerable women in high-income countries: a systematic review. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 11, 13. doi:10.1186/1471-2393-11-13
Hu, L. t., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118
Hu, Y. R., & Goldman, N. (1990). Mortality differentials by marital status: an international comparison. Demography, 27(2), 233-250.
Jöreskog, K., & Sörbom, D. (2006). LISREL 8.8 for Windows. Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International, Inc.
Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Lincolnwood: Scientific Software International.
Joung, I. M., van de Mheen, H. D., Stronks, K., van Poppel, F. W., & Mackenbach, J. P. (1998). A longitudinal study of health selection in marital transitions. Soc Sci Med, 46(3), 425-435.
Kadane, J. B., & Lazar, N. A. (2004). Methods and criteria for model selection. Journal of the American statistical Association, 99(465), 279-290.
Kang, H. (2013). The prevention and handling of the missing data. Korean J Anesthesiol, 64(5), 402-406. doi:10.4097/kjae.2013.64.5.402
Kelley, K. J. (2014). Obama cites Kenya’s Luo culture in talk on polygamy. Retrieved from http://mobile.nation.co.ke/Obama-Luo-culture-polygamy/-/1953704/2402522/-/format/xhtml/-/7oh6hfz/-/index.html
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS), & ICF Macro. (2010). Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-09. Calverton, Maryland: KNBS and ICF Macro.
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS), & The Demographic Health Survey (DHS) Program. (2015). Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2014. Calverton, Maryland: KNBS and ICF International.
Kerber, K. J., de Graft-Johnson, J. E., Bhutta, Z. A., Okong, P., Starrs, A., & Lawn, J. E. (2007). Continuum of care for maternal, newborn, and child health: from slogan to service delivery. Lancet, 370(9595), 1358-1369. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61578-5
Koblinsky, M., Matthews, Z., Hussein, J., Mavalankar, D., Mridha, M. K., Anwar, I., . . . Lancet Maternal Survival Series steering, g. (2006). Going to scale with professional skilled care. Lancet, 368(9544), 1377-1386. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69382-3
Kupek, E. (2006). Beyond logistic regression: structural equations modelling for binary variables and its application to investigating unobserved confounders. BMC Med Res Methodol, 6, 13. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-6-13
Langlois, E. V., Miszkurka, M., Ziegler, D., Karp, I., & Zunzunegui, M. V. (2013). Protocol for a systematic review on inequalities in postnatal care services utilization in low- and middle-income countries. Syst Rev, 2, 55. doi:10.1186/2046-4053-2-55
Langlois, E. V., Miszkurka, M., Zunzunegui, M. V., Ghaffar, A., Ziegler, D., & Karp, I. (2015). Inequities in postnatal care in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Bull World Health Organ, 93(4), 259-270G. doi:10.2471/BLT.14.140996
Leslie, J., & Gupta, G. R. (1989). Utilization of formal services for maternal nutrition and health care. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women.
Liberia Institute of Statistics and Geo-Information Services (LISGIS), Ministry of Health and Social Welfare [Liberia], National AIDS Control Program [Liberia], & International., I. (2014). Liberia Demographic and Health Survey 2013. Monrovia, Liberia: Liberia Institute of Statistics and Geo-Information Services (LISGIS) and ICF International.
Magadi, M. A., Agwanda, A. O., & Obare, F. O. (2007). A comparative analysis of the use of maternal health services between teenagers and older mothers in sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Soc Sci Med, 64(6), 1311-1325. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.11.004
Magadi, M. A., Madise, N. J., & Rodrigues, R. N. (2000). Frequency and timing of antenatal care in Kenya: explaining the variations between women of different communities. Soc Sci Med, 51(4), 551-561.
Martikainen, P., Martelin, T., Nihtila, E., Majamaa, K., & Koskinen, S. (2005). Differences in mortality by marital status in Finland from 1976 to 2000: analyses of changes in marital-status distributions, socio-demographic and household composition, and cause of death. Popul Stud (Camb), 59(1), 99-115. doi:10.1080/0032472052000332737
Matsumura, M., & Gubhaju, B. (2001). women's status, household structure and the utilization of maternal health services in Nepal. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, 16(1), 23-44.
McBryde-Foster, M., & Allen, T. (2005). The continuum of care: a concept development study. J Adv Nurs, 50(6), 624-632. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2005.03447.x
McDonald, R. P., & Ho, M. H. R. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. Psychological Methods, 7(1), 64.
McNamee, R. (2005). Regression modelling and other methods to control confounding. Occup Environ Med, 62(7), 500-506, 472. doi:10.1136/oem.2002.001115
Ministère de la Planification, d. D. e. d. l. A. d. T. M., Ministère de la Santé (MS), & ICF International. (2015). Enquête Démographique et de Santé au Togo 2013-2014. Rockville, Maryland, USA: MPDAT, MS et ICF International.
Ministère du Plan et Suivi de la Mise en oeuvre de la Révolution de la Modernité (MPSMRM), Ministère de la Santé Publique (MSP), & ICF International. (2014a). Democratic Republic of Congo Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14: Key Findings. Rockville, Maryland, USA: MPSMRM, MSP et ICF International.
Ministère du Plan et Suivi de la Mise en oeuvre de la Révolution de la Modernité (MPSMRM), Ministère de la Santé Publique (MSP), & ICF International. (2014b). Enquête Démographique et de Santé en République Démocratique du Congo 2013-2014. Rockville, Maryland, USA: MPSMRM, MSP et ICF International.
Ministry of Medical Services, & Ministry of Public Health & Sanitation. (2012). Kenya Health Sector Strategic & Investment Plan, July 2012-June 2018. Nairobi: Afya House Retrieved from http://www.machakosgovernment.com/documents/MINISTRY_OF_HEALTH_POLICY.pdf.
Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation (MOPHS) [Kenya], & Ministry of Medical Services. (2012). National guideline for quality obstetrics and perinatal care Retrieved from https://www.k4health.org/toolkits/kenya-health/national-guidelines-quality-obstetrics-and-perinatal-care
Moyer, C. A., & Mustafa, A. (2013). Drivers and deterrents of facility delivery in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Reprod Health, 10(1), 40.
Murray, C. J. L., Lopez, A. D., & World Health Organization. (1998). Health dimensions of sex and reproduction : the global burden of sexually transmitted diseases, HIV, maternal conditions, perinatal disorders, and congenital anomalies. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Nabukera, S. K., Witte, K., Muchunguzi, C., Bajunirwe, F., Batwala, V. K., Mulogo, E. M., . . . Salihu, H. M. (2006). Use of postpartum health services in rural uganda: knowledge, attitudes and barriers. Journal of Community Health, 31(2), 84-93. doi:10.1007/s10900-005-9003-3
National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) [Tanzania], & ICF Macro. (2011). Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2010. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: NBS and ICF Macro.
National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR) [Rwanda], Ministry of Health (MOH) [Rwanda], & ICF International. (2012). Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey 2010. Calverton, Maryland, USA: NISR, MOH, and ICF International.
National Population Commission (NPC) [Nigeria], & ICF International. (2014). Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013. Abuja, Nigeria, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NPC and ICF International.
Novilla, M. L., Barnes, M. D., De La Cruz, N. G., Williams, P. N., & Rogers, J. (2006). Public health perspectives on the family: an ecological approach to promoting health in the family and community. Fam Community Health, 29(1), 28-42.
Nyanchwani, S. (2013, September 6). Let's accord cohabitation official status. The Standard Newspaper. Retrieved from http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2000092920/let-s-accord-cohabitation-official-status
Obago, I. T., Ouma, J. O., & Owino, J. A. (2013). Does the Quality of Antenatal Care Predict Health Facility Delivery Among Women in Kenya? Further Analysis of KDHS Data 2008/09. International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition, 2(1), 15-24.
Ochako, R., Fotso, J. C., Ikamari, L., & Khasakhala, A. (2011). Utilization of maternal health services among young women in Kenya: insights from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2003. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 11, 1. doi:10.1186/1471-2393-11-1
Ohashi, A., Higuchi, M., Labeeb, S. A., Mohamed, A. G., Chiang, C., & Aoyama, A. (2014). Family support for women's health-seeking behavior: a qualitative study in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). Nagoya J Med Sci, 76(1-2), 17-25.
Owili, P. O., Hsu, Y. H., Chern, J. Y., Chiu, C. H., Wang, B., Huang, K. C., & Muga, M. A. (2015). Perceptions and attitudes of health professionals in kenya on national health care resource allocation mechanisms: a structural equation modeling. PLoS One, 10(6), e0127160. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0127160
Owili, P. O., Muga, M. A., Chou, Y. J., Hsu, Y. H., Huang, N., & Chien, L. Y. (2016). Associations in the continuum of care for maternal, newborn and child health: a population-based study of 12 sub-Saharan Africa countries. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 414. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3075-0
Owoo, N. S., & Lambon-Quayefio, M. P. (2013). National health insurance, social influence and antenatal care use in Ghana. Health Econ Rev, 3(1), 19. doi:10.1186/2191-1991-3-19
Ozawa, S., Stack, M. L., Bishai, D. M., Mirelman, A., Friberg, I. K., Niessen, L., . . . Levine, O. S. (2011). During the 'decade of vaccines,' the lives of 6.4 million children valued at $231 billion could be saved. Health Aff (Millwood), 30(6), 1010-1020. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2011.0381
Pembe, A. B., Carlstedt, A., Urassa, D. P., Lindmark, G., Nystrom, L., & Darj, E. (2010). Quality of antenatal care in rural Tanzania: counselling on pregnancy danger signs. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 10, 35. doi:10.1186/1471-2393-10-35
PSCU, & Standard digital newspaper. (2014). President Uhuru Kenyatta assents to Marriage Bill 2014. Retrieved from http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/?articleID=2000110542&story_title=president-uhuru-kenyatta-assents-to-marriage-bill-2014
Rani, M., Bonu, S., & Harvey, S. (2008). Differentials in the quality of antenatal care in India. Int J Qual Health Care, 20(1), 62-71. doi:10.1093/intqhc/mzm052
Robards, J., Evandrou, M., Falkingham, J., & Vlachantoni, A. (2012). Marital status, health and mortality. Maturitas, 73(4), 295-299. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2012.08.007
Rubin, L. H., Witkiewitz, K., Andre, J. S., & Reilly, S. (2007). Methods for Handling Missing Data in the Behavioral Neurosciences: Don't Throw the Baby Rat out with the Bath Water. J Undergrad Neurosci Educ, 5(2), A71-77.
Say, L., Chou, D., Gemmill, A., Tunçalp, Ö., Moller, A. B., Daniels, J., . . . Alkema, L. (2014). Global causes of maternal death: a WHO systematic analysis. Lancet Glob Health, 2(6), e323-333. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(14)70227-X
Say, L., & Raine, R. (2007). A systematic review of inequalities in the use of maternal health care in developing countries: examining the scale of the problem and the importance of context. Bull World Health Organ, 85(10), 812-819.
Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2012). A Beginner's Guide to Structural Equation Modeling: Third Edition. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Shen, A. K., Fields, R., & McQuestion, M. (2014). The future of routine immunization in the developing world: challenges and opportunities. Glob Health Sci Pract, 2(4), 381-394. doi:10.9745/GHSP-D-14-00137
Simkhada, B., Teijlingen, E. R., Porter, M., & Simkhada, P. (2008). Factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care in developing countries: systematic review of the literature. J Adv Nurs, 61(3), 244-260. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04532.x
Stapleton, L. M. (2006). An Assessment of Practical Solutions for Structural Equation Modeling with Complex Sample Data. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 13(1), 28-58. doi:10.1207/s15328007sem1301_2
StataCorp. (2013). Stata Statistical Software: Release 13. College Station, Texas: StataCorp LP.
Statistics Sierra Leone (SSL), & ICF International. (2014). Sierra Leone Demographic and Health Survey 2013. Freetown, Sierra Leone and Rockville, Maryland, USA: SSL and ICF International.
Steinglass, R. (2013). Routine immunization: an essential but wobbly platform. Glob Health Sci Pract, 1(3), 295-301. doi:10.9745/GHSP-D-13-00122
Taylor, P. (Ed.) (2010). The decline of marriage and rise of new families. Washington, D.C: Pew Research Center: A Social & Demographic Trends Report.
The Gambia Bureau of Statistics (GBOS), & ICF International. (2014). The Gambia Demographic and Health Survey 2013. Banjul, The Gambia, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: GBOS and ICF International.
The Nambia Ministry of Health and Social Services (MoHSS), & ICF International. (2014). The Namibia Demographic and Health Survey 2013. Windhoek, Namibia, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: MoHSS and ICF International.
Tran, T. K., Gottvall, K., Nguyen, H. D., Ascher, H., & Petzold, M. (2012). Factors associated with antenatal care adequacy in rural and urban contexts-results from two health and demographic surveillance sites in Vietnam. BMC Health Serv Res, 12, 40. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-12-40
UNICEF. (2009). The state of the world's children 2009: Maternal and new born health (pp. 158p). New York: UNICEF.
UNICEF, WHO, IBRD, UN, & UN. Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. (2014). Levels & trends in child mortality : Report 2014. Geneva: WHO.
United Nations. (2016). Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/
Upadhyay, P., Liabsuetrakul, T., Shrestha, A. B., & Pradhan, N. (2014). Influence of family members on utilization of maternal health care services among teen and adult pregnant women in Kathmandu, Nepal: a cross sectional study. Reprod Health, 11, 92. doi:10.1186/1742-4755-11-92
Vieira, C. L., Coeli, C. M., Pinheiro, R. S., Brandao, E. R., Camargo, K. R., Jr., & Aguiar, F. P. (2012). Modifying effect of prenatal care on the association between young maternal age and adverse birth outcomes. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol, 25(3), 185-189. doi:10.1016/j.jpag.2011.12.070
Wang, W., & Hong, R. (2015). Levels and determinants of continuum of care for maternal and newborn health in Cambodia-evidence from a population-based survey. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 15, 62. doi:10.1186/s12884-015-0497-0
WHO, UNICEF, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, & World Bank. (2014). Trends in maternal mortality: 1990 to 2013. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Wikipedia contributors. (2016a). Democratic Republic of the Congo. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo&oldid=718172001
Wikipedia contributors. (2016b). Mali. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mali&oldid=718304483
Wikipedia contributors. (2016c). Senegal. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Senegal&oldid=718091505
Wikipedia contributors. (2016d). Togo. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Togo&oldid=715768389
World Bank. (2015). Millennium Development Goals. Retrieved from http://www.developmentgoals.org
World Health Organization. (2002). WHO Antenatal Care Randomised Controlled Trial: Manual for implementation of the new model. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. (2006). Opportunities for Africa's newborns. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. (2013). WHO Recommendations on postnatal care of the mother and newborn. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. (2014, 2015-01-03 00:07:12 ). WHO | Health Topics: Maternal health. WHO. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/maternal_health/en/
World Health Organization. (2015). Health in 2015: from MDGs, Millennium Development Goals to SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals. Geneva: World Health Organizationa.
World Health Organization (WHO). (2013). The Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 Retrieved from http://www.who.int/immunization/global_vaccine_action_plan/GVAP_doc_2011_2020/en/
World Health Organization (WHO), & United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). (2015). Global immunization data. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/immunization/monitoring_surveillance/global_immunization_data.pdf?ua=1
World Health Organization Media centre. (2014). Maternal mortality. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs348/en/
World Health Organization. (2005). The World health report : 2005 : make every mother and child count. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization., International Confederation of Midwives., & Fédération internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique. (2004). Making pregnancy safer : the critical role of the skilled attendant : a joint statement by WHO, ICM and FIGO. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization., & UNICEF. (2015). A Decade of Tracking Progress for Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival: The 2015 Report. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization., World Bank., UNICEF, & United Nations Population Fund. (2012). Trends in maternal mortality: 1990 to 2010: WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and The World Bank estimates. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. Dept. of Making Pregnancy Safer. (2007). Standards for maternal and neonatal care. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. Dept. of Making Pregnancy Safer. (2010). WHO technical consultation on postpartum and postnatal care. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. Maternal and Newborn Health/Safe Motherhood Unit. (1998). Postpartum care of the mother and newborn : a practical guide : report of a technical working group. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe. (2011). Albania success stories in improving mother and child health. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.
Zaferanchizadeh, M., Mohammadi, A., & Sohrabi, R. (2013). Relationship Between Family Environment and Pregnant Women's General Health. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 1779-1781. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.07.032
Zanconato, G., Msolomba, R., Guarenti, L., & Franchi, M. (2006). Antenatal care in developing countries: the need for a tailored model. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med, 11(1), 15-20. doi:10.1016/j.siny.2005.10.002
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top