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研究生:吳奕辰
研究生(外文):Yi-Chen Wu
論文名稱:臺灣援外策略轉型:從「外交導向」到「發展與安全導向」
論文名稱(外文):Taiwan’s foreign aid strategy shift: from diplomacy to development and security
指導教授:簡旭伸簡旭伸引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shiuh-Shen Chien
口試委員:蕭新煌周桂田小松光林子倫陳秉逵林秉賢
口試委員(外文):Hsin-Huang HsiaoKuei-Tien ChouHikaru KomatsuTze-Luen LinPing-Kuei ChenPing-Hsien Lin
口試日期:2021-07-30
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:氣候變遷與永續發展國際學位學程
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:英文
論文頁數:270
中文關鍵詞:全球南方與全球北方國際社會化國際孤立三邊合作新南向政策援外政策國際合作發展
外文關鍵詞:the global South and the global Northinternational socializationinternational isolationtrilateral cooperationNew Southbound Policyforeign aid policyinternational cooperation and development
DOI:10.6342/NTU202104315
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臺灣在事實上是一個獨立國家,但在中國打壓下,其法理上的獨立地位並未得到國際社會的廣泛承認。半個世紀以來,臺灣透過雙邊援助來爭取與鞏固邦交關係,藉以獲得法理上的承認。這種「建交導向」的援助及其產生的不對稱權力關係,吸引了學界的關注。然而過去十多年來,臺灣積極與非邦交受援國以及北方援助國建立多樣化的夥伴關係。本研究挑戰臺灣援助研究的「建交導向」的假設,運用國際關係理論以及發展地理的全球南方和南方概念,探索南方援助國的轉型,並回答臺灣援外政策的思維,如何以及為何在不斷變化的全球發展格局中,由哪些行動者於何種脈絡下推動轉變。

廿一世紀初以來,全球南方出現多個新興援助國。為此,北方援助國試圖在經濟合作與發展組織(OECD)建立的國際援助典則下將他們社會化。我梳理三種類型的南方援助國社會化。其一,制度主義社會化是指北方在國際組織中運用獎懲機制來改變南方新進成員國的行為,例如歐盟底下的東歐國家和OECD底下的韓國;其二,建構主義社會化是指北方運用認知學習方法,以三邊合作為雙向學習過程,創造新知識、重新定義利益、進而改變南方援助國的合作行為,例如日本與巴西在莫三比克的三邊合作;其三,現實主義社會化是指新興南方援助國試圖消除北方的敵意並改善全球形象,例如胡溫時期中國引進部分北方的論述,並參與小規模的合作實踐。本研究將臺灣援外政策的轉型納入國際社會化的概念中,填補國際關係研究長年以「建交導向」為預設的理論空白,並主張臺灣作為南方援助國社會化的動能來自於打破孤立的渴望,進而促使臺灣改變援外實踐,擺脫「建交導向」的思維,轉而建立自身為負責任的全球人道和發展援助者,並與北方發展區域及全球安全夥伴關係。

臺灣援外的國際社會化始於馬政府時代一系列靠向北方援外典則的論述、法律框架和實踐上的改革。這個改革背後有濃厚的現實主義社會化,亦即臺灣需要減少來自中國的敵意,以騰出更多政策空間。繼任的蔡政府則偏向建構主義社會化,其不顧中國的反對,積極提出「理念相近」的概念,主動接觸更多新的北方夥伴並投入他們關切的議題。這一系列的改革進一步創造了臺灣援助的多重夥伴關係。A類援助是針對邦交國的發展合作,包括A1類南南合作和A2類北南南合作。B類援助是與北方進行的人道援助,包括B1類南北援助和B2類南南北援助。C類援助是與非邦交受援國的南南合作。

本研究基於改革後的成果以及其建立的多元援助夥伴關係,進一步將臺灣轉型援助分為「發展導向」和「安全導向」兩種取代「建交導向」的思維。蔡政府新南向政策是典型的「發展導向」援外案例,調動大量非外交部的資源,以及企業和公民社會行動者,深化和培育與印太國家的多重聯繫。同時,臺灣援外議程也和北方(尤其美日澳等)的印太戰略對接,使他們將臺灣視為推動印太地區安全和繁榮的重要協作夥伴。這種「安全導向」的援助包含兩個先後層次:區域/全球安全和臺灣安全。臺灣首先投入協助北方處理安全議題,例如中東難民危機的人道援助、新南向接軌印太戰略、COVID-19疫情下的口罩外交等,使臺灣成為北方推動區域/全球安全的夥伴,深化雙方的信任和友誼。然後,在這些信任和友誼的基礎上,北方願意在臺灣陷入危機時保護臺灣,例如2021年北方對臺灣的疫苗外交。這種「安全導向」的思維,已經和過往將加入聯合國視為一種國安戰略的「建交導向」援助思維截然不同。

本研究最後提出三個理論啟示。首先是一種新的東亞援助模式,其特點是援外政策的民主化,包含民間組織大量參與並成為監督者,以及應對中國在印太地區日益擴大的威權主義之下的共同安全利益。其次是打破國際孤立的渴望的背後日益增長的世界主義,這些經驗為其他未被承認的民主國家(例如科索沃和索馬里蘭)提供經驗,不再直接尋求法理上的國家承認,而是透過在全球共同議題治理中建構實質夥伴關係,轉而在這夥伴關係之上推動法理上的議程。最後,在多元的夥伴關係中,臺灣也扮演著不同的角色,既是北方的資助者形成南北南合作,也是北方支持下的執行者形成北南南合作,展現了南方援助國在傳統北南援助與南南合作之外,創造在國際援助體系中新的地位的可能性。
Taiwan is a de facto independent country, but its de jure independence status is not widely recognized by the international society under the suppression of China. For decades, Taiwan preferred bilateral aid on its diplomatic partners for questing recognition. Such an “aid for diplomacy” and its resulting asymmetric power relations attract academic interests. However, Taiwan has been actively diversifying partnerships with Northern donors in recipients without diplomatic ties in the past ten years. This research aims to challenge the “aid for diplomacy” assumption of Taiwan’s aid research. By applying international relations theories to conceptualize the interaction between the global North and the global South donors, this research aims to answer how and why Taiwan’s aid concept has shifted by whom and under what circumstances in the changing global development landscape.

Since the early 21st century, there have been emerging Southern donors. The Northern donors have attempted to socialize them under the international aid regime set up by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). I identify three types of international socialization. (1) The institutionalist socialization refers the North applies reward and punishment in international organizations to change the behaviors of member states, for example, the European Union and the OECD; (2) Constructivist socialization refers the North applies the cognitive learning method that uses trilateral cooperation as the learning process to create new knowledge, redefine interests, and change cooperative behaviors of some larger Southern donors; (3) realistic socialization refers to China under Hu–Wen Administration eager to eliminate the hostile attitude of the North and build a better global image via applying part of the Northern discourse and formulate small-scale cooperation with the North. This research puts Taiwan's shifting aid policy into the international socialization trend and argues that the desire to break the isolation facilitates such shifts. Taiwan’s aid policy is changing from a diplomacy-driven political calculation to a responsible global partnership for humanitarian and development assistance and regional/global security.

The international socialization of Taiwan’s aid started from a series of reforms of aid discourse, legal framework, and practices toward the North regime. The reforms were triggered by President Ma’s realistic concept, which aimed to reduce hostile attitudes from China and hoped to receive China’s goodwill of stopping “aid for diplomacy”. The following Tsai’s Administration applied the constructive concept to actively engage with “like-minded countries”, regardless of China’s objection. The reforms further create three types of partnerships of Taiwan’s aid. Type A is development cooperation in diplomatic partners, including Type A1 South-South cooperation and Type A2 North-South-South cooperation. Type B aid is humanitarian aid to the North and with the North, including Type B1 South-North aid and Type B2 South-North-South aid. Type C aid is South-South cooperation in non-diplomatic recipients.

Based on the reforms and multiple aid partnerships, the research further categorizes Taiwan’s shifting aid policy into two dimensions: “aid for development” and “aid for security”. Tsai’s New Southbound Policy is a typical “aid for development” that mobilized non-MOFA governmental agencies, businesses, and civil society to deepen and cultivate more connections with related countries in the Indo-Pacific regions. Meanwhile, Taiwan’s foreign aid agenda aligned with the Northern donors’ geopolitical strategy in Indo-Pacific as “aid for security”. Such “aid for security” is two-fold: (1) regional security and (2) Taiwan’s security (mainly against China’s threat). Through contributing to the Indo-Pacific security, Taiwan deepens trust and friendship with the Northern donor. Then, based on trust and friendship, the Northern donors are willing to protect Taiwan when Taiwan is in danger.

This research makes three theoretical implications. Firstly, a new East Asian aid model characterized by the democratization of foreign aid policy, the increasing participation of non-governmental organizations in the aid industry, and growing common security interest against the expanding authoritarian China in the Indo-Pacific region. Secondly, there is growing cosmopolitanism behind the desire to break international isolation. Such experience provides lessons for other unrecognized democratic countries (e.g., Kosovo and Somaliland) to reassess the priority of seeking de jure recognition or establishing partnerships on global common issues. Lastly, Taiwan plays both roles: as the grant provider to the North and as the field operator supported by the North. Therefore, beyond the traditional North-South aid and South-South cooperation, there are diverse roles that the South can play in the global aid hierarchy.
口試委員會審定書 I
中文摘要 II
Abstract V
Contents IX
Table and Figure X
Abbreviations XI
I. Introduction 1
1. Taiwan’s mask diplomacy 1
2. Taiwan in the global North/South axis 5
3. Foreign aid studies and the case of Taiwan 15
4. Chapter outline 23
5. Note on Method 25
II. International socialization of the Southern donors 33
1. The Northern aid regime 33
2. The institutionalist socialization: new members of the clubs 39
3. The constructivist socialization: trilateral cooperation with Brazil 42
4. The realistic socialization: Hu-Wen China for improving image 46
5. The case of Taiwan 51
III. Reform toward the OECD aid regime 56
1. The Lee-Chen period: enhancing “aid for diplomacy” 56
2. The Ma Administration: reform under the realistic concept 59
3. The Tsai Administration: reform under the constructivist concept 64
4. Continuities and changes during the four Presidencies 68
IV. Multiple aid partnerships 77
1. Who receives what types of Taiwan’s aid 77
2. Type A: development cooperation in diplomatic partners 87
3. Type B: humanitarian aid to and with the North 94
4. Type C: South-South cooperation in non-diplomatic recipients 119
V. Taiwan’s transition I: aid for development 131
1. The development-oriented New Southbound Policy 131
2. Non-MOFA Ministries 134
3. NGOs with official aid 145
4. People-centered epistemology behind “aid for development” 160
VI. Taiwan’s transition II: aid for security 164
1. Building trust with the North in the Middle East and beyond 167
2. “Aid for security” under the COVID-19 pandemic 180
VII. Conclusion 192
1. Perceiving Taiwan’s shifting aid policy as a transforming Southern donor 192
2. Challenges behind Taiwan’s shifting aid policy 195
3. Theoretical implications 201
4. Policy Suggestions 211
Statement of prior publications 219
Reference 220
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OECD. (2011c). Partner Countries’ Vision and Priority Issues for HLF4 (Position Paper). Paris: OECD. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/dac/effectiveness/48219553.pdf
OECD. (2012a). Development Co-operation Report 2012: Lessons in Linking Sustainability and Development. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/development/development-co-operation-report-2012_dcr-2012-en
OECD. (2012b). Development: Aid to developing countries falls because of global recession. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/newsroom/developmentaidtodevelopingcountriesfallsbecauseofglobalrecession.htm
OECD. (2013a). Triangular Co-operation: What can we learn from a survey of actors involved? Paris: OECD. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/OECD%20Triangluar%20Co-operation%20Survey%20Report%20-%20June%202013.pdf
OECD. (2013b). Triangular Co-operation: What’s the Literature Telling Us? Paris: OECD. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/dac/dac-global-relations/OECD%20Triangluar%20Co-operation%20Literature%20Review%20June%202013.pdf
OECD. (2015). The high-level fora on aid effectiveness: A history. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/dac/effectiveness/thehighlevelforaonaideffectivenessahistory.htm
Schulz, N.-S. (2010). South-South cooperation in the context of aid effectiveness: Telling the story of partners in 110 cases of South-South and triangular cooperation. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/dac/effectiveness/46080462.pdf
Shui Yung Chang(張水庸)。(2015)。國際人道援助機制─作為臺灣人道外交之參考。臺北:外交部。網址:https://report.nat.gov.tw/ReportFront/PageSystem/reportFileDownload/C10403470/001
Smith, K., Fordelone, T. Y., & Zimmermann, F. (2010). Beyond the DAC: the welcome role of other providers of development co-operation. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/dac/beyondthedacthewelcomeroleofotherprovidersofco-operation.htm
State Security Department (Lithuania), S. S. D. (2019). National Threat Assessment 2019. Vilnius: State Security Department of Lithuania. Retrieved from https://www.vsd.lt/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/2019-Gresmes-internetui-EN.pdf
Taiwan AID(臺灣海外援助發展聯盟)。(2015)。非政府組織進行海外援助現況及展望。臺北:外交部
Tsikata, T. M. (1998). Aid Effectiveness: A Survey of the Recent Empirical Literature. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/ppaa/ppaa9801.pdf
United Nations General Assembly. (1970). A/RES/2626(XXV)International Development Strategy for the Second United Nations Development Decade. New York: United Nations General Assembly. Retrieved from https://undocs.org/en/A/RES/2626(XXV)
United Nations General Assembly. (1971). A/RES/2758(XXVI) Restoration of the lawful rights of the People’s Republic of China in the United Nations. New York: United Nations General Assembly. Retrieved from https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/192054
United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation. (2021). FAQ. Retrieved from http://unossc1.undp.org/sscexpo/content/ssc/about/faq.htm
USDOD. (2019). Indo-Pacific Strategy Report: Preparedness, Partnerships, and the Promotion of a Networked Region. Washington, D.C.: Department of Defense (the United States). Retrieved from https://media.defense.gov/2019/Jul/01/2002152311/-1/-1/1/DEPARTMENT-OF-DEFENSE-INDO-PACIFIC-STRATEGY-REPORT-2019.PDF
USDOS. (2019). A Free and Open Indo-Pacific: Advancing a Shared Vision. Washington, D.C.: Department of State (the United States). Retrieved from https://www.state.gov/a-free-and-open-indo-pacific-advancing-a-shared-vision/
White House. (2021a). FACT SHEET: Biden-Harris Administration is Providing at least 80 million COVID-19 Vaccines for Global Use, Commits to Leading a Multilateral Effort toward Ending the Pandemic. Washington D.C.: White House. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2021/05/17/fact-sheet-biden-harris-administration-is-providing-at-least-80-million-covid-19-vaccines-for-global-use-commits-to-leading-a-multilateral-effort-toward-ending-the-pandemic/
White House. (2021b). Press Gaggle by Press Secretary Jen Psaki En Route La Crosse, WI. Washington, D.C.: White House. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/press-briefings/2021/06/29/press-gaggle-by-press-secretary-jen-psaki-en-route-la-crosse-wi/
White House. (2021c). Quad Leaders’ Joint Statement: “The Spirit of the Quad”. Washington, D.C.: White House. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2021/03/12/quad-leaders-joint-statement-the-spirit-of-the-quad/
White House. (2021d). U.S.-ROK Leaders’ Joint Statement. Washington, D.C.: White House. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2021/05/21/u-s-rok-leaders-joint-statement/
White House. (2021e). US-Japan Joint Leaders’ Statement: “US-Japan Global Partnership for a New Era”. Washington, D.C.: White House. Retrieved from https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/statements-releases/2021/04/16/u-s-japan-joint-leaders-statement-u-s-japan-global-partnership-for-a-new-era/
World Bank. (1989). World Development Report 1989: Financial Systems and Development. (0271-2075). New York: World Bank. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/5972
World Bank. (1997). World Development Report 1997: The State in a Changing World. (0271-2075). New York: World Bank. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/5980
World Bank. (2011). Global Development Horizons 2011. Multipolarity: The New Global Economy. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Retrieved from https://documents.worldbank.org/en/publication/documents-reports/documentdetail/597691468150580088/global-development-horizons-2011-multipolarity-the-new-global-economy
World Bank. (2021). Net official development assistance and official aid received (current US$). Retrieved from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/DT.ODA.ALLD.CD
WHO. (2020a). Mask use in the context of COVID-19. Geneva: WHO. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/advice-on-the-use-of-masks-in-the-community-during-home-care-and-in-healthcare-settings-in-the-context-of-the-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov)-outbreak
WHO. (2020b). Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Geneva: WHO. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news/item/30-01-2020-statement-on-the-second-meeting-of-the-international-health-regulations-(2005)-emergency-committee-regarding-the-outbreak-of-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov)
WHO. (2020c). WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020. Geneva: WHO. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11-march-2020
Wu, Jing-Yi(吳靜怡),Zhu, Jia-Zheng(朱嘉政),Wu, Peng-Yu(吳芃彧)、Hu, Yan-Huang(胡炎煌)。(2018)。「菲律賓兒童營養整合行動計畫」評估任務返國報告。臺北:國際合作發展基金會。網址:http://www.icdf.org.tw/public/Attachment/810218541588.pdf
4.Press release
AIT. (2020a). AIT-TECRO Infrastructure Financing Framework Strengthens U.S. and Taiwan Cooperation on Infrastructure Development in the Indo-Pacific [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.ait.org.tw/ait-tecro-infrastructure-financing-framework/
AIT. (2020b). U.S.-Taiwan Cooperation on Women’s Livelihood Bond in the Indo-Pacific region Promotes Women’s Economic Empowerment and Sustainable Development [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.ait.org.tw/us-taiwan-cooperation-on-wlb/
AIT. (2021). U.S. Government Vaccine Donation Arrives in Taiwan [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.ait.org.tw/us-vaccine-donation-arrives-in-tw/
CARE International. (2017). CARE’s new emergency partner allows for new emergency relief activities in DR Congo and Iraq [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.care-international.org/news/press-releases/cares-new-emergency-partner-allows-for-new-emergency-relief-activities-in-dr-congo-and-iraq
Chang, S.-c. (2021). France’s pivotal support of Taiwan. Taipei Times. Retrieved from https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2021/05/17/2003757522
Chen, De-Ming(陳德銘)。(2010)。努力開創援外工作新局面(新聞稿)。網址:https://news.un.org/zh/story/2005/09/41672
Christensen, B. (2021). Remarks by AIT Director W. Brent Christensen at Coast Guard MOU Launch Ceremony. Taipei: AIT. Retrieved from https://www.ait.org.tw/remarks-by-ait-director-christensen-coast-guard-mou-launch-ceremony
Hu, Jin-Tao(胡錦濤)。(2005)。促進普遍發展 實現共同繁榮(新聞稿)。網址:https://news.un.org/zh/story/2005/09/41672
ICDF. (2007b). Integrate INGO resources and continue to expand poverty alleviation in foreign aid tasks-- MOU between TaiwanICDF and FFP [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.icdf.org.tw/fp.asp?fpage=cp&xItem=2077&ctNode=29687
ICDF(國際合作發展基金會)。(2019)。國合會與政大國發所簽署協議共同推動學術合作(新聞稿)。網址:https://www.icdf.org.tw/ct.asp?xItem=55456&ctNode=29687&mp=1
ICDF(國際合作發展基金會)。(2020)。當國合會遇到家扶—「國」「家」一起合作志工派遣(新聞稿)。網址:https://www.icdf.org.tw/ct.asp?xItem=61249&ctNode=29687&mp=1
ICDF(國際合作發展基金會)。(2021a)。國合會第三屆海外實習計畫新增「環境永續」領域(新聞稿)。網址:https://www.icdf.org.tw/ct.asp?xItem=61853&ctNode=29687&mp=1
ICDF. (2021b). The Taiwan Technical Mission in Eswatini and Taiwan Fund for Children and Families (TFCF) Eswatini Branch Office started with a 5-day training from 4/12 [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.icdf.org.tw/fp.asp?fpage=cp&xItem=62619&ctNode=29878&mp=2
Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corporation(高端疫苗)。(2020)。高端疫苗與美國國衛院簽署新型冠狀病毒疫苗全球授權合約(新聞稿)。網址:https://taiwantoday.tw/news.php?unit=2,6,10,15,18&post=197044
Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China(中華人民共和國商務部)。(2014)。繼往開來 中國對外援助取得新成就 ——商務部對外援助司負責人就《中國的對外援助(2014)》白皮書答記者問(新聞稿)。網址:https://news.un.org/zh/story/2005/09/41672
MOFA. (2014a). Republic of China (Taiwan) and the United States have actively cooperated to provide humanitarian assistance to refugees in the Middle East. The relevant actions have been highly recognized by the international community. [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.mofa.gov.tw/News_Content_M_2.aspx?n=FAEEE2F9798A98FD&sms=6DC19D8F09484C89&s=0ED771EF81C6EAF5
MOFA. (2014b). Republic of China (Taiwan) provides direct humanitarian aid to refugees in Northern Iraq [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.mofa.gov.tw/en/News_Content.aspx?n=1EADDCFD4C6EC567&sms=5B9044CF1188EE23&s=4455AF151BBB314F#; https://www.mofa.gov.tw/News_Content_M_2.aspx?n=FAEEE2F9798A98FD&sms=6DC19D8F09484C89&s=11B3489EEFD3BD2F
MOFA. (2014c). ROC government and people continue to provide humanitarian aid in the Middle East [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.mofa.gov.tw/en/News_Content.aspx?n=1EADDCFD4C6EC567&sms=5B9044CF1188EE23&s=1559DDC660477073; https://www.mofa.gov.tw/News_Content_M_2.aspx?n=FAEEE2F9798A98FD&sms=6DC19D8F09484C89&s=0B013C649C94786A
MOFA. (2014d). The ROC joins the international community in condemning ISIL violence and supports international humanitarian aid plans [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.mofa.gov.tw/en/News_Content.aspx?n=1EADDCFD4C6EC567&sms=5B9044CF1188EE23&s=E96343A309122640; https://www.mofa.gov.tw/News_Content_M_2.aspx?n=8742DCE7A2A28761&sms=491D0E5BF5F4BC36&s=91472623DE1AB528
MOFA. (2017). MOFA donates CARE International US$ 100,000 to Emergency Response Fund (ERF) for international humanitarian aid. [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.mofa.gov.tw/News_Content_M_2.aspx?n=8742DCE7A2A28761&sms=491D0E5BF5F4BC36&s=5874C0C317B254B0
MOFA. (2020a). MOFA announces donation of 10 million face masks to the US, Europe, diplomatic allies to extend humanitarian assistance in wake of COVID-19 [Press release]. Retrieved from https://en.mofa.gov.tw/News_Content.aspx?n=1329&s=91671
Ministry of Health and Welfare(衛生福利部)。(2020)。國內疫情趨緩,口罩國家隊助內也援外(新聞稿)。網址:https://www.cdc.gov.tw/Bulletin/Detail/cG0iqJd-AE4YzOv3J77_Tw?typeid=9
Taiwan Thinktank(台灣智庫)。(2017)。台灣智庫2017年6月民調記者會會後新聞稿。網址:https://www.taiwanthinktank.org/single-post/2017/10/26/%E5%8F%B0%E7%81%A3%E6%99%BA%E5%BA%AB2017%E5%B9%B46%E6%9C%88%E6%B0%91%E8%AA%BF%E8%A8%98%E8%80%85%E6%9C%83%E6%9C%83%E5%BE%8C%E6%96%B0%E8%81%9E%E7%A8%BF
TECRO in Jordan(駐約旦臺北經濟文化辦事處)。(2014a)。李大使代表我國政府捐贈天主教堂援款,濟助伊拉克難民(新聞稿)。網址:https://www.roc-taiwan.org/jo/post/361.html
TECRO in Jordan(駐約旦臺北經濟文化辦事處)。(2014b)。張代表應邀出席慈濟組織約旦分會舉辦之首次捐贈我國食米儀式(新聞稿)。網址:https://www.roc-taiwan.org/jo/post/349.html
TECRO in Jordan(駐約旦臺北經濟文化辦事處)。(2016)。楊代表陪同我慈濟義診團訪問敘利亞難民營(新聞稿)。網址:https://www.roc-taiwan.org/jo/post/1032.html
TECRO in Jordan(駐約旦臺北經濟文化辦事處)。(2018)。約旦在聯合國盛讚台灣暖實力(新聞稿)。網址:https://www.roc-taiwan.org/jo/post/1586.html
TECRO in Jordan(駐約旦臺北經濟文化辦事處)。(2019)。勇敢自信 世界同行---駐約旦代表處與臺灣同行活動(新聞稿)。網址:https://www.roc-taiwan.org/jo/post/1804.html
TECRO in the US (2019). Taiwan’s Representative to the United States Attends Ministerial Meeting of the Global Coalition to Defeat ISIS and Announces Donation towards Humanitarian Assistance [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.roc-taiwan.org/us_en/post/7342.html
Tzu Chi Foundation. (2010). Martial Arts Teacher Becomes Pioneer of Tzu Chi in Jordan [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.tzuchi.org.tw/en/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=664%3Amartial-arts-teacher-becomes-pioneer-of-tzu-chi-in-jordan&catid=37%3Astories-&Itemid=284&lang=en
Tzu Chi Foundation. (2019). Tzu Chi Expands Sustainability Dialogue at the U.N. High-level Political Forum 2019 [Press release]. Retrieved from https://tzuchi.us/blog/sustainability-dialogue-at-the-united-nations-forum-2019
5.Media
Blanchard, B. (2021). U.S. no longer sees Taiwan as a problem in China ties, official says. Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/us-no-longer-sees-taiwan-problem-china-ties-official-says-2021-06-24
Central News Agency(中央社)。(2019)。援助委內瑞拉:25國承諾提供一億美元。中央社。網址:https://www.cna.com.tw/news/aopl/201902150120.aspx
Choi, Dong(崔東)。(2015)。中國免除外債是“窮大方”? 5事實你得知道。人民日報。網址:http://politics.people.com.cn/BIG5/n/2015/0928/c1001-27640009.html
EBC News(東森新聞)。(2017)。助抗IS 國防部將捐贈50萬美元掃雷器材。東森新聞。網址:https://news.ebc.net.tw/News/society/59635
Focus Taiwan. (2015). Taiwan to donate helicopters to Honduras. Central News Agency. Retrieved from http://focustaiwan.tw/news/aipl/201503190010.aspx
Focus Taiwan. (2021a). Taiwan thanks Japan for ‘timely’ COVID-19 vaccine donation. Central News Agency. Retrieved from https://focustaiwan.tw/politics/202106040018
Focus Taiwan. (2021b). Taiwan vaccine maker’s U.S. affiliate signs deal with Paraguay. Central News Agency. Retrieved from https://focustaiwan.tw/sci-tech/202106220006
Focus Taiwan. (2021c). U.S. to donate 750,000 COVID vaccine doses to Taiwan: visiting senator. Central News Agency. Retrieved from https://focustaiwan.tw/politics/202106060002
Grady, J. (2021). Taiwan Sovereignty Key to Western Pacific Security, Says Japanese Defense Official. United States Naval Institute News. Retrieved from https://news.usni.org/2021/06/28/taiwan-sovereignty-key-to-western-pacific-security-says-japanese-defense-official
Green, M. (2019). China’s Debt Diplomacy. Foreign policy. Retrieved from https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/04/25/chinas-debt-diplomacy/
Hille, K. (2021). Taiwan’s unity cracks under Chinese disinformation onslaught. Financial Times. Retrieved from https://www.ft.com/content/f22f1011-0630-462a-a21e-83bae4523da7
Horton, C., Li, L., & Cheng, T.-F. (2020). Taiwan counters China’s isolation campaign with mask diplomacy. Nikkei Asia. Retrieved from https://asia.nikkei.com/Politics/International-relations/Taiwan-counters-China-s-isolation-campaign-with-mask-diplomacy
Hsiao, Hsin-Huang Michael(蕭新煌)、Lee, Hsin-Chi Cecilia(李心祺)。(2021)。疫情中台灣NGO的亞洲援助義行。自由時報。網址:https://talk.ltn.com.tw/amp/article/paper/1459966
Huang, T.-t. (2020). Taiwan emerges as 2nd largest face mask producer to fight epidemic. Taiwan News. Retrieved from https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/news/3876286
Kuo, Tu-Wei(郭篤為)。(2014)。台灣專機外交 向洪都拉斯總統贈公務機。BBC。網址:https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/world/2014/10/141019_honduras_taiwan_diplomacy
Lee, C. Y. (2009, 2018/10/28). U.S. plane lands in Taiwan to help mudslide victims. Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/idINIndia-41787720090816
Lin, C.-n., & Huang, P.-c. (2020). Virus Outbreak: Taiwan donates half a million masks to Canada. Taipei Times. Retrieved from https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/front/archives/2020/04/29/2003735472
Lin, Hung-I(林宏宜)、Cui, Zhong-Qun(崔重群)。(2015)。【中東烽火線】躲戰亂380萬人逃亡! 獨家入敘利亞難民營。TVBS。網址:https://news.tvbs.com.tw/world/580668
Liu, Rong(劉榮)、Lin, Yu-Wei(林育緯)。(2021)。援台疫苗加碼 美高層官員曝原因。鏡週刊。網址:https://www.mirrormedia.mg/story/20210619inv003/
LRT. (2021). Lithuania mulls leaving China’s 17+1 forum, expanding links with Taiwan Lietuvos radijas ir televizija. Retrieved from https://www.lrt.lt/en/news-in-english/19/1356107/lithuania-mulls-leaving-china-s-17plus1-forum-expanding-links-with-taiwan
Martina, M., Brunnstrom, D., & Shalal, A. (2021). U.S. triples vaccines for Taiwan with 2.5 million-dose shipment. Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/business/healthcare-pharmaceuticals/exclusive-us-triples-vaccines-taiwan-with-25-million-dose-shipment-2021-06-19/
Naím, M. (2007). Rogue aid. Foreign policy. Retrieved from https://foreignpolicy.com/2009/10/15/rogue-aid/
Ramzy, A. (2015). Nepal Rejects Taiwanese Offer of Rescue Help, but Accepts Medical Aid. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/live/earthquake-katmandu-nepal-updates/nepal-rejects-taiwans-offer-to-help-rescue-efforts-but-accepts-medical-help/
Reuters. (2021). U.S. says it is confident Taiwan can control COVID, in talks on vaccines. Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/us-signals-no-rush-send-covid-19-shots-taiwan-2021-05-26/
Rollet, V. (2008). Unsung victims of dollar diplomacy. Taipei Times. Retrieved from http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2008/01/17/2003397661
Rooney, R. (2018). Swaziland: Secrecy Over Cost of King’s New Jet. AllAfrica. Retrieved from https://allafrica.com/stories/201804190210.html
Shigeta, S., & Miki, R. (2021). Taiwan in US-Japan statement: show of resolve or diplomatic calculus? Nikkei Asia. Retrieved from https://asia.nikkei.com/Politics/International-relations/Taiwan-in-US-Japan-statement-show-of-resolve-or-diplomatic-calculus
Strong, M. (2020). German government spokespersons avoid mentioning Taiwan. Taiwan News. Retrieved from https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/news/3917362
Taiwan Today. (2020). VP Lai praises Taiwan’s humanitarian achievements. Taiwan Today. Retrieved from https://taiwantoday.tw/news.php?unit=2%2C6%2C10%2C15%2C18&post=187020
Taiwan Today. (2021). Taiwan attends US-organized virtual, pledges help combating Ebola. Taiwan Today. Retrieved from https://taiwantoday.tw/news.php?unit=2,6,10,15,18&post=197044
Walker, C., & Ludwig, J. (2017). The meaning of sharp power: How authoritarian states project influence. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved from https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/china/2017-11-16/meaning-sharp-power
Wang, Rebecca(王金英),Kao, Nina Hsiao-ling(高小玲),Hung, Jay(洪智杰)、Chien, Shiuh-Shen Crison(簡旭伸)。(2017)。新南向別只想著外交,讓NGO和政府一起「國際合作」吧!。天下獨立評論。網址:https://opinion.cw.com.tw/blog/profile/52/article/5911
6.Other
Airfinity. (2021). China administers its billionth vaccine dose, on track to be fully vaccinated by the end of 2021. Retrieved from https://www.airfinity.com/insights/analysis-1
Chaturvedi, S., Geer, T., Jain, P., Kim, E., De Micheaux, E. L., Mulakala, A., . . . Wajjwalku, S. (2013). The Rise of Asian Emerging Providers: New Approaches to Development Co-operation in Asia? Paper presented at the Paris: Proceedings of the AFD-TAF Seminar November.
Chong, J. I. (2018). Rediscovering an old relationship: Taiwan and Southeast Asia’s long, shared history. Retrieved from The National Bureau of Asian Research: https://www.nbr.org/publication/rediscovering-an-old-relationship-taiwan-and-southeast-asias-long-shared-history/
Davies, R. (2016). Aid’s new contours: who gave and who got in 2014. . Retrieved from https://devpolicy.org/aids-new-contours-gave-got-2014-20150401/
Dobell, G. (2007). China and Taiwan in the South Pacific: Diplomatic chess versus Pacific political rugby. Retrieved from Lowy Institute for International Policy: https://www.lowyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/pubfiles/Dobell%2C_China_and_Taiwan_in_the_SP_1.pdf
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