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研究生:雷士霆
研究生(外文):Shih-Ting Lei
論文名稱:空氣汙染與出生前金屬暴露之相關性
論文名稱(外文):Relationship between air pollution and metal concentration in cord blood
指導教授:郭育良郭育良引用關係陳保中陳保中引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yue-Liang GuoPau-Chung Chen
口試委員:黃耀輝邱嘉斌
口試委員(外文):Yaw-Huei HwangChia-Pin Chio
口試日期:2016-07-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:職業醫學與工業衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:43
中文關鍵詞:出生世代臍帶血PM10SO2
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背景
空氣汙染物會經由呼吸進入人體,對人類健康造成威脅。空氣汙染物中,金屬常以細小的懸浮微粒方式存在,並經由吸入方式進入人體。本研究想要了解暴露到空氣汙染物與胎兒臍帶血中釩、鍶及砷的相關性。
材料方法
於2004年5月至2005年7月期間,原已建立了893對產婦及新生兒的出生世代,並於產婦生產後填寫問卷,問卷內容包含產婦基本資料、新生兒出生資料、居家環境資料、產婦暴露資料等。臍帶血樣本以感應偶合電漿質譜儀(ICP-MS)分析,分析釩、鍶及砷濃度。空氣汙染資料則是收集環保署測站資料,並利用地理資訊系統(Arc GIS)的克利金法(Kriging)推估個案住處的空氣污染濃度。最後以SAS 9.4軟體,利用多元線性迴歸分析(multiple linear regression),分析臍帶血中重金屬濃度與空氣汙染之關係。
結果與討論
在校正母親的年齡、教育程度及家庭收入,懷孕時的暴露如吸菸、二手菸及喝酒,嬰兒的出生週數、出生季節、性別後,臍帶血中釩與空氣中的PM10有顯著的正相關,且居住於高暴露區與居住低暴露區的臍帶血中釩濃度相差了0.39 μg/L;臍帶血中砷濃度則是與空氣中的SO2有顯著正相關,且居住於高暴露區與居住低暴露區的臍帶血中砷濃度相差了0.81 μg/L。
結論
本研究發現,臍帶血中釩濃度與空氣汙染物PM10有關聯性,以及砷濃度與空氣汙染物SO2有關聯性,此兩種空氣汙染物都跟工業區排放有關,因此無法排除工業排放之空氣汙染物與臍帶血中釩及砷濃度的關係。
Background
Air pollutants may enter the body through inhalation and affect human health. Metals belong to a component of air pollutants, and often exist with small particles, The goal of this investigation is to understand the relationship between air pollution and cord blood vanadium, strontium and arsenic concentrations.
Materials and Methods
A birth cohort, including 893 pairs of mothers and newborns were recruited between May 2004 to July 2005. Structured questionnaire was completed, which contained basic information on maternal and newborn data, information of home environment, and information on enviromental exposure. Cord blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), for vanadium, strontium and arsenic. Air pollution data was collected from the EPA air monitoring stations and individual exposure was extrapolated using geographic information system (Arc GIS) Kriging method. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between metal concentrations in cord blood and air pollution by SAS 9.4 software.
Results
After adjusting the mother''s age, education level, family income, maternal smoking, passive smoking, alcohol drinking, gestation weeks, birth season and baby gender, cord blood vanadium was significantly positively associated with PM10. Comparing those living in higher and lower PM10 regions, there was 0.39 μg/L difference in cord blood vanadium. Cord blood arsenic concentration was significantly positively associated with SO2. Comparing those living in higher and lower SO2 regions, there was 0.81 μg/L difference in cord blood arsenic.
Conclusion
The study found that cord blood vanadium concentrations is associated with maternal exposure to ambient PM10, and cord blood arsenic concentrations is associated with maternal exposure to ambient SO2. Since these two metals are known to be emitted from petrochemical industries, the contribution of the latter to cord blood vanadium and arsenic cannot be totally ruled out.
中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
目錄 iv
第一章 前言 1
1.1研究背景 1
1.2研究目的 1
第二章 文獻探討 2
2.1空氣汙染 2
2.1.1懸浮微粒 (Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of less than 10μm, PM10) 2
2.1.2二氧化硫 (Sulfur dioxides, SO2) 2
2.1.3二氧化氮 (Nitrogen dioxide, NO2) 2
2.1.4臭氧 (Ozone, O3) 3
2.1.5一氧化碳 (Carbon monoxide, CO) 3
2.2金屬 3
2.2.1釩(Vanadium, V) 3
2.2.2鍶 (Strontium, Sr) 4
2.2.3砷 (Arsenic, As) 4
2.3空氣汙染和金屬濃度之相關研究 5
第三章 研究方法 6
3.1研究族群 6
3.2研究樣本收集 6
3.3問卷收集 6
3.4研究樣本分析 6
3.4.1上機前處理 7
3.4.2臍帶血樣本處理 7
3.4.3檢量線配置 7
3.4.4血液樣本分析 7
3.5實驗分析品質管制 8
3.5.1檢量線繪製 8
3.5.2空白樣本分析 8
3.5.3重複樣品分析及添加標準品分析 8
3.5.4標準參考樣本分析 9
3.5.5方法偵測極限 ( MDL ) 9
3.6數據整理及統計分析 9
3.6.1數據整理 9
3.6.2統計分析 9
第四章 結果 11
4.1 產婦人口學資料及懷孕時暴露資料 11
4.2新生兒出生資料 12
4.3石化工業區高低暴露區域間金屬濃度差異 12
4.4母親懷孕時暴露到空氣汙染物之平均濃度 12
4.5空氣汙染物相關性 12
4.6母親懷孕時所暴露之空汙與臍帶血中釩濃度的相關性(單汙染) 13
4.7母親懷孕時所暴露之空汙與臍帶血中釩濃度的相關性(雙汙染) 13
4.8母親懷孕各個孕程所暴露之空汙與臍帶血中釩濃度的相關性 13
4.9母親懷孕時所暴露之空汙與臍帶血中鍶濃度的相關性(單汙染) 13
4.10母親懷孕時所暴露之空汙與臍帶血中釩濃度的相關性(雙汙染) 14
4.11母親懷孕時所暴露之空汙與臍帶血中砷濃度的相關性(單汙染) 14
4.12母親懷孕時所暴露之空汙與臍帶血中砷濃度的相關性(雙汙染) 14
4.13母親懷孕各個孕程所暴露之空汙與臍帶血中砷濃度的相關性 14
4.14空氣汙染物分組之臍帶血濃度分布 14
第五章 討論 16
5.1環境中空氣汙染暴露評估探討 16
5.2臍帶血中金屬分析探討 16
5.3空氣汙染與臍帶血釩之相關性探討 16
5.4空氣汙染與臍帶血鍶之相關性探討 18
5.5空氣汙染與臍帶血砷之相關性探討 18
第六章 結論 20
參考文獻 21
圖表目錄
附錄1、檢量線標準溶液配置方法 25
附錄2、元素偵測極限 26
表1、產婦基本人口學資料 27
表2、新生兒出生資料 28
表3、石化工業區高低暴露區域間金屬濃度差異(以10公里區分) 29
表4、母親懷孕時暴露空氣汙染之平均濃度 30
表5、母親懷孕時空氣汙染之間相關性 31
表6、母親懷孕時所暴露之空汙與臍帶血中釩濃度的相關性(單汙染物) 32
表7、母親懷孕時所暴露之空汙與臍帶血中釩濃度的相關性(雙汙染物) 33
表8、母親懷孕各個孕程所暴露之空汙與臍帶血中釩濃度的相關性(單汙染物) 34
表9、母親懷孕時所暴露之空汙與臍帶血中鍶濃度的相關性(單汙染物) 35
表10、母親懷孕時所暴露之空汙與臍帶血中鍶濃度的相關性(雙汙染物) 36
表11、母親懷孕時所暴露之空汙與臍帶血中砷濃度的相關性(單汙染物) 37
表12、母親懷孕時所暴露之空汙與臍帶血中砷濃度的相關性(雙汙染物) 38
表13、母親懷孕各個孕程所暴露之空汙與臍帶血中砷濃度的相關性(單汙染物) 39
圖1、研究對象選取流程圖 40
圖2、全台個案位置 41
圖3、PM10依濃度分組後各組金屬濃度分布 42
圖3、SO2依濃度分組後各組砷濃度分布 43
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