跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.212.99.208) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/04/23 17:11
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:帕崔克
研究生(外文):Patrick Opiyo Owili
論文名稱:Air pollution and maternal, newborn and child health
論文名稱(外文):Air pollution and maternal, newborn and child health
指導教授:郭憲文郭憲文引用關係林唐煌林唐煌引用關係潘文驥潘文驥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsien-Wen KuoTang-Huang LinWen-Chi Pan
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:環境科技博士學位學程
學門:環境保護學門
學類:其他環境保護學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:英文
論文頁數:177
中文關鍵詞:二手煙五歲以下兒童死亡率撒哈拉以南非洲室內空氣污染烹調燃料環境空氣污染細微粒物質非洲孕產婦死亡率
外文關鍵詞:Secondhand tobacco smokeUnder-five mortalitySub-Saharan AfricaIndoor air pollutionCooking fuelAmbient air pollutionParticulate matterAfricaMaternal mortality
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:167
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:6
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
Background: Indoor and ambient air pollution as a result of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, cooking fuel and particulate matter (PM2.5) leads to serious health outcomes among the population, and yet, few studies have assessed its effect on under-five and maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, we investigated the association between exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, cooking fuel and PM2.5 and risk of under-five and maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Methods: The most recent cross-sectional data of the Demographic Health Survey in SSA countries (n = 783,691), the World Bank, and the spectral derivate of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products were used. Cox proportional hazard models, Generalized Linear Mixed-Effect Models, and Generalized Additive Mixed-Effect Models were employed to determine the association between exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and cooking fuel (with age as the time-to-event indicator) and PM2.5 and the risk of under-five and maternal mortality in SSA, respectively.

Results: The association between tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of under-five mortality attenuated in eight countries (Bukina Faso, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Guinea, Liberia, Togo, and Zambia) after adjustment, while the hazard ratios (HR) of daily exposure to tobacco smoke in Kenya (HR =1.40; 95% CI, 1.16-1.70) and Namibia (HR = 1.40; 1.07-1.83) grew. The children in rural areas in SSA were 1.08 (95% CI, 1.04-1.13) times more likely to die than their urban peers. In general, the exposure to household tobacco smoke was associated with an increased risk of under-five mortality in SSA (HR =1.09; 95% CI, 1.06-1.13). On the other hand, the adjusted hazard ratios for charcoal and biomass cooking fuel were 1.21 (95% CI, 1.10-1.34) and 1.20 (95% CI, 1.08-1.32), respectively, compared to clean fuels. There was no positive interaction between biomass cooking fuel and smoking. For PM2.5, four types were identified (i.e. mineral dust, anthropogenic pollutant, biomass burning and mixture aerosols. The results demonstrate that biomass PM2.5 increased the rate of under-five mortality in Western and Central Africa, each by 2%, and maternal mortality in Central Africa by 19%. Anthropogenic PM2.5 increased under-five and maternal deaths in Northern Africa by 5% and 10%, respectively, and maternal deaths by 4% in Eastern Africa. Dust PM2.5 increased under-five deaths in Northern, Western, and Central Africa by 3%, 1%, and 10%, respectively. Mixture PM2.5 only increased under-five deaths and maternal deaths in Western (incidence rate ratio = 1.01, p < 0.10) and Eastern Africa (incidence rate ratio = 1.06, p < 0.01), respectively.

Conclusions: This study provided evidence of a positive association between exposure to household tobacco smoke and risk of under-five mortality in SSA. Also, the findings indicated that use of charcoal and biomass were associated with the risk of under-five mortality in SSA. Moreover, the types of ambient PM2.5 were found to be significantly associated with under-five and maternal mortality in Africa where the exposure level usually exceeds the World Health Organization’s (WHO) standards. Appropriate policy actions on protective and control measures suggested should therefore be developed and implemented accordingly.
Table of Contents
Dedication i
Acknowledgement ii
Abstract iv
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xiii
Chapter 1: Introduction 16
1.1 Background 16
1.1.1 Micro-environment/Indoor Air Pollution 17
1.1.2 Macro-environment/Outdoor Air Pollution 18
1.2 Research Motivation 19
1.3 Significance of the Study 20
1.4 Research Questions 22
Chapter 2: Literature Review 23
2.1 Micro-environment/Indoor air pollution 23
2.1.1 Secondhand tobacco smoke 23
2.1.2 Cooking fuel 25
2.2 Macro-environment/Ambient air pollution 27
2.2.1 Fine particulate 27
2.3 Conceptual Framework 29
Chapter 3: Detailed Methods 30
3.1 Data 30
3.1.1 Micro-environment data source 30
3.1.2 Macro-environment data source 31
3.2 Measures 32
3.2.1 Micro-environment indicators 32
3.2.2 Macro-environment indicators 35
3.3 Statistical analyses 39
3.3.1 Micro-environment analysis 39
3.3.2 Macro-environment analysis 42
Chapter 4: Manuscript One 44
4.1 Abstract 45
4.2 Introduction 47
4.3 Methods 49
4.3.1 Data and sample 49
4.3.2 Ethics Statement 50
4.3.3 Measures 50
4.3.4 Statistical analysis 52
4.4 Results 54
4.4.1 Geographical distribution of secondhand smoking and under-five mortality 54
4.4.2 Demographic and socioeconomic profile 57
4.4.3 Secondhand tobacco smoke and risk of under-five mortality 65
4.4.4 Risk of under-five mortality by residence 68
4.4.5 Overall effect of secondhand tobacco smoke on under-five mortality in SSA 70
4.5 Discussion 73
4.5.1 Conclusion 77
Chapter 5: Manuscript Two 78
5.1 Abstract 79
5.1.1 Evidence before this study 80
5.1.2 Added value of this study 81
5.2 Introduction 82
5.3 Methods 84
5.3.1 Study population and data sources 84
5.3.2 Measurements 85
5.3.3 Statistical analysis 87
5.4 Results 89
5.4.1 Sample characteristics 89
5.4.2 Geographical profile of solid cooking fuel by residence 94
5.4.3 Cooking fuel and risk of under-five mortality in SSA 97
5.4.4 Other factors associated with risk of under-five mortality 101
5.4.5 Interaction between cooking fuel and breastfeeding 102
5.5 Discussion 104
5.5.1 Strengths and limitations 108
5.5.2 Conclusions 110
Chapter 6: Manuscript Three 111
6.1 Abstract 112
6.2 Introduction 114
6.3 Methods 116
6.3.1 The Spatial Domain 116
6.3.2 Variables 117
6.3.3 Statistical Analysis 128
6.4 Results 130
6.4.1 Descriptive statistics 130
6.4.2 Mortality and PM2.5 trend 135
6.4.3 Unadjusted analyses 137
6.4.4 Association between PM2.5 and under-five and maternal mortality 140
6.4.5 PM2.5 and mortality dose-response relationship 144
6.5 Discussion 148
6.5.1 Strengths and limitations 152
6.5.2 Conclusions 153
Chapter 7: Summary 154
7.1 Key findings 154
7.1.1 Topic one: Secondhand tobacco smoke and under-five mortality in Africa 154
7.1.2 Topic two: Cooking fuel and under-five mortality in Africa 155
7.1.3 Topic three: PM2.5, under-five and maternal mortality in Africa 156
7.2 Policy implication 157
7.3 Research implication 159
References 160
Appendices 175
Appendix A: Institutional Review Board (IRB) Ethical approval 175
Appendix B: Secondhand tobacco smoke, cooking fuel and PM2.5 publications 177
References

Adetunji, J. A., & Shelton, J. (2011). Ethical issues in the collection, analysis and dissemination of DHS data in sub-Saharan africa. Retrieved from http://uaps2011.princeton.edu/papers/110641
Alessandrini, E. R., Stafoggia, M., Faustini, A., Berti, G., Canova, C., De Togni, A., . . . , o. b. o. t. E. S. G. (2016). Association Between Short-Term Exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 and Mortality in Susceptible Subgroups: A Multisite Case-Crossover Analysis of Individual Effect Modifiers. Am J Epidemiol. doi:10.1093/aje/kww078
Anderson, H. R., & Cook, D. G. (1997). Passive smoking and sudden infant death syndrome: review of the epidemiological evidence. Thorax, 52(11), 1003-1009.
Atkinson, R. W., Kang, S., Anderson, H. R., Mills, I. C., & Walton, H. A. (2014). Epidemiological time series studies of PM2.5 and daily mortality and hospital admissions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Thorax, 69(7), 660-665. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2013-204492
Ayo-Yusuf, O. A., Olufajo, O., & Agaku, I. T. (2014). Exposure to secondhand smoke and voluntary adoption of smoke-free home and car rules among non-smoking South African adults. BMC Public Health, 14, 580. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-580
Balakrishnan, K., Ramaswamy, P., Sambandam, S., Thangavel, G., Ghosh, S., Johnson, P., . . . Thanasekaraan, V. (2011). Air pollution from household solid fuel combustion in India: an overview of exposure and health related information to inform health research priorities. Glob Health Action, 4. doi:10.3402/gha.v4i0.5638
Bassani, D. G., Jha, P., Dhingra, N., & Kumar, R. (2010). Child mortality from solid-fuel use in India: a nationally-representative case-control study. BMC Public Health, 10, 491. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-491
Bolker, B. M., Brooks, M. E., Clark, C. J., Geange, S. W., Poulsen, J. R., Stevens, M. H., & White, J. S. (2009). Generalized linear mixed models: a practical guide for ecology and evolution. Trends Ecol Evol, 24(3), 127-135. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2008.10.008
Brauer, M., Freedman, G., Frostad, J., van Donkelaar, A., Martin, R. V., Dentener, F., . . . Cohen, A. (2016). Ambient Air Pollution Exposure Estimation for the Global Burden of Disease 2013. Environ Sci Technol, 50(1), 79-88. doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b03709
Britton, J. (2005). Passive smoking and asthma exacerbation. Thorax, 60(10), 794-795. doi:10.1136/thx.2005.045336
Brochu, P. J., Yanosky, J. D., Paciorek, C. J., Schwartz, J., Chen, J. T., Herrick, R. F., & Suh, H. H. (2011). Particulate air pollution and socioeconomic position in rural and urban areas of the Northeastern United States. Am J Public Health, 101 Suppl 1, S224-230. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300232
Brook, R. D., Urch, B., Dvonch, J. T., Bard, R. L., Speck, M., Keeler, G., . . . Brook, J. R. (2009). Insights into the mechanisms and mediators of the effects of air pollution exposure on blood pressure and vascular function in healthy humans. Hypertension, 54(3), 659-667. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.130237
Bruce, N., Perez-Padilla, R., & Albalak, R. (2000). Indoor air pollution in developing countries: a major environmental and public health challenge. Bull World Health Organ, 78(9), 1078-1092.
Charoenca, N., Kungskulniti, N., Tipayamongkholgul, M., Sujirarat, D., Lohchindarat, S., Mock, J., & Hamann, S. L. (2013). Determining the burden of secondhand smoke exposure on the respiratory health of Thai children. Tob Induc Dis, 11(1), 7. doi:10.1186/1617-9625-11-7
Chomba, E., Tshefu, A., Onyamboko, M., Kaseba - Sata, C., Moore, J., McClure, E. M., . . . Goldenberg, R. L. (2010). Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke Exposure During Pregnancy in Two African Countries: Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 89(4), 10.3109/00016341003605693. doi:10.3109/00016341003605693
Collins, L. M., Schafer, J. L., & Kam, C. M. (2001). A comparison of inclusive and restrictive strategies in modern missing data procedures. Psychol Methods, 6(4), 330-351.
Cushing, A. H., Samet, J. M., Lambert, W. E., Skipper, B. J., Hunt, W. C., Young, S. A., & McLaren, L. C. (1998). Breastfeeding reduces risk of respiratory illness in infants. Am J Epidemiol, 147(9), 863-870.
Davis, D. L., & Saldiva, P. H. N. (1999). Urban air pollution risks to children: a global environmental health indicator. Washington, DC, USA: World Resources Institute.
De Beyer, J., & Brigden, L. W. (2003). Tobacco control policy : strategies, successes, and setbacks. Washington, DC: The World Bank and Research for International Tobacco Control.
de Francisco, A., Morris, J., Hall, A. J., Armstrong Schellenberg, J. R., & Greenwood, B. M. (1993). Risk factors for mortality from acute lower respiratory tract infections in young Gambian children. Int J Epidemiol, 22(6), 1174-1182.
Dean, A. G., Arner, T. G., Sunki, G. G., Friedman, R., Lantinga, M., Sangam, S., . . . Fagan, R. F. (2016). Epi Info™, a database and statistics program for public health professionals. Atlanta, GA, USA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Demographic Health Survey Program. (2016). The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program. Retrieved from http://www.dhsprogram.com
DiCiccio, T. J., & Efron, B. (1996). Bootstrap confidence intervals. Statist. Sci, 11(3), 189-228. doi:10.1214/ss/1032280214
Dybing, E., & Sanner, T. (1999). Passive smoking, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and childhood infections. Hum Exp Toxicol, 18(4), 202-205.
Esposito, S., Tagliabue, C., & Bosis, S. (2013). Tuberculosis in children. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis, 5(1), e2013064. doi:10.4084/MJHID.2013.064
Ezeh, O. K., Agho, K. E., Dibley, M. J., Hall, J. J., & Page, A. N. (2014). The effect of solid fuel use on childhood mortality in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 cross-sectional household survey. Environmental Health, 13(1), 1-10. doi:10.1186/1476-069x-13-113
Farhat, N., Ramsay, T., Jerrett, M., & Krewski, D. (2013). Short-Term Effects of Ozone and PM2.5 on Mortality in 12 Canadian Cities. Journal of Environmental Protection, 04(12), 5. doi:10.4236/jep.2013.412A1003
Field, C. J. (2005). The immunological components of human milk and their effect on immune development in infants. The Journal of Nutrition, 135(1), 1-4.
Franklin, M., Zeka, A., & Schwartz, J. (2007). Association between PM2.5 and all-cause and specific-cause mortality in 27 US communities. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol, 17(3), 279-287. doi:10.1038/sj.jes.7500530
Gajate-Garrido, G. (2013). The Impact of Indoor Air Pollution on the Incidence of Life Threatening Respiratory Illnesses: Evidence from Young Children in Peru. The Journal of Development Studies, 49(4), 500-515. doi:10.1080/00220388.2012.709617
Gauderman, W. J., Avol, E., Gilliland, F., Vora, H., Thomas, D., Berhane, K., . . . Peters, J. (2004). The effect of air pollution on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age. N Engl J Med, 351(11), 1057-1067. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa040610
Gauderman, W. J., Urman, R., Avol, E., Berhane, K., McConnell, R., Rappaport, E., . . . Gilliland, F. (2015). Association of Improved Air Quality with Lung Development in Children. New England journal of medicine, 372(10), 905-913. doi:doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1414123
Georgiopoulou, V. V., Kalogeropoulos, A. P., Psaty, B. M., Rodondi, N., Bauer, D. C., Butler, A. B., . . . Butler, J. (2011). Lung function and risk for heart failure among older adults: the Health ABC Study. Am J Med, 124(4), 334-341. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2010.12.006
Goldman, A. S. (1993). The immune system of human milk: antimicrobial, antiinflammatory and immunomodulating properties. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 12(8), 664-671.
Google Earth Pro. (2015). Africa. Mountain View California: Google, Inc.
Gurusamy, S. (2007). Girl Child. New Delhi: APH Publishing Corporation.
Higgins, J. P., & Thompson, S. G. (2002). Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med, 21(11), 1539-1558. doi:10.1002/sim.1186
Hodnebrog, Ø., Myhre, G., Forster, P. M., Sillmann, J., & Samset, B. H. (2016). Local biomass burning is a dominant cause of the observed precipitation reduction in southern Africa. Nature Communications, 7, 11236. doi:10.1038/ncomms11236
http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms11236#supplementary-information
Hosmer, D. W., & Lemeshow, S. (1992). Confidence interval estimation of interaction. Epidemiology, 3(5), 452-456.
International Energy Agency. (2016). World Energy Outlook Special Report 2016: Energy and Air Pollution. Retrieved from http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/WorldEnergyOutlookSpecialReport2016EnergyandAirPollution.pdf
Islam, T., Gauderman, W. J., Berhane, K., McConnell, R., Avol, E., Peters, J. M., & Gilliland, F. D. (2007). The Relationship between Air Pollution, Lung Function and Asthma in Adolescents. Thorax. doi:10.1136/thx.2007.078964
Kashima, S., Yorifuji, T., Tsuda, T., Ibrahim, J., & Doi, H. (2010). Effects of traffic-related outdoor air pollution on respiratory illness and mortality in children, taking into account indoor air pollution, in Indonesia. J Occup Environ Med, 52(3), 340-345. doi:10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181d44e3f
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS), & ICF Macro. (2010). Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-09. Calverton, Maryland: KNBS and ICF Macro.
Khamdan, S. A., Al Madany, I. M., & Buhussain, E. (2009). Temporal and spatial variations of the quality of ambient air in the Kingdom of Bahrain during 2007. Environ Monit Assess, 154(1-4), 241-252. doi:10.1007/s10661-008-0392-5
Kleimola, L. B., Patel, A. B., Borkar, J. A., & Hibberd, P. L. (2015). Consequences of household air pollution on child survival: evidence from demographic and health surveys in 47 countries. Int J Occup Environ Health, 21(4), 294-302. doi:10.1179/2049396715Y.0000000007
Kloog, I., Ridgway, B., Koutrakis, P., Coull, B. A., & Schwartz, J. D. (2013). Long- and short-term exposure to PM2.5 and mortality: using novel exposure models. Epidemiology, 24(4), 555-561. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e318294beaa
Larrea, C., & Kawachi, I. (2005). Does economic inequality affect child malnutrition? The case of Ecuador. Social Science & Medicine, 60(1), 165-178. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.04.024
Lepeule, J., Laden, F., Dockery, D., & Schwartz, J. (2012). Chronic exposure to fine particles and mortality: an extended follow-up of the Harvard Six Cities study from 1974 to 2009. Environ Health Perspect, 120(7), 965-970. doi:10.1289/ehp.1104660
Levy, R., & Hsu, C. (2015). MODIS atmosphere L2 aerosol product: NASA MODIS adaptive processing system. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5067/MODIS/MOD04_L2.006
Lin, T.-H., Liu, G.-R., & Liu, C.-Y. (2016). A Novel Index for Atmospheric Aerosol Types Categorization with Spectral Optical Depths from Satellite Retrieval. ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XLI-B8, 277-279. doi:10.5194/isprs-archives-XLI-B8-277-2016
Lin, X., & Zhang, D. (1999). Inference in generalized additive mixed modelsby using smoothing splines. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology), 61(2), 381-400. doi:10.1111/1467-9868.00183
Miller, M. D., Marty, M. A., Arcus, A., Brown, J., Morry, D., & Sandy, M. (2002). Differences Between Children and Adults: Implications for Risk Assessment at California EPA. International Journal of Toxicology, 21(5), 403-418. doi:doi:10.1080/10915810290096630
Mishra, V., Retherford, R. D., & Smith, K. R. (2005). Cooking smoke and tobacco smoke as risk factors for stillbirth. Int J Environ Health Res, 15(6), 397-410. doi:10.1080/09603120500288913
Moritsugu, K. P. (2007). The 2006 Report of the Surgeon General: the health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke. Am J Prev Med, 32(6), 542-543. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2007.02.026
Mullany, L. C., Katz, J., Li, Y. M., Khatry, S. K., LeClerq, S. C., Darmstadt, G. L., & Tielsch, J. M. (2008). Breast-feeding patterns, time to initiation, and mortality risk among newborns in southern Nepal. J Nutr, 138(3), 599-603.
Munroe, R. L., & Gauvain, M. (2012). Exposure to open-fire cooking and cognitive performance in children. Int J Environ Health Res, 22(2), 156-164. doi:10.1080/09603123.2011.628642
Naeher, L. P., Brauer, M., Lipsett, M., Zelikoff, J. T., Simpson, C. D., Koenig, J. Q., & Smith, K. R. (2007). Woodsmoke health effects: a review. Inhal Toxicol, 19(1), 67-106. doi:10.1080/08958370600985875
Nakagawa, S., & Schielzeth, H. (2013). A general and simple method for obtaining R2 from generalized linear mixed-effects models. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 4(2), 133-142. doi:10.1111/j.2041-210x.2012.00261.x
Naz, S., Page, A., & Agho, K. E. (2015). Household Air Pollution and Under-Five Mortality in Bangladesh (2004-2011). Int J Environ Res Public Health, 12(10), 12847-12862. doi:10.3390/ijerph121012847
Naz, S., Page, A., & Agho, K. E. (2016). Household air pollution and under-five mortality in India (1992-2006). Environ Health, 15, 54. doi:10.1186/s12940-016-0138-8
Oberg, M., Jaakkola, M. S., Woodward, A., Peruga, A., & Pruss-Ustun, A. (2011). Worldwide burden of disease from exposure to second-hand smoke: a retrospective analysis of data from 192 countries. Lancet, 377(9760), 139-146. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61388-8
Oddy, W. H., Sly, P. D., de Klerk, N. H., Landau, L. I., Kendall, G. E., Holt, P. G., & Stanley, F. J. (2003). Breast feeding and respiratory morbidity in infancy: a birth cohort study. Arch Dis Child, 88(3), 224-228.
Onyango, A. W., Receveur, O., & Esrey, S. A. (2002). The contribution of breast milk to toddler diets in western Kenya. Bull World Health Organ, 80(4), 292-299.
Perlroth, N. H., & Castelo Branco, C. W. (2017). Current knowledge of environmental exposure in children during the sensitive developmental periods. J Pediatr (Rio J), 93(1), 17-27. doi:10.1016/j.jped.2016.07.002
Perrin, M. T., Fogleman, A., & Allen, J. C. (2013). The nutritive and immunoprotective quality of human milk beyond 1 year postpartum: are lactation-duration-based donor exclusions justified? J Hum Lact, 29(3), 341-349. doi:10.1177/0890334413487432
Reddy, A. K., Williams, R. H., Johansson, T. B., UN. Commission on Sustainable Development, & UNDP. (1997). Energy after Rio : prospects and challenges. New York: UNDP.
Rehfuess, E. A., Tzala, L., Best, N., Briggs, D. J., & Joffe, M. (2009). Solid fuel use and cooking practices as a major risk factor for ALRI mortality among African children. J Epidemiol Community Health, 63(11), 887-892. doi:10.1136/jech.2008.082685
Review Manager (RevMan) [Computer program]. (2014). Version 5.3. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration.
Rhind, S. M. (2009). Anthropogenic pollutants: a threat to ecosystem sustainability? Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 364(1534), 3391-3401. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0122
Rice, M. B., Rifas-Shiman, S. L., Litonjua, A. A., Oken, E., Gillman, M. W., Kloog, I., . . . Gold, D. R. (2016). Lifetime Exposure to Ambient Pollution and Lung Function in Children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 193(8), 881-888. doi:10.1164/rccm.201506-1058OC
Richardson, D. B., & Kaufman, J. S. (2009). Estimation of the Relative Excess Risk Due to Interaction and Associated Confidence Bounds. Am J Epidemiol, 169(6), 756-760. doi:10.1093/aje/kwn411
Rinne, S. T., Rodas, E. J., Rinne, M. L., Simpson, J. M., & Glickman, L. T. (2007). Use of biomass fuel is associated with infant mortality and child health in trend analysis. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 76(3), 585-591.
Ryan, G., Knuiman, M. W., Divitini, M. L., James, A., Musk, A. W., & Bartholomew, H. C. (1999). Decline in lung function and mortality: the Busselton Health Study. J Epidemiol Community Health, 53(4), 230-234.
Sano, I., Mukai, M., Iguchi, N., & Mukai, S. (2010). Suspended particulate matter sampling at an urban AERONET site in Japan, part 2: relationship between column aerosol optical thickness and PM2.5 concentration. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 4(1), 043504-043504-043514. doi:10.1117/1.3327930
Semba, R. D., de Pee, S., Sun, K., Best, C. M., Sari, M., & Bloem, M. W. (2008). Paternal smoking and increased risk of infant and under-5 child mortality in Indonesia. Am J Public Health, 98(10), 1824-1826. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.119289
Shi, L., Zanobetti, A., Kloog, I., Coull, B. A., Koutrakis, P., Melly, S. J., & Schwartz, J. D. (2016). Low-Concentration PM2.5 and Mortality: Estimating Acute and Chronic Effects in a Population-Based Study. Environ Health Perspect, 124(1), 46-52. doi:10.1289/ehp.1409111
Sigaud, C. H. d. S., Castanheira, A. B. d. C., & Costa, P. (2016). Association between secondhand smoking in the home and respiratory morbidity in preschool children. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, 50(4), 562-568. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0080-623420160000500004
Sin, D. D., Wu, L., & Man, S. F. (2005). The relationship between reduced lung function and cardiovascular mortality: a population-based study and a systematic review of the literature. Chest, 127(6), 1952-1959. doi:10.1378/chest.127.6.1952
Smith, K. R., & Mehta, S. (2003). The burden of disease from indoor air pollution in developing countries: comparison of estimates. Int J Hyg Environ Health, 206(4-5), 279-289. doi:10.1078/1438-4639-00224
Smith, K. R., Samet, J. M., Romieu, I., & Bruce, N. (2000). Indoor air pollution in developing countries and acute lower respiratory infections in children. Thorax, 55(6), 518-532.
StataCorp. (2013). Stata Statistical Software: Release 13. College Station, Texas: StataCorp LP.
Strachan, D. P., & Cook, D. G. (1997). Health effects of passive smoking. 1. Parental smoking and lower respiratory illness in infancy and early childhood. Thorax, 52(10), 905-914.
Suwa, T., Hogg, J. C., Quinlan, K. B., Ohgami, A., Vincent, R., & van Eeden, S. F. (2002). Particulate air pollution induces progression of atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Cardiol, 39(6), 935-942.
Tromp, I., Kiefte-de Jong, J., Raat, H., Jaddoe, V., Franco, O., Hofman, A., . . . Moll, H. (2017). Breastfeeding and the risk of respiratory tract infections after infancy: The Generation R Study. PLoS One, 12(2), e0172763. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0172763
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2006). The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon Genera. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.
United Nations. (2016). Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/
United Nations Children's Fund. (2015). Levels and Trends in Child Mortality 2015. Retrieved from http://www.data.unicef.org/corecode/uploads/document6/uploaded_pdfs/corecode/IGME-report-2015-child-mortality-final_236.pdf
Upadhyay, A. K., Singh, A., Kumar, K., & Singh, A. (2015). Impact of indoor air pollution from the use of solid fuels on the incidence of life threatening respiratory illnesses in children in India. BMC Public Health, 15, 300. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1631-7
VanderWeele, T. J. (2011). Causal interactions in the proportional hazards model. Epidemiology, 22(5), 713-717. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e31821db503
Wichmann, J., & Voyi, K. V. V. (2006). Influence of Cooking and Heating Fuel Use on 1–59 Month Old Mortality in South Africa. Matern Child Health J, 10(6), 553-561. doi:10.1007/s10995-006-0121-z
World Bank. (2016a). World Development Indicators. Retrieved from http://databank.worldbank.org/data/home.aspx
World Bank. (2016b). World Development Indicators. Retrieved from http://databank.worldbank.org/data/home.aspx
World Health Organization. (2000). Effect of breastfeeding on infant and child mortality due to infectious diseases in less developed countries: a pooled analysis. WHO Collaborative Study Team on the Role of Breastfeeding on the Prevention of Infant Mortality. Lancet, 355(9202), 451-455.
World Health Organization. (2007). Indoor air pollution: national burden of disease due to indoor air pollution. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/indoorair/health_impacts/burden_national/en/
World Health Organization. (2009). Global health risks : mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. (2013). WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2013 : enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship.(in IRIS). Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. (2014). Burden of disease from Household Air Pollution for 2012. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/HAP_BoD_results_March2014.pdf
World Health Organization. (2015a). Health in 2015: from MDGs, Millennium Development Goals to SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals. Geneva: World Health Organizationa.
World Health Organization. (2015b). WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2015 : raising taxes on tobacco. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. (2016a). Ambient air pollution: a global assessment of exposure and burden of disease. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/250141/1/9789241511353-eng.pdf
World Health Organization. (2016b). Global Health Observatory (GHO) data: Second-hand smoke. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/gho/phe/secondhand_smoke/en/
World Health Organization. (2016c). World Health Organization releases country estimates on air pollution exposure and health impact. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2016/air-pollution-estimates/en/
World Health Organization, & United Nations Environment Programme. (2010). Healthy environments for healthy children: key messages for action. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization Media centre. (2016a, September 2016). Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs313/en/
World Health Organization Media centre. (2016b). Household air pollution and health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs292/en/
World Health Organization. (2014a). Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2014. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. (2014b). WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: household fuel combustion. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. Occupational and Environmental Health Team. (2006). WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide : global update 2005 : summary of risk assessment. Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe. (2006). Air quality guidelines global update 2005 : particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe. (2007). Health relevance of particulate matter from various sources : report on a WHO workshop, Bonn, Germany 26-27 March 2007. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.
World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe. (2010). WHO guidelines for indoor air quality : selected pollutants. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.
Yue, W., Schneider, A., Stolzel, M., Ruckerl, R., Cyrys, J., Pan, X., . . . Peters, A. (2007). Ambient source-specific particles are associated with prolonged repolarization and increased levels of inflammation in male coronary artery disease patients. Mutat Res, 621(1-2), 50-60. doi:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2007.02.009
Zou, G. Y. (2008). On the estimation of additive interaction by use of the four-by-two table and beyond. Am J Epidemiol, 168(2), 212-224. doi:10.1093/aje/kwn104
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top