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研究生:劉祐豪
研究生(外文):Yu-Hao Liu
論文名稱(外文):Equalizers in Various MIMO Systems
指導教授:林嘉慶林嘉慶引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jia-Chin Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:通訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:英文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:MIMO等化器BERSTBCZero ForcingMinimum Mean Square Error
外文關鍵詞:MIMOEqualizerBERSTBCZero ForcingMinimum Mean Square Error
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無線通訊系統的傳輸需求量越來越高,因此為了在一定時間下傳送更多的資料量,系統的天線數增加成為一個重要的課題。同時在相同天線數情況下,也希望能找出表現較好的傳送方法及等化器來接收資料。
近年來隨著4G的發展,以及5G的開發下,多傳多收天線系統(MIMO)技術也日趨成熟,逐步邁向巨大(Massive) MIMO的方向前進,Massive MIMO和MIMO系統一樣目的在於打造出在一般環境下能有高頻譜效率並能快速反應的系統,同時天線數的提升可以使傳輸量增加,但是會衍生出像是SNR變差和高PAPR等問題。也因此現今5G行動通訊技術發展的一項趨勢就是如何有效控制訊雜比並發展出像是100支天線的Massive MIMO 系統。
除了上述提到的問題外,當資料在行動裝置傳送下,系統容易受到許多干擾,進而導致資料產生通道間干擾(ICI),為此這篇論文中將會使用Jakes Model Rayleigh Multipath Channel來探討並進行通道模擬結果。而傳送方式採用不同Space Time Block Code的方式來存取資料位元,調變方法則透過天線數來決定,最後利用不同等化器來模擬結果好壞。除了比較等化器方法外,也利用Successive Interference Cancellation來觀察效能並加以比較。
至此論文主要集中關注在天線數增加下,資料的傳送及接收以及等化器的效能分析,並模擬出在不同的天線數使用不同的調變及接收方法情況下的結果,同時也會與傳統上的2傳2收MIMO系統(2x2 MIMO)做比較。
Throughput of wireless communication system is getting higher these years, and adding the number of antennas is an important topic to improve data rate. In the meantime, we also want to find out better transfer method and equalizer in the receiver.
MIMO techniques has huge improved by involved 4G and designed of 5G system for decades, and moves forward to Massive MIMO. Massive MIMO system tries to build a high spectral efficiency and rapidly responsibility system, just like MIMO system does. Adding the number of antennas will increase throughput, while it may cause like SNR getting worse or high PAPR these problems. However nowadays one trend of 5G wireless system is let SNR under a threshold and then develop a Massive MIMO system, like up to 100 antennas system.
In addition to the problems discussed on the above, system can be interference to other channel due to in a highly mobility environment and generate inter-channel interference (ICI). To solve this problem, the thesis will analyze the simulation over a Jakes Model Multipath Channel, data symbols are transferred by various Space Time Block Code (STBC), modulation method is decided by the number of antennas, and at last compare the performance of several equalizers. Except for equalization techniques, this thesis will also use Successive Interference Cancellation and compare the bit error rate (BER) performance.
This thesis will mainly focus on the performance comparison while adding the number of antennas as well as add data rates in various STBC and equalization methods, and then simulates the results of various number of antennas use many kind of modulation and reception methods, at last it will also compare with MIMO system.
摘要........................................................................................................................i
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………..ii
致謝 (Acknowledgment)..……………………………………………...…………………....iii
目錄(Content)………………………………………………………………………………iv
圖目錄 (List of Figures)……………………………………………………………………viii
表目錄 (List of Tables)………………………………………………….................................x
Chapter 1 Introduction………………………………………………………...1
1.1 Prologue…………………………………………………………………………………..1
1.2 Background……………………………………………………………………………….1
1.3 Motivation………………………………………………………………………………...2
1.4 Thesis Outline…………………………………………………………………………….3
Chapter 2 Wireless Mobile Channel Statistical Characteristics…………….4
2.1 Prologue…………………………………………………………………………………..4
2.2 Causes of Multi-Path……………………………………………………………………...5
2.3 Types of Multi-Path……………………………………………………………………….5
2.4 Large-Scale Fading……………………………………………………………………….6
2.4.1 Long-Distance Path Loss Model……………………….….…………………………..6
2.4.2 Long-Normal Shadowing Model……………………..……………………………….7
2.5 Small-Scale Fading…………………………………………………………………….....8
2.5.1 Doppler Spread………………………………………………………………………..9
2.5.2 Multipath Channel Model & Output Signal………………………………………….10
2.5.3 Channel Autocorrelation Function…………………………………………………...10
2.5.4 Bandwidth of Channel………………………………………………………………..11
2.5.5 Time of Channel……………………………………………………………………...12
2.5.6-1 Frequency Flat Fading & Frequency Selective Fading…………………………..13
2.5.6-2 Slow Fading and Fast Fading………………………………………………….....14
2.6 Multipath Fading Channel Model……………………………………………………….16
2.7 Rayleigh Fading Channel Model………………………………………………………..16
2.7.1 Baseband Channel Mathematical Model…………………………………………….17
2.7.2 Simulations of Jakes’ Model…………………………………………………………19
2.8 Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel (AWGN)……………………………………..21
Chapter 3 System Model……………………….……………………………..23
3.1 MIMO Space Time Coding……………………………………………………………...23
3.2 Space Time Trellis Code………………………………………………………………...23
3.3 Space Time Block Code…………………………………………………………………24
3.3.1 Orthogonality………………………………………………………………………...25
3.3.2 Encoding and Design………………………………………………………………...26
3.3.2-1 Alamouti’s Code……………………………………………………………….....26
3.3.2-2 Quasi-Orthogonal STBCs (QSTBC)……………………………………………..27
3.3.2-3 Proposed STBCs……………………………………………………………….....27
3.4 Channel Module…………………………………………………………………………28
3.4.1 Transmitter Scheme…………………………………………………….…………….29
3.4.2 Receiver Scheme…………………………..…………………………………………33
Chapter 4 Equalization Techniques………………………………………….35
4.1 Prologue…………………………………………………………………………………35
4.2 Equalization Basic Structure…………………………………………………………….36
4.3 Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC) with Optimal Ordering……………………37
4.4 Zero Forcing (ZF) Equalizer…………………………………………………………….40
4.5Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) Equalizer………………………………………41
4.6 Zero Forcing Equalizer with Successive Interference Cancellation (ZF-SIC)………….42
4.7 Minimum Mean Square Error Equalizer with Successive Interference Cancellation…..42
Chapter 5 Simulation Results………………………………………………...44
5.1 Prologue…………………………………………………………………………………44
5.2 BER Performance of Various Modulation Algorithm for Two-Multiply-Two System…45
5.3 BER Performance of Various Situation by MIMO ZF Equalizer……………………….46
5.4 BER Performance of Various Situation by MIMO MMSE Equalizer…………………..48
5.5 BER Performance of Various Situation by MIMO ZF-SIC Equalizer…………………..49
5.6 BER Performance of Various Situation by MIMO MMSE-SIC Equalizer……………...51
5.7 BER Performance of Various MIMO Equalizer for Two-Antenna System……………..53
5.8 BER Performance of Various MIMO Equalizer for Four-Antenna System………….....54
5.9 BER Performance of Various MIMO Equalizer for Eight-Antenna System……………55
Chapter 6 Conclusion and Future Work…………………………………….56
6.1 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………56
6.2 Future Work………………………………………………………………………….......57
Reference………………....................................................................................58
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