跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.222.218.145) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/03/04 16:20
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:李侑津
研究生(外文):Yu-Chin Lee
論文名稱:國小學童攝取手搖飲料與其齲齒之相關性
論文名稱(外文):The association between bubble tea consumption and dental caries among schoolchildren
指導教授:李士元李士元引用關係季麟揚季麟揚引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shyh-Yuan LeeLin-Yang Chi
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:牙醫學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:牙醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2019
畢業學年度:107
語文別:中文
論文頁數:112
中文關鍵詞:齲齒齲齒監測手搖飲料飲食習慣含糖飲料廣義線性模型
外文關鍵詞:dental cariescaries surveybubble teasugar-sweetened beveragegeneralized linear model
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:353
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:27
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
背景與目標
齲齒仍為目前最為盛行之疾病之一,歷年國內全國性調查報告顯示,國人口腔齲齒狀況雖逐漸好轉,台灣學齡前兒童齲齒盛行率仍偏高。齲齒已逐漸確立為多方面因素導致之疾病,各風險因子皆有不同之文獻證據力。我國多年來致力於齲齒防治,然而飲食習慣之觀點仍限於國外文獻資料;本研究探討本國常見之手搖飲料攝取習慣,與學童之齲齒狀況相關性存在與否。

方法
本研究以橫斷性研究設計,於2016年全國小學抽樣調查,透過羅吉斯、線性、卜瓦松及負二項等迴歸模型,探討學童口腔齲齒狀況與手搖飲料飲用習慣之相關性,並控制相關的可能干擾因子。

結果
本研究蒐集了全國42所小學1862名國小二、三級學童之資料, 研究發現,國小學童之齲齒盛行率偏高,分別為乳齒齲齒經驗盛行率85.28%、恆齒齲齒經驗盛行率42.16%。手搖飲料攝取頻率以及是否添加配料等面向皆顯著提升學童口腔齲齒存在之風險1.31至1.62倍。與其它常見學童飲料攝取之齲齒風險相比,手搖飲料與齲齒相關性較低,而高頻率之碳酸飲料顯著增加齲齒風險1.17至1.29倍。飲用高頻率添加配料手搖飲料之學童其齲齒風險顯著較飲用無添加配料族群2.24至2.63倍,飲用添加配料手搖飲料且刷牙習慣主動之學童其齲齒風險為同主動刷牙習慣飲用無添加配料手搖飲料之族群2.80至3.19倍,高頻率飲用添加配料且刷牙習慣為常需督促之學童,其齲齒風險為飲用無添加配料之學童2.05至9.79倍。

討論
本研究透過飲食頻率問卷紀錄齲齒風險因子之暴露量,雖非詳細之飲食狀況,仍發現手搖飲料之飲用習慣與齲齒間確有相關性存在。其可能機制推測為高頻率之飲用弱化牙齒結構,添加配料間接拉長飲料飲用時間及飲料之致齲性。

結論
手搖飲料攝取與學童口腔齲齒存在相關性,建議照護者、學校人員、飲食供應者於設計學童飲食時,可循其它替代選項如降低手搖飲料攝取頻率及減少配料攝取,或能降低日後學童齲齒發生。
Background and Objectives
Dental caries, as one of the most prevalent disease remain, is declining recently, form which most Taiwanese preschool children are still suffered. Considered as a multi-factorial effect, different solution for preventing caries was proposed. Bubble tea consumption, a common habitual diet among Taiwanese, may be a possible risk factor within caries incidence, however lacking scientific evidence. This study will discussion the association between bubble tea consumption and dental caries among schoolchildren.

Methods
Data of 1862 students from 2 to 3 grade from 42 elementary schools was collected in 2016. Generalized linear models including linear, Poisson and negative binomial regression were used to determine the association between bubble tea consumption and dental caries.

Results
The prevalence rate of deciduous and permanent caries experience were 85.28% and 42.16% respectively. Bubble tea consumption frequencies, and additives significantly increased caries risk (OR=1.31~1.62). Comparing with other beverages, soft drinks was the most significant caries risk factor (OR=1.17~1.29), though lacking significance within bubble tea consumption. Children with both frequent bubble tea consumption and additives preference showed significant associated caries risk (OR=1.70~2.93). Those with frequent bubble tea consumption, additives preference, and insufficient toothbrushing habit significantly associated with severe risk of dental caries (OR=2.05~9.79).

Discussion
Although collected by food frequency questionnaire, the association between bubble tea consumption and dental caries among school children existed. Weakened of tooth structure by frequent or prolongation bubble tea consumption and cariogenic additives may be the possible mechanisms.

Conclusions
Bubble tea consumption increased caries risk among schoolchildren. Both alternatives of diet suggestions and bubble tea consumption without additives may lower the risk.
目錄
中文摘要........................................................................................i
英文摘要.......................................................................................ii
目錄..........................................................................................iii
表目錄..........................................................................................v
圖目錄.........................................................................................vi
第一章 緒論....................................................................................1
第一節 齲齒概論................................................................................1
1.1.1 齲齒形成之研究..........................................................................1
1.1.2 齲齒之流行病學..........................................................................1
第二節 齲齒風險因子............................................................................4
第三節 齲齒防治................................................................................5
第二章 文獻回顧................................................................................7
第一節 含糖飲料與齲齒相關性之文獻回顧..........................................................7
第二節 與過去研究之差異.......................................................................12
第三章 研究動機及目的.........................................................................14
第一節 研究動機...............................................................................14
第二節 研究目的...............................................................................14
第四章 研究材料與方法.........................................................................15
第一節 研究設計與架構.........................................................................15
第二節 研究對象...............................................................................15
4.2.1 納入條件...............................................................................15
4.2.2 排除條件...............................................................................16
4.2.3 抽樣方法...............................................................................16
第三節 研究變項定義...........................................................................17
4.3.1 學童口腔齲齒狀況.......................................................................17
4.3.2 學童手搖飲料攝取習慣...................................................................17
4.3.3 控制變項...............................................................................18
4.3.4 統計方法...............................................................................18
第五章 結果...................................................................................20
第一節 學童人口學資料、口內齲齒狀況與其它控制變項資料.........................................20
5.1.1 學童人口學資料.........................................................................20
5.1.2 控制變項資料...........................................................................23
5.1.3 學童口腔齲齒狀況.......................................................................28
第二節 學童手搖飲料攝取習慣與口內齲齒狀況之相關性.............................................62
5.2.1 手搖飲料攝取習慣:頻率.................................................................62
5.2.2 手搖飲料攝取習慣:甜度.................................................................65
5.2.3 手搖飲料攝取習慣:添加配料及配料種類...................................................68
第三節 手搖飲料攝取習慣其他齲齒相關因子之相互關係.............................................81
5.3.1 學童齲齒之相關性:手搖飲料與其它常飲用飲料.............................................81
5.3.2 學童齲齒相關性:手搖飲料與控制變項.....................................................87
5.3.3 學童齲齒相關性:變項合併之影響.........................................................89
第六章 討論...................................................................................93
第一節 研究主要結果...........................................................................93
第二節 資料正確性.............................................................................93
6.2.1 學童口腔齲齒狀況.......................................................................94
6.2.2 問卷資料...............................................................................95
6.2.3 手搖飲料...............................................................................98
第三節 資料特性與迴歸模型建構.................................................................99
第四節 手搖飲料偏好與齲齒相關性..............................................................100
6.4.1 手搖飲料攝取偏好:頻率................................................................100
6.4.2 手搖飲料攝取偏好:甜度................................................................101
6.4.3 手搖飲料攝取偏好:添加配料............................................................101
6.4.4 手搖飲料與其它常見學童飲料............................................................101
第五節 研究貢獻..............................................................................102
第六節 研究限制..............................................................................102
第七章 結論與建議............................................................................104
第一節 結論..................................................................................104
第二節 建議..................................................................................104
第三節 未來展望..............................................................................105
第八章 參考文獻..............................................................................106

表目錄
表1.1.2.1 歷年台灣地區乳齒齲齒經驗指數(deft)....................................................2
表1.1.2.2 歷年台灣地區恆齒齲齒經驗指數(DMFT)....................................................3
表1.1.2.3 歷年台灣地區各年齡層之齲齒經驗盛行率..................................................3
表2.1.1 含糖飲料與齲齒相關性之文獻回顧..........................................................9
表2.2.1 歷年飲料業營業額及店數 (經濟部統計資料)................................................12
表2.2.2 飲料業店數前10家業者 (經濟部統計資料)..................................................12
表2.2.3 常見含糖飲料之含糖量 (衛生福利部統計資料)..............................................13
表5.1.1.1 學童人數依學校分布表.................................................................21
表5.1.1.2 學童人數依性別分布表.................................................................22
表5.1.1.3 學童人數依年齡分布表.................................................................22
表5.1.3.1 依性別、年齡層之學童乳齒齲齒狀況.....................................................30
表5.1.3.2 依性別、年齡層之學童恆齒齲齒狀況.....................................................32
表5.1.3.3 學童齲齒狀況與各變項之Kruskal-Wallis檢定結果.........................................35
表5.2.1.1 手搖飲料攝取:頻率與學童齲齒有無之羅吉斯迴歸分析結果.................................63
表5.2.1.2 手搖飲料攝取:頻率與學童齲齒顆數之多變項廣義線性迴歸分析結果.........................64
表5.2.2.1 手搖飲料攝取:甜度與學童齲齒有無之羅吉斯迴歸分析結果.................................66
表5.2.2.2 手搖飲料攝取:甜度與學童齲齒顆數之多變項廣義線性迴歸分析結果.........................67
表5.2.3.1 手搖飲料攝取:配料與學童齲齒有無之羅吉斯迴歸分析結果.................................69
表5.2.3.2 手搖飲料攝取:配料與學童齲齒之多變項廣義線性迴歸分析結果.............................70
表5.2.3.3 手搖飲料攝取:配料種類與學童齲齒有無之羅吉斯迴歸分析結果.............................73
表5.2.3.4 手搖飲料攝取:配料種類與學童齲齒顆數之多變項廣義線性迴歸分析結果.....................77
表5.3.1.1 常飲用飲料之頻率與學童齲齒有無之羅吉斯迴歸分析結果...................................83
表5.3.1.2 常飲用飲料之頻率與學童齲齒顆數之多變項廣義線性迴歸分析結果...........................85
表5.3.2.1 控制變項與學童齲齒有無之多變項羅吉斯迴歸分析結果.....................................88
表5.3.3.1 合併手搖飲料攝取:添加配料及頻率與學童齲齒有無之多變項羅吉斯迴歸分析結果.............91
表5.3.3.2 合併手搖飲料攝取:添加配料及刷牙習慣與學童齲齒有無之多變項羅吉斯迴歸分析結果..............91
表5.3.3.3 合併手搖飲料攝取:添加配料、頻率及刷牙習慣與學童齲齒有無之多變項羅吉斯迴歸分析結果...92
表6.2.1.1 本研究與歷年全國性調查報告之8歲學童乳齒齲齒狀況......................................95
表6.2.1.2 本研究與歷年全國性調查報告之8歲學童恆齒齲齒狀況......................................95
表6.2.1.3 本研究與歷年全國性調查報告之9歲學童乳齒齲齒狀況......................................95
表6.2.1.4 本研究與歷年全國性調查報告之9歲學童恆齒齲齒狀況......................................95


圖目錄
圖2.2.1 歷年各類飲料業店數 (經濟部統計資料)....................................................13
圖4.1.1 研究架構...............................................................................15
圖5.1.3.1 學童人數與齲齒顆數之長條圖...........................................................28
圖5.1.3.2 學童乳齒齲齒狀況與性別之長條圖.......................................................31
圖5.1.3.3 學童乳齒齲齒狀況與年齡層之長條圖.....................................................31
圖5.1.3.4 學童恆齒齲齒狀況與性別之長條圖.......................................................33
圖5.1.3.5 學童恆齒齲齒狀況與年齡層之長條圖.....................................................33
圖5.1.3.6 學童齲齒顆數與性別之箱形圖...........................................................40
圖5.1.3.7 學童齲齒顆數與年齡之箱形圖...........................................................41
圖5.1.3.8 學童齲齒顆數與其三歲前照護者身分之箱形圖.............................................42
圖5.1.3.9 學童齲齒顆數與其父親教育程度之箱形圖.................................................43
圖5.1.3.10 學童齲齒顆數與其母親教育程度之箱形圖................................................44
圖5.1.3.11 學童齲齒顆數與其在家中刷牙習慣之箱形圖..............................................45
圖5.1.3.12 學童齲齒顆數與其在家中刷牙使用牙膏習慣之箱形圖......................................46
圖5.1.3.13 學童齲齒顆數與其在家中使用含氟漱口水之箱形圖........................................47
圖5.1.3.14 學童齲齒顆數與其在家中使用氟錠之箱形圖..............................................47
圖5.1.3.15 學童齲齒顆數與手搖飲料攝取:頻率之箱形圖............................................48
圖5.1.3.16 學童齲齒顆數與手搖飲料攝取:甜度之箱形圖............................................49
圖5.1.3.17 學童齲齒顆數與手搖飲料攝取:配料之箱形圖............................................50
圖5.1.3.18 學童齲齒顆數與手搖飲料攝取:添加珍珠之箱形圖........................................51
圖5.1.3.19 學童齲齒顆數與手搖飲料攝取:添加布丁之箱形圖........................................51
圖5.1.3.20 學童齲齒顆數與手搖飲料攝取:添加椰果之箱形圖........................................52
圖5.1.3.21 學童齲齒顆數與手搖飲料攝取:添加仙草之箱形圖........................................52
圖5.1.3.22 學童齲齒顆數與手搖飲料攝取:添加紅豆之箱形圖........................................53
圖5.1.3.23 學童齲齒顆數與手搖飲料攝取:添加冬瓜茶之箱形圖......................................53
圖5.1.3.24 學童齲齒顆數與手搖飲料攝取:添加多多之箱形圖........................................54
圖5.1.3.25 學童齲齒顆數與手搖飲料攝取:添加寒天之箱形圖........................................54
圖5.1.3.26 學童齲齒顆數與手搖飲料攝取:添加愛玉之箱形圖........................................55
圖5.1.3.27 學童齲齒顆數與手搖飲料攝取:添加百香果之箱形圖......................................55
圖5.1.3.28 學童齲齒顆數與手搖飲料攝取:添加蘆薈之箱形圖........................................56
圖5.1.3.29 學童齲齒顆數與手搖飲料攝取:添加冰淇淋之箱形圖......................................56
圖5.1.3.30 學童齲齒顆數與手搖飲料攝取:添加蜂蜜之箱形圖........................................57
圖5.1.3.31 學童齲齒顆數與鮮奶攝取頻率之箱形圖..................................................58
圖5.1.3.32 學童齲齒顆數與調味乳攝取頻率之箱形圖................................................58
圖5.1.3.33 學童齲齒顆數與果汁攝取頻率之箱形圖..................................................59
圖5.1.3.34 學童齲齒顆數與乳酸飲料攝取頻率之箱形圖..............................................59
圖5.1.3.35 學童齲齒顆數與豆乳製品攝取頻率之箱形圖..............................................60
圖5.1.3.36 學童齲齒顆數與碳酸飲料攝取頻率之箱形圖..............................................60
圖5.1.3.37 學童齲齒顆數與含糖茶類飲料攝取頻率之箱形圖..........................................61
1. Fejerskov O. Changing paradigms in concepts on dental caries: consequences for oral health care. Caries Res, 2004. 38(3): 182-91.
2. Selwitz RH, Ismail AI, Pitts NB. Dental caries. The Lancet, 2007. 369(9555): 51-59.
3. Rodriguez FE. Quantitative incidence of lactobacillus acidophilus in the oral cavity as a presumptive index of susceptibility to dental caries. J Am Dent Assoc, 1931. 18(11): 2118-35.
4. Fitzgerald RJ, Keyes PH. Demonstration of the etiologic role of streptococci in experimental caries in the hamster. J Am Dent Assoc, 1960. 61: 9-19.
5. Loesche WJ. Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. Microbiological reviews, 1986. 50(4): 353-80.
6. Tanzer JM. On changing the cariogenic chemistry of coronal plaque. 1989. 68: 1576-87.
7. Nyvad B, Kilian M. Comparison of the initial streptococcal microflora on dental enamel in caries-active and in caries-inactive individuals. Caries Res, 1990. 24(4): 267-72.
8. Sullivan A, et al. Number of mutans streptococci or lactobacilli in a total dental plaque sample does not explain the variation in caries better than the numbers in stimulated whole saliva. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1996. 24(3): 159-63.
9. Bjarnason S, et al. Caries experience in Icelandic 12-year-old urban children between 1984 and 1991. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1993. 21(4): 195-7.
10. Scheie AA, Petersen FC. The biofilm concept: Consequnces for future prophylaxis of oral disease? Crit Rev Oral Biol Med, 2004. 15(1): 4-12.
11. Featherstone JD. The continuum of dental caries-evidence for a dynamic disease process. J Dent Res, 2004. 83: 39-42.
12. Burt BA, Eklund SA. Dentistry, dental practice, and the community. 2005: Elsevier.
13. Kay MI, Young RA, Posner AS. Crystal structure of hydroxyapatite. Nature, 1964. 204(4963): 1050-52.
14. Frazier PD, Little MF, Casciani FS. X-ray diffraction analysis of human enamel containing different amounts of fluoride. Archives of Oral Biology, 1967. 12(1): 35-42.
15. Brown WE, Gregory TM, Chow LC. Effects of fluoride on enamel solubility and cariostasis. Caries Research, 1977. 11: 118-41.
16. Hamilton IR, Biochemical effects of fluoride on oral bacteria. J Dent Res, 1990. 69: 660-7.
17. Marcenes W, et al. Global burden of oral conditions in 1990-2010: a systematic analysis. J Dent Res, 2013. 92(7): 592-7.
18. Petersen, PE, The world oral health report 2003: Continuous improvement of oral health in the 21st century--the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2003. 31: 3-23.
19. Marthaler TM, Changes in dental caries 1953-2003. Caries Res, 2004. 38(3): 173-81.
20. Fejerskov O, Kidd E, Dental caries: the disease and its clinical management. 2009: John Wiley & Sons.
21. 行政院衛生署國民健康局, 2006 國民健康局年報. 2006.
22. 行政院衛生署國民健康局, 2007 國民健康局年報. 2007.
23. 行政院衛生署國民健康局, 2009 國民健康局年報. 2009.
24. 行政院衛生署國民健康局, 2010 國民健康局年報. 2010.
25. 行政院衛生署國民健康局, 2011 國民健康局年報. 2011.
26. 行政院衛生署國民健康局, 2012 國民健康局年報. 2012.
27. 衛生福利部國民健康署, 2013 國民健康署年報. 2013.
28. 衛生福利部國民健康署, 2014 國民健康署年報. 2014.
29. 衛生福利部心理及口腔健康司, 口腔保健. 2015.
30. 衛生福利部國民健康署, 2015 國民健康署年報. 2015.
31. 衛生福利部心理及口腔健康司, 106~110 年國民口腔健康促進計畫. 2017.
32. Aggeryd T. Goals for oral health in the year 2000: cooperation between WHO, FDI and the national dental associations. Int Dent J, 1983. 33(1): 55-9.
33. 衛生福利部國民健康署, 國民口腔健康第一期五年計畫. 2006.
34. Ismail AI, et al., Caries management pathways preserve dental tissues and promote oral health. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2013. 41(1): 12-40.
35. Ismail AI, et al., The International Caries Classification and Management System (ICCMS™) An Example of a Caries Management Pathway. BMC Oral Health, 2015. 15(1): 9.
36. Bratthall D, Petersson GH, Cariogram--a multifactorial risk assessment model for a multifactorial disease. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2005. 33(4): 256-64.
37. Featherstone JDB, Chaffee BW, The Evidence for Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA®). Advances in Dental Research, 2018. 29(1): 9-14.
38. Helfenstein U, Steiner M, Marthaler TM, Caries prediction on the basis of past caries including precavity lesions. Caries Res, 1991. 25(5): 372-6.
39. van Palenstein Helderman WH, van't Hof MA, van Loveren V, Prognosis of caries increment with past caries experience variables. Caries Res, 2001. 35(3): 186-92.
40. Gao XL, et al., Building caries risk assessment models for children. J Dent Res, 2010. 89(6): 637-43.
41. Grindefjord M., et al. Prediction of dental caries development in 1-year-old children. Caries Res, 1995. 29(5): 343-8.
42. Tellez M, et al., Evidence on existing caries risk assessment systems: are they predictive of future caries? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2013. 41(1): 67-78.
43. 陳秀賢;台北市學齡前兒童使用含氟漱口水後偵測尿液含氟量之研究;牙醫科學研究所. 2004, 國防醫學院: 台北市.
44. 何佩珊、黃純德、黃曉靈、楊奕馨, 107年度我國六歲以下兒童口腔健康調查工作計畫. 2018, 衛生福利部.
45. Pitts NB, et al., Dental caries. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 2017. 3: 17030.
46. ADA, Statement on Early Childhood Caries. 2000.
47. Heller KE, Burt BA, Eklund SA. Sugared soda consumption and dental caries in the United States. J Dent Res, 2001. 80(10): 1949-53.
48. Armfield JM, et al. Water fluoridation and the association of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and dental caries in Australian children. Am J Public Health, 2013. 103(3): 494-500.
49. Evans EW, et al. Dietary intake and severe early childhood caries in low-income, young children. J Acad Nutr Diet, 2013. 113(8): 1057-61.
50. Declerck D, et al. Factors associated with prevalence and severity of caries experience in preschool children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2008. 36(2): 168-78.
51. Chi DL, et al. Association between added sugar intake and dental caries in Yup’ik children using a novel hair biomarker. BMC Oral Health, 2015. 15(1): 121.
52. Bernabe E, et al., Sugar-sweetened beverages and dental caries in adults: a 4-year prospective study. J Dent, 2014. 42(8): 952-8.
53. Park S, et al., Association of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake during Infancy with Dental Caries in 6-year-olds. Clin Nutr Res, 2015. 4(1): 9-17.
54. Costacurta M, et al., Dental caries and childhood obesity: analysis of food intakes, lifestyle. Eur J Paediatr Dent, 2014. 15(4): 343-8.
55. Skinner J, et al., Sugary drink consumption and dental caries in New South Wales teenagers. Aust Dent J, 2015. 60(2): 169-75.
56. Gudkina J, et al., Factors influencing the caries experience of 6 and 12 year old children in Riga, Latvia. Stomatologija, 2016. 18(1): 14-20.
57. Kraljevic I, Filippi C, Filippi A. Risk indicators of early childhood caries (ECC) in children with high treatment needs. Swiss Dent J, 2017. 127(5): 398-410.
58. Lundeen EA, et al., Adolescent sugar-sweetened beverage intake is associated with parent intake, not knowledge of health risks. Am J Health Promot, 2018. 32(8): 1661-70.
59. Ju X, et al. Association of modifiable risk factors with dental caries among indigenous and nonindigenous children in australia. JAMA Network Open, 2019. 2(5): 193466.
60. Chen X, et al., Dental caries status and oral health behavior among civilian pilots. Aviat Space Environ Med, 2014. 85(10): 999-1004.
61. Zhang S, et al., Dental caries and erosion status of 12-year-old Hong Kong children. BMC Public Health, 2014. 14(1): 7.
62. Quadri FA, et al., Knowledge, attitudes and practices of sweet food and beverage consumption and its association with dental caries among schoolchildren in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. East Mediterr Health J, 2015. 21(6): 403-11.
63. Wigen TI, Wang NJ, Does early establishment of favorable oral health behavior influence caries experience at age 5 years? Acta Odontol Scand, 2015. 73(3): 182-7.
64. Gibbs L, et al., Child oral health in migrant families: A cross-sectional study of caries in 1-4 year old children from migrant backgrounds residing in Melbourne, Australia. Community Dent Health, 2016. 33(2): 100-6.
65. Ozen B, et al., Evaluation of possible associated factors for early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries: a multicenter cross-sectional survey. J Clin Pediatr Dent, 2016. 40(2): 118-23.
66. Palacios C, et al., Association between type, amount, and pattern of carbohydrate consumption with dental caries in 12-year-olds in Puerto Rico. Caries Res, 2016. 50(6): 560-70.
67. Wilder JR, et al., The association between sugar-sweetened beverages and dental caries among third-grade students in Georgia. J Public Health Dent, 2016. 76(1): 76-84.
68. Kim S, Park S, Lin M. Permanent tooth loss and sugar-sweetened beverage intake in U.S. young adults. J Public Health Dent, 2017. 77(2): 148154.
69. Lin YC, et al., Significant caries and the interactive effects of maternal-related oral hygiene factors in urban preschool children. J Public Health Dent, 2017. 77(3): 188-96.
70. Wiener RC, et al. The association between diabetes mellitus, sugar-sweetened beverages, and tooth loss in adults: Evidence from 18 states. J Am Dent Assoc, 2017. 148(7): 500-09..
71. Lin YC, et al., Immigrant/native differences in sugar-sweetened beverage and snack consumption and preventive behaviors associated with severe early childhood caries: a large-scale survey in Taiwan. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2019. 16(6).
72. Watanabe M, et al. The influence of lifestyle on the incidence of dental caries among 3-year-old Japanese children. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2014. 11(12): 12611-22.
73. Llena C, et al. Association between the number of early carious lesions and diet in children with a high prevalence of caries. Eur J Paediatr Dent, 2015. 16(1): 7-12.
74. Vega-Lopez S, et al. Association of added sugar intake and caries-related experiences among individuals of Mexican origin. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2018. 46(4): 376-84.
75. Blinkhorn AS, et al. A 4-year assessment of a new water-fluoridation scheme in New South Wales, Australia. Int Dent J, 2015. 65(3): 156-63.
76. Hoffmeister L, et al. Factors associated with early childhood caries in Chile. Gac Sanit, 2016. 30(1): 59-62.
77. Matsuyama Y, et al, Self-control and dental caries among elementary school children in Japan. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2018. 46(5): 465-71.
78. Ha DH, et al. Fluoridated water modifies the effect of breastfeeding on dental caries. Journal of Dental Research, 2019. 98(7): 755-62.
79. Wu Y, et al. The associations between lead exposure at multiple sensitive life periods and dental caries risks in permanent teeth. Science of The Total Environment, 2019. 654: 1048-55.
80. 潘文涵, 國民營養健康狀況變遷調查(102-105年). 衛生福利部國民健康署. 2019, 129.
81. Neumark-Sztainer D, et al. Factors influencing food choices of adolescents: findings from focus-group discussions with adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc, 1999. 99(8): 929-37.
82. 林薇. 大專院校飲食環境及大學生飲食型態調查計畫. 中國文化大學. 2010, 167.
83. 張瑋容, 產業經濟統計簡訊《337》. 經濟部統計處. 2019.
84. 衛生福利部食品藥物管理署, 衛生福利部食品藥物管理署臺灣地區食品營養成分資料庫. 2018.
85. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Sugar & Sweeteners. 2011.
86. Dean JA. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent. 2015: Elsevier.
87. 蕭裕源、關學婉、陳韻之. 台灣地區中小學生齲齒情況之調查報告. Chin Dent J, 1996. 15(2): 78-86.
88. 蔡蔭玲. 台灣地區6-18歲人口之口腔調查. 行政院衛生署國民健康局. 2000.
89. 陳弘森、黃純德、蕭思郁、嚴雅音、楊奕馨、詹嘉一、邱耀章、蔡宗平、陳俊志、吳青樺、紀乃智、王宏欽、戴怡佳、洪雅欣、林妤珊、王乃亭、劉秀月, 台灣地區兒童及青少年口腔狀況調查. 行政院衛生署國民健康局. 2006.
90. WHO. Oral Health Survyes: Basic Methods. 4 ed. 1997. 79.
91. WHO. Oral health surveys: basic methods 5ed. 2013, School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Brazil. 137.
92. 王瑞蓮, 膳食調查, 實用公共衛生營養學, 魏明敏、卞秀娟、王瑞蓮、蔡秀玲、楊淑惠編. 2014, 華格那企業有限公司: 台中市. 618.
93. Toverud G. The influence of war and postwar conditions on the teeth of norwegian school children. III. Discussion of food supply and dental condition in Norway and other European countries. The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 1957. 35(4): 373-459.
94. Takeuchi M, et al. Sealing of pits and fissures with resin adhesive. 4. Results of five-year field work and a method of evaluation of field work for caries prevention. The Bulletin of Tokyo Dental College, 1971. 12(4): 295-316.
95. Sheiham A, James WPT. A reappraisal of the quantitative relationship between sugar intake and dental caries: the need for new criteria for developing goals for sugar intake. BMC public health, 2014. 14: 863.
96. Moynihan PJ, Kelly SAM, Effect on caries of restricting sugars intake: systematic review to inform WHO guidelines. Journal of Dent Res, 2014. 93(1): 8-18.
97. WHO. Sugars and dental caries. 2017.
98. Marshall TA, et al. Dental caries and beverage consumption in young children. Pediatrics, 2003. 112(3): 184-91.
99. Evans EW, et al. Dietary intake and severe early childhood caries in low-income, young children. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2013. 113(8): 1057-61.
100. López-Gómez SA, et al. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience. Scientific reports, 2016. 6: 21147.
101. 國民及學前教育署, 校園飲品及點心販售範圍, 2016.
102. 衛生福利部國民健康署, 104年-107年校園周邊健康飲食輔導示範計畫. 2015.
103. 彰化縣衛生局, 彰化縣學校致胖環境問卷評估調查. 2015.
104. 彰化縣衛生局, 彰化縣食品安全管理自治條例, 彰化縣政府. 2016.
105. Marinho VCC, et al., Fluoride varnishes for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2013(7).
106. Hsu CL, et al. The effect of professional fluoride application program for preschool children in Taiwan: An analysis using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). J Dent Sci, 2018. 13(3): 248-55.
107. Chi, LY, et al. Can government-supported preventive fluoride varnish application service reduce pulp-involved primary molars? J Public Health Dent, 2019.
108. Lyu LC, Yang YC, Yu HW, A long-term follow-up study of sugar sweetened beverages, snacks and desserts,andrefined sugar consumption among preschoolers aged 2 to 5 in Taiwan. 2013(32): 346-57.
109. Lin WT, et al. Clustering of metabolic risk components and associated lifestyle factors: a nationwide adolescent study in Taiwan. Nutrients, 2019. 11(3).
110. Shih YH, et al. Increased coffee, tea, or other sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in adolescents is associated with less satisfactory dietary quality, body fatness and serum uric acid profiles over the past 18 years in Taiwan. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2019. 28(2): 371-82.
111. Lin PY, et al. Relationship between Sugar Intake and Obesity among School-Age Children in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo), 2016. 62(5): 310-16.
112. 食品藥物管理署, 連鎖飲料便利商店及速食業之現場調製飲料標示規定, 衛生福利部. 2015.
113. Ma R, et al. Effect of high-fructose corn syrup on the acidogenicity, adherence and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans. Aust Dent J, 2013. 58(2): 213-8.
114. Lingstrom P, van Houte J, Kashket S, Food starches and dental caries. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med, 2000. 11(3): 366-80.
115. Campain AC, et al. Sugar-starch combinations in food and the relationship to dental caries in low-risk adolescents. Eur J Oral Sci, 2003. 111(4): 316-25.
116. Lewsey, JD., et al. Is modelling dental caries a 'normal' thing to do? Community Dent Health, 2000. 17(4): 212-7.
117. Solinas G, et al. What statistical method should be used to evaluate risk factors associated with dmfs index? Evidence from the National Pathfinder Survey of 4-year-old Italian children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2009. 37(6): 539-46.
118. Batchelor PA, Sheiham A. Grouping of tooth surfaces by susceptibility to caries: a study in 5-16 year-old children. BMC Oral Health, 2004. 4(1): 2.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top