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研究生:鄭鈺閩
研究生(外文):Yumin Zheng
論文名稱:遊戲難度動態調整對高齡者進行遊戲化運動參與意願的影響—以靜態臥式腳踏車為例
論文名稱(外文):The Influence of Dynamic Game Difficulty Adjustment for the Intention of Elderly’s Gamification Exercise—A Case Study of Static Recumbent Bike
指導教授:陳彥甫陳彥甫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yen-Fu Chen
口試委員:陳彥甫
口試委員(外文):Yen-Fu Chen
口試日期:2019-07-31
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大同大學
系所名稱:工業設計學系(所)
學門:設計學門
學類:產品設計學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:靜態臥式腳踏車遊戲化動態難度調整
外文關鍵詞:static recumbent bikedynamic difficulty adjustmentgamification
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台灣在2018年正式邁入高齡社會,老年人口比例不斷升高,高齡者的健康問題日益重要,而腳踏車運動可以幫助高齡者加強下肢功能,預防肌少症,並減少跌倒等危險的發生。本研究期望利用遊戲化的方式來提高高齡者的運動參與意願,在遊戲中利用動態難度調整不斷的給高齡者提供適當的遊戲挑戰,使高齡者沉浸在遊戲化的運動當中。
為完成本研究之研究目的,本研究分成了兩個部分進行。第一部分是設計一款針對高齡者腳踏車運動的具有動態難度調整的遊戲;第二部分是利用這款遊戲探討動態難度調整對高齡者進行遊戲化運動的參與意願的影響。
為設計出一款結合了動態難度調整的運動遊戲,本研究通過觀察法和次級資料分析法,瞭解到了靜態臥式腳踏車運動在下肢功能訓練等方面的優點,將其作為遊戲設計所結合的運動方式。在遊戲設計上,本研究將腳踏車運動的運動行為作為遊戲內容設計的基礎,並結合適合高齡者的主題類型,設計出了一款以收集水果為挑戰的具有動態難度調整的遊戲「水果收集者」。
為能瞭解動態難度調整對高齡者運動遊戲的參與意願影響,本研究邀請了18位65歲以上的高齡者參與遊戲測試,並運用了兩種不同難度版本的遊戲來進行對比。參與者在分別進行動態難度調整版本以及固定難度版本的遊戲後,與研究者進行半結構式訪談。
本研究對參與者的訪談逐文字稿進行了主題分析,歸納出了「高齡者玩家的遊戲表現不好對其遊戲體驗影響不大」、「基於玩家表現的動態難度調整只在部分參與者中提高了遊戲挑戰的喜好」和「難度調整或許可採用玩家隨時主動調整的方式」這三個主題,並對遊戲數據進行了討論。
最終得出結論為動態難度調整對高齡者遊戲化運動中的遊戲喜好有影響,但重要性並非不可缺少,而基於玩家表現的動態難度調整只在部分參與者中提高了遊戲喜好,因此可以嘗試讓高齡者在遊戲情景中通過遊戲操作來主動調整難度,使遊戲難度更符合高齡者需求,進而提高遊戲喜好,增加遊戲化運動的參與。
Gamification is applying game elements in non-game environment, which can improve people’s willingness to participate in activity. It was applied in many activity including elderly’s exercises. Cycling may help elderly people to keep their lower limbs’ strength, prevent sarcopenia, and reduce the risk of falling. The aim of this study is to adopt dynamic difficulty adjustment to improve the elderly's willingness to participate in cycling.
"Fruitcollector" that is a game with dynamic difficulty adjustment for elderly people’s cycling was developed to investigate the influence of dynamic difficulty adjustment on the elderly’s participation willingness. The main goal of this game is to collect fruits in the play. For players, the challenges of this game are: 1.to control a character by pedals and wearable detective device; 2.to collect fruits that are presented randomly on the screen. The difficulty of challenges will be dynamically adjusted based on the players’ performance during the play.
18 elderly people (aged 65+) were invited to test and evaluate the game. Two versions of game difficulty modes were provided: one version is dynamic difficulty adjustment and another version is non-dynamic difficulty adjustment. After the game test, the semi-structured interview was adopted to obtain the participants’ feedback.
The findings of this study are described as follows: 1.elderly people’s bad performances have little influence on their gaming experiences; 2.performance-based dynamic difficulty adjustment may increase part of players’ preferences on game challenges; 3.the game difficulty controlled by the player at any time may be a good approach for players.
誌謝 i
摘要 ii
ABSTRACT iv
目次 vi
表次 ix
圖次 x
第一章緒論 1
1.1研究背景 1
1.2研究動機 2
1.3研究目的 4
1.4研究範圍與限制 4
1.5研究架構 5
第二章文獻探討 7
2.1腳踏車運動 7
2.1.1腳踏車運動好處 7
2.1.2靜態腳踏車運動 8
2.1.3小結 9
2.2遊戲化 9
2.2.1遊戲化定義 9
2.2.2遊戲化應用現況 10
2.2.3小結 14
2.3心流與動態難度調整 14
2.3.1心流定義 14
2.3.2遊戲難度與心流 15
2.3.3動態難度調整 16
2.3.4小結 18
2.4小結 19
第三章研究方法 21
3.1行動研究 21
3.2觀察法 22
3.3次級資料分析法 23
3.4訪談法 23
3.5主題分析法 26
3.6研究對象資料整理與編碼 27
3.7小結 29
第四章遊戲設計 30
4.1遊戲主題 30
4.2遊戲機制 30
4.2.1遊戲進行方式 30
4.2.2遊戲難度等級 31
4.2.3動態難度調整機制 33
4.2.4遊戲基本起始參數 35
4.3遊戲美術 36
4.4遊戲裝置與技術 41
4.5小結 45
第五章遊戲測試 46
5.1遊戲測試參與者 46
5.2遊戲測試場地與設備 48
5.3遊戲測試流程設計 50
5.4訪談大綱 53
5.5小結 54
第六章結果與討論 55
6.1訪談分析結果與討論 55
6.2遊戲數據結果討論 69
6.3本研究歷程討論 73
6.4小結 75
第七章結論與建議 77
7.1結論 77
7.2未來研究之建議 79
參考文獻 80
中文部分 80
英文部分 81
附錄一 知情同意書 90
附錄二 訪談逐文字稿 94
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