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研究生:吳韶璇
研究生(外文):SHAO-XUAN WU
論文名稱:引進外籍勞工對本國勞工需求之影響分析
論文名稱(外文):The Impact of Foreign Workers on the Demand of Native-Born Workers in Taiwan
指導教授:黃麗璇黃麗璇引用關係
指導教授(外文):LI-XUAN HUANG
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:經濟學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:外籍勞工本國勞工勞動需求僱用量非薪資成本管理成本
外文關鍵詞:foreign workersnative-born workerslabor demandemploymentnon-wage costmanagement cost
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本文依據勞動需求理論分別建立外勞、本勞之需求模型,主要探討引進外籍勞工對本國勞工需求之影響,特別著重於近年來外勞政策改變較大的「外加就業安定費附加外籍勞工配額機制」(以下簡稱附加政策)進行分析,研究此附加政策之實施對本國勞工是否造成更多負面的效果。並且,特別著重於外勞管理模式對於外勞僱用之影響,以及外勞與本勞僱用工時關係之研究,此二議題不論是在國內外的文獻都較為少見。本文串聯勞動部2012至2017年「外籍勞工管理及運用調查」以及「人力運用調查」資料庫,以industry-scale的panel data進行實證分析。
實證結果發現,外勞與低技術本勞為顯著的替代關係,兩者的彈性達6.33,明顯高於相關文獻於外勞引進初期的實證結果;而且,2013年附加政策實施後,兩者的彈性提高至24.06。再者,本研究發現,近年來造成外勞數量持續上升的原因除了本勞薪資相對外勞提高之外,外勞的管理方式如提供職前講習以及種類較多的溝通管道,也是外勞僱用量增加的主要因素。此外,外勞僱用比例較低的產業,外勞與低技術本勞為替代關係,與高技術本勞為互補關係。但是,在外勞僱用比例較高的產業,外勞與全體本勞,不論技術水準均為替代關係。此或許可能與產業特性有關,如資本額的高低。至於工時方面的影響,本研究發現外勞與本勞工時之間的關聯性並不高,且兩者近年來都呈現遞減的趨勢,此應為產業外勞之工作時數與本勞同受勞基法保障所致。
根據實證結果,本文建議政府相關單位,未來應該避免過度開放外勞在台人數,特別是外勞僱用比例已經相對較高的產業。但是,對於外勞僱用比例較低的產業,則可適度開放比例之限額;不過,另需特別針對該產業低技術勞工,制定可以提高其技術水準的政策,包含技能訓練、輔導轉業等。再者,基於引進外籍勞工對本國勞動需求傾向不利的實證結果,本研究建議相關單位應該持續追蹤並評估《新經濟移民法》引進的中技術外勞,會對本國何種勞工的僱用量造成較大影響之問題。
In this paper we establish the demand model of foreign workers and native-born workers, based on the theory of labor demand. We mainly estimate the impact of the foreign workers on the demand of native-born workers, with particular emphasis on the “external employment stability fee plus foreign labor quota mechanism” (the so called additional policy). This paper also focuses on the impact of foreign labor management model on the employment of foreign workers, as well as the relationship between foreign workers and native-born workers' working hours. These two issues are relatively rare in both domestic and foreign literature. An industry-scale panel data from 2012 to 2017 is constructed by using the “Foreign Labor Management and Application Survey” and the “Manpower Utilization Survey” for empirical analysis.
The empirical results show that foreign workers and native-born low-skill workers are a significant substitute relationship, and the elasticity of substitution between the two is 6.33, higher than those found in the related literature in earlier time periods. After the additional policy in 2013, the elasticity of substitution between the two increases to 24.06. Moreover, this study finds that the causes of the increase in foreign workers in recent years include the relatively higher domestic workers' wages increases and the management methods related to foreign workers. In addition, for industries of low foreign worker proportion, foreign workers and native-born low-skilled workers are substitute; yet, they are complement with native-born high-skilled workers. However, for industries where foreign workers are employed at a higher proportion, foreign workers and native-born workers of all levels of skills become substitute. This may probably be related to industrial characteristics, such as the level of capital. As for the impact of working hours, this paper found that the correlation between foreign workers and native-born workers' time is not significant, showing a decreasing trend for all workers in recent years. This may be due to that all workers are protected by the related labor law.
Based on the above empirical results, this paper suggests that the governmental authority should be cautious in further opening up the number of foreign workers in Taiwan, especially for industries of high foreign worker intensity. For industries of relatively low proportion of foreign workers, additional foreign workers could be increased; nevertheless, at the meantime, for low-skilled workers in those industries, policies improving their technical levels such as particular skill trainings are suggested. In addition, under the “New Economic Immigration Law”, firms are able to recruit middle-skilled foreign workers in Taiwan. Based on the mostly adverse impact of foreign workers on the labor demand for native-born workers, it should continue to evaluate the impact of the implementation of the “New Economic Immigration Law” on the labor market.
第一章、序論 1
第二章、外籍勞工政策沿革 4
第三章、文獻回顧 11
第四章、理論模型與資料來源 15
4.1 理論模型 15
4.2 資料來源 16
4.2.1 「外籍勞工管理及運用」調查問卷與樣本特徵 16
4.2.2 結合人力運用調查資料庫以獲得industry-scale panel data 21
4.2.3 移除不合理值 22
第五章、實證模型與樣本描述統計 24
5.1 實證模型 24
5.2 變數之基本統計量 28
第六章、實證結果與分析 33
6.1 影響外籍勞工需求量之因素 33
6.2 外籍勞工對本國勞工需求量之影響 34
6.3 附加外勞配額機制之政策效果 40
6.4 以中位數區分外籍勞工僱用比例 41
6.5 外籍勞工對本國勞工工時之影響 46
6.6 討論與小結 48
第七章、結論與建議 50
參考文獻 52
附錄A 54
附錄B 55
附錄C 56
附錄D 59
附錄E 61
附錄F 63
附錄G 64
中文文獻
江豐富 (2006),「外籍勞工引進對本國勞工失業、職業選擇及薪資之影響」,臺灣經濟預測與政策,1期,69-111。
李漢雄、藍科正 (2000),「外勞引進對我國社會所造成的影響」,行政院勞委會職訓局委託研究。
周志霖 (2017),「引進外籍勞工對我國薪資之影響」,碩士論文,台灣大學農業經濟研究所。
徐美、陳明郎、吳孟道 (1997),「外籍勞工與國內生產要素間替代互補關係之探討-以臺灣製造業為例」,臺灣經濟學會年會論文集,65-91。
陶宏麟、余月娥 (1999),「外籍勞工核配比例分析」,勞資關係論叢,9期,153-177。
陳坤銘 (2007),「引進外籍勞工對臺灣經濟影響之再分析」,中山人文社會科學期刊,1期,1-26。
唐正道、徐士勛 (2014),「中國大陸城鎮男性薪資所得在1993年與2006年的跨期變化」,人文及社會科學集刊,2期,293-331。
梁應平 (2000),「臺、菲、泰基層員工之溝通滿意度對工作倦怠影響之比較研究」,碩士論文,中國文化大學企業管理研究所。
張景福、盧其宏、劉錦添 (2011),「勞工組成特性對工廠生產力及薪資之影響:以台灣電子業工廠為例」,經濟論文叢刊,2期,177-212。
單驥 (1996),「外籍勞工、技術、非技術人員與資本之間替代關係之探討:以臺灣製造業為例」,人口、就業與福利,39-71。
單驥、廖建富 (1999),「薪資差異對外籍勞工與國內生產要素需求之影響」,經社法制論叢,23期,255-270。
蔡青龍、林季平 (2000),外籍勞工對本土勞工工作異動之影響分析,行政院經濟建設委員會委託研究計劃。
盧其宏 (2009),「外籍勞工僱用對廠商生產力及薪資之影響-臺灣製造業之實證研究」,碩士論文,台灣大學經濟研究所。
英文文獻
Athukorala, P. and Devadason, E.S. (2012), “The Impact of Foreign Labor on Host Country Wages: The Experience of a Southern Host, Malaysia”, World Development, 40(8), 1497-1510.
Carrasco, R., Jimeno, J.F. and Ortega, A.C. (2008), “The Effect of Immigration on the Labor Market Performance of Native-Born Workers: Some Evidence for Spain”, Journal of Population Economics, 21(3), 627-648.
Hamermesh, D.S. (1993), Labor demand, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Hamermesh, D.S. and Grant, J. (1979), “Econometric Studies of Labour-Labour Substitution and Their Implications for Policy”, Journal of Human Resources, 14(4).
Lee, L.F. (1983), “Generalized Econometric Models with Selectivity”, Econometrica, 51(2), 507-512.
Levinsohn, J. and Petrin, A. (2003), “Estimating Production Functions Using Inputs to Control for Unobservables”, The Review of Economic Studies, 70(2), 317-341.
Liu, J.T., Tsou, M.W., Wang, P. (2010), “Workforce Composition and Firm Productivity: Evidence from Taiwan”, Economic Inquiry, 48, 1032-1047.
Orrenius, P.M. and Zavodny, M. (2007), “Does Immigration Affect Wages? A Look at Occupation-Level Evidence”, Labour Economics, 14(5), 757-773.
Parasnis, J (2010), “Estimating the Relationship between Immigrant and Native Workers in Australia: A Production Theory Approach”, Australian Economic Papers, 49(1), 73-85.
Roberts, M.J. and Skoufias, E. (1997), “The Long-Run Demand for Skilled and Unskilled Labor in Colombian Manufacturing Plants”, Review of Economics and Statistics, 79(2), 330-334.
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