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研究生:鍾適存
研究生(外文):Shih-Tsun Chung
論文名稱:應用快速民族誌法於失智症認知遊具設計
論文名稱(外文):Designing Cognitive Toy for Dementia by Using the Approach of Rapid Ethnography
指導教授:陳彥甫陳彥甫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yen-Fu Chen
口試委員:陳彥甫
口試委員(外文):Yen-Fu Chen
口試日期:2021-09-17
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大同大學
系所名稱:媒體設計學系(所)
學門:設計學門
學類:視覺傳達設計學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2021
畢業學年度:109
語文別:中文
論文頁數:119
中文關鍵詞:失智症快速民族誌認知功能活化活動遊具設計
外文關鍵詞:DementiaRapid ethnographyCognitive function activationToy design
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失智症(Dementia)是一種不正常的退化現象,並在高齡人口中最為盛行,我國政府為了因應失智人口上升,在「長照2.0」中增設50歲以上的失智高齡者為服務對象,但由於每位失智高齡者的背景及狀況都不盡相同,長照單位經常需要準備不同的遊具及活動來減緩退化。本研究期望運用認知悠能的觀念設計適合失智高齡者的活化活動遊具「骰骰」,並活化失智高齡者所保有的認知功能。
本研究為設計實務研究,為完成本研究目的,本研究探討失智症、認知功能及認知活化活動相關文獻,以及探討「認知悠能蒙特梭利失智症照護模式」的核心觀念。透過個案研究法及快速民族誌法進入臺北榮家場域內進行蹲點觀察,收集園區內21位男性失智高齡者的資料、活動過程及保有能力等。在遊具設計上,依照觀察結果將失智高齡者熟悉的「骰子」元素作為設計核心,設計四種活動可活化六種認知功能的多功能活化活動遊具「骰骰」,適合失智高齡者進行操作,並活化所保有認知功能。
為了解「骰骰」是否適合失智高齡者進行操作,本研究邀請三位相關領域的專家進行專家深度訪談,評估本研究所設計的活化活動遊具「骰骰」,並使用主題分析法對訪談逐字稿進行分析。歸納出「骰骰適合失智高齡者的操作、背景和能力,但要個別化安排活動才可能達到維持保有的功能」、「用簡單指令重複引導失智高齡者熟悉骰骰,並交叉安排四種活動增加新鮮感」、「骰骰的多種活化活動讓照顧者有更多的活動選擇,有機會減輕活動安排的壓力」、「骰骰可能適合運用在認知和肢體需活化的個人與團體場域」四個主題。
透過歸納出的四個主題,本研究結論為「骰骰」是適合失智高齡者進行活化活動,多種活動與簡易的操作也讓照服員方便依照當下情況進行安排;經過場域調查進行遊具設計後,只有實際進入到失智高齡者的場域觀察,才能真正了解實際的需求,並綜合考量現況問題,才能設計出適合失智高齡者的活化活動遊具。
Dementia is an abnormal degenerative condition most prevalent in older populations. To confront the increase in our dementia population, the government has expanded their Long-Term Care 2.0 plan to service individuals living with dementia over the age of 50. Still, patient backgrounds and conditions of dementia differ from person to person, and long-term care units must prepare different toys and activities to relieve degenerative symptoms of dementia. This research aims to use DementiAbility methods to build “Colorful Counting Brickers”, a toy designed to increase activeness of elders with dementia, and maintain their cognitive abilities.
This study is a practice-based design research. To fulfill our research aim, we reviewed publications on dementia, cognitive ability and cognitive activity, as well as investigated the core values of DementiAbility Methods: The Montessori Way. Using case study and rapid ethnographic approaches, we conducted field observations at the Taipei Veterans Home, VAC, and collected information on 21 male dementia patients, including their activity logs, recorded current abilities, etc. Our observations prompted us to use dice, an object familiar to the patients, as the core element of our design, creating “Colorful Counting Brickers”, a vivifying toy with four activities that stimulate six different cognitive abilities. The Dice is made for dementia patients to operate, and activates their remaining cognitive abilities.
To investigate whether “Colorful Counting Brickers” is operable to elders with dementia, this study invited three experts in related fields to conduct an in-dept review of our toy, and examined their responses via thematic analysis. Four conclusions were established: “Colorful Counting Brickers” is suited for dementia patients, but only customized activities allow for ability maintenance. Use of simple instructions and repetition familiarizes patients with dice, and switches between the four activities increase interest. Activities provided by “Colorful Counting Brickers” offer additional choices for caretakers, possibly relieving them from the stresses of event planning. “Colorful Counting Brickers” may be suited for individuals or groups in need of cognitive and physical stimulus.
Through these four conclusions, this study finds that “Colorful Counting Brickers” is suited for elders with dementia to use in stimulating activities, and its multiple activities and simple operation also give caretakers flexibility when planning exercises. Following this process from field observations to toy designing, only when one is physically situated in a care home will one understand the demands and needs of an elder living with dementia, and only when one comprehensively considers the current issues will one create a toy that stimulates and vivifies elders with dementia.
誌謝i
摘要ii
ABSTRACTiii
目錄v
表目錄viii
圖目錄ix
第一章 緒論1
1.1研究背景1
1.2研究動機2
1.3研究目的3
1.4研究範圍與限制3
1.5研究架構3
第二章 文獻探討5
2.1失智症5
2.2認知功能8
2.2.1認知障礙評估9
2.2.2認知活化訓練11
2.3認知悠能蒙特梭利失智症照護模式12
2.4文獻小結17
第三章 研究方法18
3.1個案研究法18
3.2快速民族誌法19
3.3專家深度訪談法20
3.4主題分析法21
3.5研究對象與訪談對象資料整理與編碼22
3.6研究流程23
3.7研究方法小結24
第四章 設計調查25
4.1場域介紹25
4.2研究對象26
4.3場域調查流程27
4.4第一週觀察紀錄29
4.5第一週觀察結果34
4.6第二週測試調查36
4.7第二週測試結果37
4.8場域調查小結42
第五章 遊具設計43
5.1第一版遊具設計43
5.1.1遊具設計核心43
5.1.2遊具外觀與材質44
5.1.3遊具活動架構45
5.1.4第一版設計修正回饋46
5.2第二版遊具設計核心47
5.2.1遊具外觀與材質48
5.2.2遊具活動架構52
5.2.3遊具原型製作與測試53
5.3遊具活動操作流程57
5.4遊具設計小結62
第六章 專家深度訪談64
6.1訪談流程64
6.2訪談對象65
6.3訪談大綱65
6.4訪談結果67
6.5訪談小結85
第七章 反思與討論87
7.1「骰骰」設計過程與脈絡之反思87
7.1.1設計方法反思87
7.1.2場域觀察反思89
7.1.3設計發想反思91
7.1.4遊具設計製作反思94
7.2失智高齡者遊具設計討論95
7.2.1失智高齡者遊具設計的考量95
7.2.2失智高齡者活化活動之安排97
7.2.3失智高齡者的照顧者所面臨的挑戰99
7.3討論小結100
第八章 結論與建議102
8.1結論102
8.2未來研究之建議104
參考文獻106
附錄一 專家訪談同意書110
附錄二 專家訪談逐字稿112
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