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研究生:陳嬿如
研究生(外文):Yen-Ju chen
論文名稱:外人直接投資的薪資外溢效果:越南製造業的實證研究
指導教授:楊志海楊志海引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:經濟學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:外溢效果越南薪資水準越南製造業外人直接投資企業所有權排擠效果
外文關鍵詞:wage spilloverVietnamese manufacturing
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本研究使用越南中央統計總局(General Statistical Office, GSO) 2000至2008年廠商普查資料,分析外國企業與本土企業之間的薪資差異,並觀察外人直接投資的進入是否提升本土企業薪資水準,也就是產生薪資外溢效果,然而法律規範的四類區域不同最低薪資造成薪資外溢效果難以分辨,加入WTO之後讓第二區之薪資外溢效果更上一層樓,第一區卻沒有發生如此現象,這其中又是什麼樣的因素導致呢?
根據外資進駐越南各省份的程度不一,資源競爭性也就跟的改變,即使整體平均薪資提升,仍可能存在同產業內的廠商薪資差異擴大的問題或產生排擠效果,進一步探討是否造成各產業薪資發展不均衡的現象。有趣的是,對於各省每年薪資在外資與本土企業之間的落差,我們原先認為差距越大代表薪資提拉的壓力可能越大,但結果出乎意料,在省內控制外資產出占比變數後,省內的差距越大竟然會帶來整體薪資降低之現象,表示即使外資進駐會拉升薪資水平,「兩極化」現象在省內卻會惡化整體薪資水平。
整體上,相對於國營企業而言,外資的進駐對於私人企業有較重大的薪資外溢影響,符合國營企業穩定的薪資現象。
This paper examines the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Vietnamese manufacturing on wages in locally owned Indonesian manufacturing plants. We use manufacturing census data for 2000 to 2008 undertaken by the General Statistical Office (GSO) to analyze the extent of wage differentials between foreign multinational enterprises, state-owned enterprises and domestic private firms. It is difficult to distinguish the wage spillover effect when the government setting a minimum wage in distinct regions, even different rules between foreign multinational enterprises and local firms.
The impact of foreign direct investment on overall wages depends not only on how high the foreign firm wages are, but also on their effect, if any, on wages in locally owned firms. After 2007, Vietnam became as a member of the WTO and the effect of the spillover in the second district is higher. However, it has not apparently happened in the first district.
According to the degree of foreign investment in the provinces of Vietnam, the competitiveness of resources is changed, and even if the overall average salary increase, there may still be the expansion of the differences in salary within the industry, or a squeeze effect to the inefficient firms. In order to further explore whether the industry wage growth is not balanced, we inspect the direction of the influence of the salary gap in the provinces every year. We originally thought that the greater the gap meaning the salary suffers the pressure to increase, but the result was unexpectedly. The larger the gap in the province will lead to a reduction in the overall salary, indicating that even if foreign investment will pull up salary levels, "polarization" phenomenon in the province will deteriorate the overall salary level.
On the whole, relative to the state-owned enterprises, foreign investment makes a greater impact on wage spillovers in the private sector, in line with the state-owned enterprises has a stable salary appearance.
目錄
論文摘要 i
Abstract ii
致謝 iv
目錄 v
圖目錄 vi
表目錄 vii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 7
第三節 章節安排 8
第四節 研究架構 9
第二章 越南的薪資規定、廠商分佈與文獻回顧 10
第一節 薪資規定 10
第二節 廠商各省分布 11
第三節 文獻回顧 13
第三章 資料來源與敘述統計 21
第一節 資料來源 21
第二節 資料分析與敘述統計 22
第三節 自變數相關性檢定 28
第四章 研究方法與實證模型 30
第一節 靜態Panel Data 模型 30
第二節 實證模型設定與變數說明 34
第五章 實證結果與分析 36
第一節 基準模型 36
第二節 穩健性檢驗 44
第三節 FDI對國營與私人企業之個別影響 45
第四節 綜合評估 47
第五節 加入WTO之影響 49
第六節 越南廠商薪資結構 51
第六章 結論與未來建議研究方向 52
第一節 結論 52
第二節 未來研究方向與建議 53
參考文獻 54
參考文獻
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Nguyen, K. T., & Ramstetter, E. D. (2017). Wage differentials among ownership groups and worker quality in Vietnamese manufacturing. Global Economic Review, 1-19.
Nunnenkamp, P., Schweickert, R., & Wiebelt, M. (2007). Distributional effects of FDI: how the interaction of FDI and economic policy affects poor households in Bolivia. Development policy review, 25(4), 429-450.
Sjöholm, F. (1999). Technology gap, competition and spillovers from direct foreign investment: evidence from establishment data. The Journal of Development Studies, 36(1), 53-73.
Sjöholm, F., & Takii, S. (2006). Multinational Companies and Exports in Indonesian Manufacturing. Multinationals in Indonesia and Thailand: Wages, Productivity and Exports. Hampshire, UK: Palgrave-Macmillan, 173-193.
Trung Kien, N. (2014). Employment Transformation in the Vietnamese Economy in Light of the Lewis-Fei-Ranis Growth Model of A Labor-Abundant Economy. Journal of Economics and Development, 16(3), 49.
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